Table of Contents


    Ahmad Kazemi Mousavi and EIr

    (b. 1302/1884-85; d. Tehran, 19 Dey 1353 Š./9 January 1975), outstanding Shiʿite scholar and professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran.


    J. A. Delaunay

    king of Assyria 680-69 B.C., son of Sennacherib and father of Aššurbanipal. Here only Assarhaddon’s relations with the Cimmerians and Mannians, and the Medes, are described. The Cimmerians  with an admixture of Scythians came down from the Caucasus about 700 B.C. and began to press on the eastern borders of Assyria.

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    (Ar. Ḥaššāšin), pejorative name given to Neẓāri Ismaʿilis by their adversaries during the Middle Ages. See ISMAʿILISM iii. History.


    J. A. Delaunay

    The Cimmerians (Gimirru) had entered Assyria about 700 B.C. but were stopped by Assarhaddon and so turned towards Lydia (Luddu). The king of Lydia, Gyges (Gūgu, Guggu), who had founded the Mermandes dynasty, following the advice of the god Aššur in a dream, sent a delegation to Aššurbanipal to ask for assistance.

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    M. Dandamayev, È. Grantovskiĭ, K. Schippmann

    i. The Kingdom of Assyria and its relations with Iran. ii. Achaemenid Aθurā. iii. Parthian Assur.

  • ASSYRIA i. The Kingdom of Assyria and its Relations with Iran

    M. Dandamayev and È. Grantovskiĭ

    Texts belonging to the 9th-7th centuries B.C. provide valuable data on the expeditions of Assyrian kings to Iranian territory, including “Messages to the Deity” and summaries of royal victories presented in geographical order.

  • ASSYRIA ii. Achaemenid Aθurā

    M. Dandamayev

    Old Persian Aθurā “Assyria” goes back to Akkadian Aššur, the name of the city of Aššur and of the original Assyrian territory on the middle course of the Tigris.

  • ASSYRIA iii. Parthian Assur

    K. Schippmann

    In 141 B.C. the Parthian king Mithridates I conquered large parts of Mesopotamia, including probably Assyria. Although the Parthians were soon driven back out of Mesopotamia, Assur finally fell under Parthian influence from the reign of Mithridates II onwards.

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    R. Macuch, A. Ishaya

    The development of the modern concept of “Assyrians” among the East Syrian Christian communities began with Botta’s excavation of the palace of Sargon II in Khorsabad (1843), followed by Layard’s discovery of Nineveh. This research opened the eyes, not only of the West, but also of the ethnically nameless Aramean population in these regions which had been satisfied to identify itself by religions denominations.

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  • ASSYRIANS IN IRAN i. The Assyrian community (Āšūrīān) in Iran

    R. Macuch

    Clearly, this small ethnic group divided into different confessions needed special arguments for accepting a standard name “Assyrians” after this term had already been accepted, for practical reasons, by others.

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  • ASSYRIANS IN IRAN ii. Literature of the Assyrians in Iran

    R. Macuch

    Although there were four missionary printing-houses in Urmia before the end of World War I, the Iranian Assyrian writers and poets were producing much more than they were able to publish. Many of their literary products remained in manuscript or were published only posthumously.

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  • ASSYRIANS IN IRAN iii. Assyrian Settlements Outside of Iran

    A. Ishaya

    The dispersion of the Assyrians took place during World War I, when the whole nation was uprooted from its homegrounds. The diaspora is still in progress. Presently in the Middle East, besides Iran, Assyrian settlements are located in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey.


    M. L. Chaumont

    The word astabid occurs in two Syriac texts as the title of a high-ranking Iranian officer and is applied to three different individuals.


    G. Gnoli

    Old Iranian female deity of rectitude and justice.


    P. O. Skjærvø

    Yt. 18, though dedicated to Aštād, the goddess of rectitude, does not mention her.


    ʿA.-Ḥ. Mawlawī, M. T.Moṣṭafawī, and E. Šakūrzāda

    the complex of buildings surrounding the tomb of the Imam ʿAlī al-Reżā at Mašhad.


    Eckart Ehlers, Marcel Bazin, and Christian Bromberger

    a township and a district of Lāhīǰān in the province of Gīlān.


    Multiple Authors

    a town and sub-province in the province of Ardabil, northern Iran.

  • ĀSTĀRĀ i. Town and sub-province

    M. Bazin

    The rural inhabitants grow rice, wheat, and vegetables on the coastal plain and wheat, corn (maize), and fruit trees on the lower slopes of the mountains, and graze flocks and herds between qešlāq and yeylāq

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  • ASTARA ii. Population, 1956-2011

    Mohammad Hossein Nejatian

    This article deals with the growth of Astara from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

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