Table of Contents

  • ASTWIHĀD

    M. F. Kanga

    the demon of death in the Avesta and later Zoroastrian texts.

  • ASTYAGES

    R. Schmitt

    the last Median king.

  • ʿĀŠŪRĀʾ

    M. Ayoub

    tenth day of Moḥarram, the first month of the Islamic calendar; for Sunnis it is a day on which fasting is recommended, and for Shiʿites a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Imam Ḥosayn.

  • ĀŠŪRĀDA

    J. Qāʾem-Maqāmī

    (or Āšūrʾāda, ʿAšūrʾāda), formerly (until ca. 1308-09 Š./1930) three adjacent islands, now part of the end of the Mīānkāla peninsula of Māzandarān, at the southeast corner of the Caspian Sea.

  • ASWĀR

    P. O. Skjærvø

    (Middle Persian) “horseman.” In Old Persian asabāra designated the horseman as opposed to the foot-soldier.

  • ASYLUM

    Cross-Reference

    religious, secular, and extraterritorial. See BAST.

  • ʿAṬĀʾ SAMARQANDĪ

    D. Pingree

    author of a set of astronomical tables for an unidentified prince of the Yuan dynasty of China, 1362-63.

  • ATĀBAK

    C. Cahen

    Turkish atabeg, lit. “father-chief,” a Turkish title of rank which first appears, at least under this name, with the early Saljuqs.

  • ATĀBAK-E AʿẒAM, AMĪN-AL-SOLṬĀN

    J. Calmard

    grand vizier under the last three Qajar kings.

  • ATĀBAKĀN-E ĀḎARBĀYJĀN

    K. A. Luther

    an influential family of military slave origin, also called Ildegozids, ruled parts of Arrān and Azerbaijan from about 530/1135-36 to 622/1225.