Table of Contents


    M. Dandamayev

    (from Old Persian azdā- “announcement” and kara- “maker”), officials of the Achaemenid chancery, the heralds, who made known, for example, the government edicts, court sentences.


    G. R. Hawting

    b. ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān, a governor of Khorasan who came into conflict with the caliph al-Manṣur, executed, probably in 142/759-60.


    G. R. Hawting

    B. RAWWĀD, a notable of Azerbaijan at the beginning of the 3rd/9th century, known mainly in connection with the revolt of Bābak, the leader of the Ḵorrami movement.


    Multiple Authors

    (Āḏarbāy[e]jān), historical region of northwestern Iran, east of Lake Urmia, since the Achaemenid era.

  • AZERBAIJAN i. Geography

    X. de Planhol

    characterized by volcanic constructions—along the “volcanic cicatrix” that follows the internal ridge of the Zagros and marks its contact with the central Iranian plateau. 

  • AZERBAIJAN ii. Archeology

    W. Kleiss

    comprises the two Iranian provinces of West Azerbaijan and East Azerbaijan, with administrative centers at Urmia (before 1979 Reżāʾīya) and Tabrīz respectively; it does not include “Northern Azerbaijan,” centered on Baku, which since 1829 has belonged to the Russian empire.

  • AZERBAIJAN iii. Pre-Islamic History

    K. Schippmann

    the northwestern province of Azerbaijan can look back on a long history. For the earliest periods, however, archeological research has barely begun.

  • AZERBAIJAN iv. Islamic History to 1941

    C. E. Bosworth

    Background. Azerbaijan formed a separate province of the early Islamic caliphate, but its precise borders varied in different periods.

  • AZERBAIJAN v. History from 1941 to 1947

    B. Kuniholm

    Upon entering Iran, the Soviets dismantled frontier and customs posts between Iran and the USSR, and set up military posts on the southern border of the Soviet occupied zone. The de facto result was extension of the Soviet frontier into Iran.

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  • AZERBAIJAN vi. Population and its Occupations and Culture

    R. Tapper

    tribalism is no longer of great social relevance for most Azerbaijanis, but most have a recent history of tribal allegiances, whether Turkish or Kurdish.

  • AZERBAIJAN vii. The Iranian Language of Azerbaijan

    E. Yarshater

    Āḏarī (Ar. al-āḏarīya) was the Iranian language of Azerbaijan before the spread of the Turkish language, commonly called Azeri, in the region.

  • AZERBAIJAN viii. Azeri Turkish

    G. Doerfer

    Oghuz languages were earlier grouped into Turkish (of Turkey), Azeri, and Turkmen, but recent research has modified this simple picture.

  • AZERBAIJAN ix. Iranian Elements in Azeri Turkish

    L. Johanson

    perhaps after Uzbek, the Turkic language upon which Iranian has exerted the strongest impact—mainly in phonology, syntax and vocabulary, less in morphology.

  • AZERBAIJAN x. Azeri Turkish Literature

    H. Javadi and K. Burrill

    Due to bilingualism among the educated Turkic-speaking people of the area the use of Azeri prose was widespread until the reign of Reżā Shah Pahlavi (r. 1925-41).

  • AZERBAIJAN xi. Music of Azerbaijan

    J. During

    The musical traditions of Azerbaijan were already distinct from those of the area now known as Soviet Azerbaijan, but they became definitively separated toward the end of the 19th century, with Iranian Azerbaijan opting for the purely Iranian style. Subsequently the music of the Soviet Azerbaijan underwent a period of Western acculturation.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    Wolfram Kleiss

    The Iranian provinces of Azerbaijan, both West and East, possess a large number of monuments from all periods of history.

  • AZES

    D. W. Mac Dowell

    the name of two Indo-Scythian kings of the major dynasty ruling an empire based on the Punjab and Indus valley from about 50 B.C. to A.D. 30.


    M. Baqir

    18th-century Indo-Persian poet and lexicographer.


    L. P. Smirnova

    “Azhar the ass,” nickname of AZHAR B. YAḤYĀ B. ZOHAYR B. FARQAD, third cousin, and military commander of the Saffarid amirs Yaʿqūb and ʿAmr b. Layṯ.

  • AŽI