Table of Contents

  • ĀYENAHĀ-YE DARDĀR

    Mohammad Mehdi Khorrami

    (Mirrors with cover doors, Tehran, 1992), one of the last major works by Hushang Golshiri.

  • AYMĀQ

    A. Janata

    (Turk. Oymaq), a term designating tribal peoples in Khorasan and Afghanistan, mostly semi-nomadic or semi-sedentary, in contrast to the fully sedentary, non-tribal population of the area.

  • ʿAYN-AL-DAWLA, ʿABD-AL-MAJĪD

    J. Calmard

    ATĀBAK-E AʿẒAM (1845-1926) son of Solṭān Aḥmad Mīrzā ʿAżod-al-dawla, Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah’s forty-eighth son and a prominent political figure of Moẓaffar-al-dīn Shah’s reign (1896-1907).

  • ʿAYN-AL-QOŻĀT HAMADĀNĪ

    G. Böwering

    (492/1098-526/1131), brilliant mystic philosopher and Sufi martyr.

  • AYNALLŪ

    P. Oberling

    (or ĪNALLŪ, ĪNĀLŪ, ĪMĀNLŪ), a tribe of Ḡozz Turkic origin inhabiting Azerbaijan, central Iran and Fārs.

  • ʿAYNI, KAMĀL

    Habib Borjian

    As a textual and literary critic, Kamāl ʿAyni centered his work on Persian works of the Timurid era and contiguous periods, mainly the 15th and 16th centuries. He thus published a number of essays and monographs, such as Badr-al-Din Helāli’s Layli o Majnun (1954), ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Jāmi’s Salāmān o Absāl (1964), and Moḵtār Ḡaznavi’s Šahriār-nāma (1964).

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ʿAYNĪ, ṢADR-AL-DĪN

    K. Hitchins

    (1878-1954), poet, novelist, and the leading figure of Soviet Tajik literature, born 18 Rabīʿ II 1295/15 April 1878 in the village of Sāktarī in the emirate of Bukhara, a Russian protectorate.

  • AYŌKĒN

    M. Shaki

    a Middle Persian legal term denoting the category of persons to whom descends the obligation of stūrīh (marriage by proxy or substitution).

  • AYRARAT

    R. H. Hewsen

    region of central Armenia in the broad plain of the upper Araxes.

  • ĀYRĪMLŪ

    P. Oberling

    (in Persian often Āyromlū), Turkic tribe of western Azerbaijan.

  • ĀYROM, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN KHAN

    M. Amanat

    army commander and the head of the police under Reżā Shah (r. 1304-20 Š./1925-41).

  • AYVĀN

    O. Grabar

    (palace, veranda, balcony, portico), a Persian word used also in Arabic (īwān, līwān) and Turkish.

  • AYVĀN-E KESRĀ

    E. J. Keall

    Ayvān-e Kesrā has been described in Arabic and Persian sources and is the subject of a moving qaṣīda by the poet Ḵāqānī who visited its ruins in mid-6th/12th century. Once the most famous of all Sasanian monuments and a landmark in the history of architecture, it is now only an imposing brick ruin.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ʿAYYĀR

    Cl. Cahen, W. L. Hanaway, Jr.

    a noun meaning literally “vagabond,” applied to members of medieval fotowwa (fotūwa) brotherhoods and comparable popular organizations.

  • ʿAYYĀŠĪ, ABU’L-NAŻR MOḤAMMAD

    I. K. Poonawala

    Imami jurist and scholar of the 3rd-4th/9th-10th centuries.

  • AYYOHAʾL-WALAD

    I. Abbas

    a short treatise by Abū Ḥāmed Moḥammad Ḡazālī Ṭūsī (fl. 450-505/1058-1111), originally composed in Persian.

  • AYYŪB KHAN, MOḤAMMAD

    Cross-Reference

    B. AMĪR ŠĒR ʿALĪ KHAN. See MOḤAMMAD AYYŪB KHAN.

  • AYYUBIDS

    R. S. Humphreys

    (Ar. Banū Ayyūb), a Kurdish family who first became prominent as members of the Zangid military establishment in Syria in the mid-sixth/twelfth century.

  • ʿAYYŪQĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    a poet of the fifth/eleventh century who versified the romance of Varqa o Golšāh.

  • ĀZ

    J. P. Asmussen

    Iranian demon known from Zoroastrian, Zurvanite, and, especially, Manichean sources.