Table of Contents

  • ĀŠPAZĪ

    B. Fragner

    "cooking." The history of food consumption in Iran is primarily part of the history of agriculture and stockbreeding on the Iranian plateau.

  • ASPBED

    M. L. Chaumont

    “master of horses, chief of cavalry,” Parthian title attested in the Nisa documents and the inscription of Šāpūr I on the Kaʿba-ye Zardošt.

  • ASPET

    C. Toumanoff

    Armenian title.

  • ʿAṢR-E ENQELĀB

    N. Parvīn

    a journal of news and political comment published at Tehran in 1333-1915.

  • ʿAṢR-E JADĪD

    N. Parvīn

    (New era), the name of several journals and a magazine published in Iran at various times.

  • ĀŠRAF GĪLĀNĪ

    M. Rahman

    (1870-1934), poet and leading journalist of the Constitutional era.

  • ĀŠRAF ḠILZAY

    D. Balland

    the Afghan chief who ruled as Shah over part of Iran from 1137/1725 to 1142/1729.

  • ĀŠRAF

    Cross-Reference

    town in Māzandarān. See BEHŠAHR.

  • ĀŠRAF-ʿALĪ KHAN FOḠĀN

    M. Baqir

    (or FEḠĀN), poet writing in Persian and Urdu (1140-86/1727-72).

  • ĀŠRAFI

    B. Fragner

    term used from the mid-15th century for a gold coin first minted in Mamluk Egypt in 810/1407-08.

  • ĀŠRAFĪ

    A. Hairi

    religious leader, born sometime before 1235/1819 and died 1315/1897-98.

  • ASRĀR AL-ḤEKAM

    M. Moḥaqqeq

    the title of a book written for Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah Qāǰār, by the philosopher Ḥāǰǰ Mollā Hādī Sabzavāri (1212-89/1797-1872).

  • ASRĀR AL-TAWḤĪD

    H. Algar

     principal source for the life and teachings of the well-known mystic of Khorasan, Abū Saʿid b. Abi’l-Ḵayr (b. 357/967, d. 440/1049).

  • ĀSRĒŠTĀR

    P. O. Skjærvø

    in Middle Persian Manichean texts a kind of demons, often associated with the mazans.

  • ĀSRŌN

    EIr

    Middle Persian form of Avestan āθravan.

  • ʿAṢṢĀR TABRĪZĪ

    Z. Safa

    poet, scholar, and mystic of the 8th/14th century.

  • ʿAṢṢĀR, Sayyed MOḤAMMAD-KĀẒEM

    Ahmad Kazemi Mousavi and EIr

    (b. 1302/1884-85; d. Tehran, 19 Dey 1353 Š./9 January 1975), outstanding Shiʿite scholar and professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran.

  • ASSARHADDON

    J. A. Delaunay

    king of Assyria 680-69 B.C., son of Sennacherib and the Arameo-Babylonian princess Zakūtu.

  • ASSASSINS

    Cross-Reference

    (Ar. Ḥaššāšin), pejorative name given to Neẓāri Ismaʿilis by their adversaries during the Middle Ages. See ISMAʿILISM iii. History.

  • AŠŠURBANIPAL

    J. A. Delaunay

    The Cimmerians (Gimirru) had entered Assyria about 700 B.C. but were stopped by Assarhaddon and so turned towards Lydia (Luddu). The king of Lydia, Gyges (Gūgu, Guggu), who had founded the Mermandes dynasty, following the advice of the god Aššur in a dream, sent a delegation to Aššurbanipal to ask for assistance.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.