Table of Contents

  • ĀZ

    J. P. Asmussen

    Iranian demon known from Zoroastrian, Zurvanite, and, especially, Manichean sources.

  • ĀZĀD

    M. Bazin

    Zelkova crenata or Siberian elm, a tree of the Ulmaceae family, for which also other scientific names, such as Zelkova carpinifolia, Zelkova hyrcana, Planera crenata, and Planera Richardi, have been proposed.

  • ĀZĀD (Iranian Nobility)

    M. L. Chaumont, C. Toumanoff

    (older ĀZĀT), a class of the Iranian nobility.

  • ĀZĀD BELGRĀMĪ

    M. Siddiqi

    Major Indo-Muslim poet, biographer, and composer of chronograms, also known as Ḥassān-al-Hend (fl. 1116-1200/1704-86).

  • ĀZĀD FĪRŪZ

    A. Tafażżolī

    governor of Bahrain and the surrounding area in the time of Ḵosrow (probably Ḵosrow II Parvēz).

  • ĀZĀD KHAN AFḠĀN

    J. R. Perry

    (d. 1781), a major contender for supremacy in western Iran after the death of Nāder Shah Afšār (r. 1736-47).

  • ĀZĀD TABRIZI

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    physician, anthologist, and translator (b. Tehran, ca. 1854; d. Paris, 1936).

  • ĀZĀD, ʿABD-AL-QADIR

    Bāqer ʿĀqeli

    ABD-AL-QADIR AZAD published a newspaper, which he named Āzād (liberal, free), in Mašhad. In the editorials of this newspaper he attacked the government, and criticized the authorities severely. His paper was eventually banned by the newly-formed government of Reżā Shah Pahlavi, and ʿAbd-al-Qadir, who had by now assumed the name “Āzād” after his newspaper, was himself imprisoned.

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  • ĀZĀD, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN

    K. N. Pandita

    Scholar and writer in Urdu and Persian, born about 1834 in Delhi.

  • ĀZĀDA

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    name of a Roman slave-girl of Bahrām Gōr.

  • AZADARAN-E BAYAL

    MAHYAR ENTEZARI

    (ʿAzādārān-e Bayal; The mourners of Bayal, Tehran, 1964). The collection comprises eight interconnected stories, called Qeṣṣa. Sharing characters and not unlike a novel, they revolve around the inescapable horrors of death, disease, drought, and famine in a fictitious village named Bayal.

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  • ʿAZĀDĀRĪ

    J. Calmard

    to hold a commemoration of the dead, by extension, mourning, a word deriving from Arabic ʿazāʾ, which means commemorating the dead.

  • ĀZĀḎBEH B. BĀNEGĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    a dehqān (landowner) of Hamadān, marzbān (governor) in the former Lakhmid capital of Ḥīra in central Iraq during the years preceding the Arab conquest of that province.

  • ĀZĀDĪ

    N. Parvīn

    (Freedom), the name of the several Persian journals.

  • ĀZĀDĪSTĀN

    N. Parvīn

    the title of a Persian educational magazine which came out at Tabrīz in Jawzā, 1299/June-August, 1920.

  • ĀZĀDSARV

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    Two bearers of this name are known.

  • ĀZĀDVĀR

    C. E. Bosworth

    (or Āzaḏvār), a small town of Khorasan in the district (kūra, rostāq) of Jovayn, which flourished in medieval Islamic times, apparently down to the Il-khanid period.

  • AŻĀʿELḴᵛĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See MANĀQEB ḴᵛĀNĪ.

  • AZAL

    J. van Ess

    Arabic theological term derived from Pahlavi a-sar “without head” and meaning, already in early Muʿtazilite kalām, “eternity a parte ante,” as opposite to abad, “eternity a parte post.”

  • AZALI BABISM

    D. M. MacEoin

    designation of a religious faction which takes its name from Mīrzā Yaḥyā Nūrī Ṣobḥ-e Azal (about 1246-1330/1830-1912), considered by his followers to have been the legitimate successor to the Bāb.

  • AʿẒAM KHAN

    ʿA. Ḥabībī

    the fifth son of Amir Dōst Moḥammad Khan and the third amir of the Moḥammadzay line, ruler of Afghanistan in 1284/1867-1285/1868.

  • ĀŽANG

    N. Parvīn

    (Wrinkle), a Persian newspaper which commenced publication in Esfand, 1332 Š./February, 1954, and lasted until 1353 Š./1974.

  • ĀZAR

    Cross-Reference

    father of Abraham. See EBRĀHĪM.

  • ĀẔAR BĪGDELĪ

    J. Matīnī

    (ĀḎAR BĪGDELĪ), poet and author of a taḏkera (biographical anthology) of about 850 Persian poets, complied in 1174/1760.

  • ĀẔAR KAYVĀN

    H. Corbin

    (ĀḎAR KAYVĀN;  d. between 1609 and 1618), a Zoroastrian high priest and native of Fārs who emigrated to India and became the founder of the Zoroastrian Ešrāqī or Illuminative School.

  • ĀẔAR ḴORDĀD

    cross-reference

    See ĀDUR FARNBAG.

  • AẔAR “fire”

    cross-reference

    See ĀDUR.

