Table of Contents

  • AYRARAT

    R. H. Hewsen

    region of central Armenia in the broad plain of the upper Araxes.

  • ĀYRĪMLŪ

    P. Oberling

    (in Persian often Āyromlū), Turkic tribe of western Azerbaijan.

  • ĀYROM, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN KHAN

    M. Amanat

    army commander and the head of the police under Reżā Shah (r. 1304-20 Š./1925-41).

  • AYVĀN

    O. Grabar

    (palace, veranda, balcony, portico), a Persian word used also in Arabic (īwān, līwān) and Turkish.

  • AYVĀN-E KESRĀ

    E. J. Keall

    Ayvān-e Kesrā has been described in Arabic and Persian sources and is the subject of a moving qaṣīda by the poet Ḵāqānī who visited its ruins in mid-6th/12th century. Once the most famous of all Sasanian monuments and a landmark in the history of architecture, it is now only an imposing brick ruin.

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  • ʿAYYĀR

    Cl. Cahen, W. L. Hanaway, Jr.

    a noun meaning literally “vagabond,” applied to members of medieval fotowwa (fotūwa) brotherhoods and comparable popular organizations.

  • ʿAYYĀŠĪ, ABU’L-NAŻR MOḤAMMAD

    I. K. Poonawala

    Imami jurist and scholar of the 3rd-4th/9th-10th centuries.

  • AYYOHAʾL-WALAD

    I. Abbas

    a short treatise by Abū Ḥāmed Moḥammad Ḡazālī Ṭūsī (fl. 450-505/1058-1111), originally composed in Persian.

  • AYYŪB KHAN, MOḤAMMAD

    Cross-Reference

    B. AMĪR ŠĒR ʿALĪ KHAN. See MOḤAMMAD AYYŪB KHAN.

  • AYYUBIDS

    R. S. Humphreys

    (Ar. Banū Ayyūb), a Kurdish family who first became prominent as members of the Zangid military establishment in Syria in the mid-sixth/twelfth century.

  • ʿAYYŪQĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    a poet of the fifth/eleventh century who versified the romance of Varqa o Golšāh.

  • ĀZ

    J. P. Asmussen

    Iranian demon known from Zoroastrian, Zurvanite, and, especially, Manichean sources.

  • ĀZĀD

    M. Bazin

    Zelkova crenata or Siberian elm, a tree of the Ulmaceae family, for which also other scientific names, such as Zelkova carpinifolia, Zelkova hyrcana, Planera crenata, and Planera Richardi, have been proposed.

  • ĀZĀD (Iranian Nobility)

    M. L. Chaumont, C. Toumanoff

    (older ĀZĀT), a class of the Iranian nobility.

  • ĀZĀD BELGRĀMĪ

    M. Siddiqi

    Major Indo-Muslim poet, biographer, and composer of chronograms, also known as Ḥassān-al-Hend (fl. 1116-1200/1704-86).

  • ĀZĀD FĪRŪZ

    A. Tafażżolī

    governor of Bahrain and the surrounding area in the time of Ḵosrow (probably Ḵosrow II Parvēz).

  • ĀZĀD KHAN AFḠĀN

    J. R. Perry

    (d. 1781), a major contender for supremacy in western Iran after the death of Nāder Shah Afšār (r. 1736-47).

  • ĀZĀD TABRIZI

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    physician, anthologist, and translator (b. Tehran, ca. 1854; d. Paris, 1936).

  • ĀZĀD, ʿABD-AL-QADIR

    Bāqer ʿĀqeli

    ABD-AL-QADIR AZAD published a newspaper, which he named Āzād (liberal, free), in Mašhad. In the editorials of this newspaper he attacked the government, and criticized the authorities severely. His paper was eventually banned by the newly-formed government of Reżā Shah Pahlavi, and ʿAbd-al-Qadir, who had by now assumed the name “Āzād” after his newspaper, was himself imprisoned.

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  • ĀZĀD, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN

    K. N. Pandita

    Scholar and writer in Urdu and Persian, born about 1834 in Delhi.

  • ĀZĀDA

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    name of a Roman slave-girl of Bahrām Gōr.

  • AZADARAN-E BAYAL

    MAHYAR ENTEZARI

    (ʿAzādārān-e Bayal; The mourners of Bayal, Tehran, 1964). The collection comprises eight interconnected stories, called Qeṣṣa. Sharing characters and not unlike a novel, they revolve around the inescapable horrors of death, disease, drought, and famine in a fictitious village named Bayal.

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  • ʿAZĀDĀRĪ

    J. Calmard

    to hold a commemoration of the dead, by extension, mourning, a word deriving from Arabic ʿazāʾ, which means commemorating the dead.

  • ĀZĀḎBEH B. BĀNEGĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    a dehqān (landowner) of Hamadān, marzbān (governor) in the former Lakhmid capital of Ḥīra in central Iraq during the years preceding the Arab conquest of that province.