  • ĀẔARBĀDAGĀN

    cross-reference

    See AZERBAIJAN.

  • ĀẔARBĀY(E)JĀN

    cross-reference

    See AZERBAIJAN.

  • ĀẔARBĀYJĀN JOURNAL

    N. Parvīn

    (ĀḎARBĀY[E]JĀN), the title of a satirical-political journal published at Tabrīz in 1907.

  • ĀẔARĪ language

    cross-reference

    the ancient language of Azerbaijan. See AZERBAIJAN vii.

  • ĀẔARĪ ṬŪSĪ

    A. ʿA. Rajāʾī

    (ĀḎARĪ ṬŪSĪ), NŪR-AL-DĪN (or FAḴR-AL-DĪN) ḤAMZA B. ʿALĪ MALEK ESFARĀYENĪ BAYHAQĪ, Shiʿite Sufi poet (fl. 1382-1462).

  • ĀZARMĪGDUXT

    Ph. Gignoux

    Sasanian queen who according to Ṭabarī ruled for a few months in 630.

  • ĀẔARŠAHR

    ʿA. ʿA. Kārang

    (or DEHḴᵛĀRAQĀN; in the local Azeri Turkish: Toḵargān), a town and a district (baḵš) of the šahrestān of Tabrīz.

  • AŽDAHĀ

    P. O. Skjærvø, Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh, J. R. Russell

    “dragon,” various kinds of snake-like, mostly gigantic, monsters living in the air, on earth, or in the sea (also designated by other terms) sometimes connected with natural phenomena, especially rain and eclipses.

  • AZDĀKARA

    M. Dandamayev

    (from Old Persian azdā- “announcement” and kara- “maker”), officials of the Achaemenid chancery, the heralds, who made known, for example, the government edicts, court sentences.

  • AZDI, ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR

    G. R. Hawting

    b. ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān, a governor of Khorasan who came into conflict with the caliph al-Manṣur, executed, probably in 142/759-60.

  • AZDĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    G. R. Hawting

    B. RAWWĀD, a notable of Azerbaijan at the beginning of the 3rd/9th century, known mainly in connection with the revolt of Bābak, the leader of the Ḵorrami movement.

  • AZERBAIJAN

    Multiple Authors

    (Āḏarbāy[e]jān), historical region of northwestern Iran, east of Lake Urmia, since the Achaemenid era.

  • AZERBAIJAN i. Geography

    X. de Planhol

    characterized by volcanic constructions—along the “volcanic cicatrix” that follows the internal ridge of the Zagros and marks its contact with the central Iranian plateau. 

  • AZERBAIJAN ii. Archeology

    W. Kleiss

    comprises the two Iranian provinces of West Azerbaijan and East Azerbaijan, with administrative centers at Urmia (before 1979 Reżāʾīya) and Tabrīz respectively; it does not include “Northern Azerbaijan,” centered on Baku, which since 1829 has belonged to the Russian empire.

  • AZERBAIJAN iii. Pre-Islamic History

    K. Schippmann

    the northwestern province of Azerbaijan can look back on a long history. For the earliest periods, however, archeological research has barely begun.

  • AZERBAIJAN iv. Islamic History to 1941

    C. E. Bosworth

    Background. Azerbaijan formed a separate province of the early Islamic caliphate, but its precise borders varied in different periods.

  • AZERBAIJAN v. History from 1941 to 1947

    B. Kuniholm

    Upon entering Iran, the Soviets dismantled frontier and customs posts between Iran and the USSR, and set up military posts on the southern border of the Soviet occupied zone. The de facto result was extension of the Soviet frontier into Iran.

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  • AZERBAIJAN vi. Population and its Occupations and Culture

    R. Tapper

    tribalism is no longer of great social relevance for most Azerbaijanis, but most have a recent history of tribal allegiances, whether Turkish or Kurdish.

  • AZERBAIJAN vii. The Iranian Language of Azerbaijan

    E. Yarshater

    Āḏarī (Ar. al-āḏarīya) was the Iranian language of Azerbaijan before the spread of the Turkish language, commonly called Azeri, in the region.

  • AZERBAIJAN viii. Azeri Turkish

    G. Doerfer

    Oghuz languages were earlier grouped into Turkish (of Turkey), Azeri, and Turkmen, but recent research has modified this simple picture.

  • AZERBAIJAN ix. Iranian Elements in Azeri Turkish

    L. Johanson

    perhaps after Uzbek, the Turkic language upon which Iranian has exerted the strongest impact—mainly in phonology, syntax and vocabulary, less in morphology.

  • AZERBAIJAN x. Azeri Turkish Literature

    H. Javadi and K. Burrill

    Due to bilingualism among the educated Turkic-speaking people of the area the use of Azeri prose was widespread until the reign of Reżā Shah Pahlavi (r. 1925-41).

  • AZERBAIJAN xi. Music of Azerbaijan

    J. During

    The musical traditions of Azerbaijan were already distinct from those of the area now known as Soviet Azerbaijan, but they became definitively separated toward the end of the 19th century, with Iranian Azerbaijan opting for the purely Iranian style. Subsequently the music of the Soviet Azerbaijan underwent a period of Western acculturation.

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