  • ĀZĀDĪ

    N. Parvīn

    (Freedom), the name of the several Persian journals.

  • ĀZĀDĪSTĀN

    N. Parvīn

    the title of a Persian educational magazine which came out at Tabrīz in Jawzā, 1299/June-August, 1920.

  • ĀZĀDSARV

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    Two bearers of this name are known.

  • ĀZĀDVĀR

    C. E. Bosworth

    (or Āzaḏvār), a small town of Khorasan in the district (kūra, rostāq) of Jovayn, which flourished in medieval Islamic times, apparently down to the Il-khanid period.

  • AŻĀʿELḴᵛĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See MANĀQEB ḴᵛĀNĪ.

  • AZAL

    J. van Ess

    Arabic theological term derived from Pahlavi a-sar “without head” and meaning, already in early Muʿtazilite kalām, “eternity a parte ante,” as opposite to abad, “eternity a parte post.”

  • AZALI BABISM

    D. M. MacEoin

    designation of a religious faction which takes its name from Mīrzā Yaḥyā Nūrī Ṣobḥ-e Azal (about 1246-1330/1830-1912), considered by his followers to have been the legitimate successor to the Bāb.

  • AʿẒAM KHAN

    ʿA. Ḥabībī

    the fifth son of Amir Dōst Moḥammad Khan and the third amir of the Moḥammadzay line, ruler of Afghanistan in 1284/1867-1285/1868.

  • ĀŽANG

    N. Parvīn

    (Wrinkle), a Persian newspaper which commenced publication in Esfand, 1332 Š./February, 1954, and lasted until 1353 Š./1974.

  • ĀZAR

    Cross-Reference

    father of Abraham. See EBRĀHĪM.

  • ĀẔAR BĪGDELĪ

    J. Matīnī

    (ĀḎAR BĪGDELĪ), poet and author of a taḏkera (biographical anthology) of about 850 Persian poets, complied in 1174/1760.

  • ĀẔAR KAYVĀN

    H. Corbin

    (ĀḎAR KAYVĀN;  d. between 1609 and 1618), a Zoroastrian high priest and native of Fārs who emigrated to India and became the founder of the Zoroastrian Ešrāqī or Illuminative School.

  • ĀẔAR ḴORDĀD

    cross-reference

    See ĀDUR FARNBAG.

  • AẔAR “fire”

    cross-reference

    See ĀDUR.

  • ĀẔARBĀDAGĀN

    cross-reference

    See AZERBAIJAN.

  • ĀẔARBĀY(E)JĀN

    cross-reference

    See AZERBAIJAN.

  • ĀẔARBĀYJĀN JOURNAL

    N. Parvīn

    (ĀḎARBĀY[E]JĀN), the title of a satirical-political journal published at Tabrīz in 1907.

  • ĀẔARĪ language

    cross-reference

    the ancient language of Azerbaijan. See AZERBAIJAN vii.

  • ĀẔARĪ ṬŪSĪ

    A. ʿA. Rajāʾī

    (ĀḎARĪ ṬŪSĪ), NŪR-AL-DĪN (or FAḴR-AL-DĪN) ḤAMZA B. ʿALĪ MALEK ESFARĀYENĪ BAYHAQĪ, Shiʿite Sufi poet (fl. 1382-1462).

  • ĀZARMĪGDUXT

    Ph. Gignoux

    Sasanian queen who according to Ṭabarī ruled for a few months in 630.

  • ĀẔARŠAHR

    ʿA. ʿA. Kārang

    (or DEHḴᵛĀRAQĀN; in the local Azeri Turkish: Toḵargān), a town and a district (baḵš) of the šahrestān of Tabrīz.

  • AŽDAHĀ

    P. O. Skjærvø, Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh, J. R. Russell

    “dragon,” various kinds of snake-like, mostly gigantic, monsters living in the air, on earth, or in the sea (also designated by other terms) sometimes connected with natural phenomena, especially rain and eclipses.

  • AZDĀKARA

    M. Dandamayev

    (from Old Persian azdā- “announcement” and kara- “maker”), officials of the Achaemenid chancery, the heralds, who made known, for example, the government edicts, court sentences.

  • AZDI, ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR

    G. R. Hawting

    b. ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān, a governor of Khorasan who came into conflict with the caliph al-Manṣur, executed, probably in 142/759-60.

  • AZDĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    G. R. Hawting

    B. RAWWĀD, a notable of Azerbaijan at the beginning of the 3rd/9th century, known mainly in connection with the revolt of Bābak, the leader of the Ḵorrami movement.

  • AZERBAIJAN

    Multiple Authors

    (Āḏarbāy[e]jān), historical region of northwestern Iran, east of Lake Urmia, since the Achaemenid era.