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    Multiple Authors

    a town in Tehran province, located 36 km west of the city of Tehran on the western bank of the Karaj River (lat 35° 46ʹ N, long 50° 49ʹ E; elev., 1,360 m).

  • KARAJ i. Modern City

    Bernard Hourcade

    The area of Karaj has been inhabited since the Bronze Age at Tepe Khurvin, and the Iron Age at Kalāk on the left bank of the Karaj River.

  • KARAJ ii. Population

    Habibollah Zanjani

    Since the 1976 census, when Tehran was no longer counted within the boundaries of Central (Markazi) province and formed its own province, Karaj has been one of its sub-provinces. 

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    See AMIR KABIR DAM (forthcoming online).


    Bernard Hourade

    the second major permanent river of the central Iranian plateau after the Zāyandarud river.


    Rula Jurdi Abisaab

    Nur-al-Din Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAli b. Ḥosayn b. ʿAbd-al-ʿĀli, known as Moḥaqqeq al-Ṯāni or Moḥaqqeq ʿAli (1464-1533), a major Imamite jurist.


    Erik S. Ohlander

    “(saintly) marvel, wonder, or miracle” in Arabic (pl. karāmāt).


    William Malandra

    (or Karpan), designation of members of a class of daivic priests opposed to the religion of Zarathustra.



    title assumed by various rulers of Ḵᵛārazm (Chorasmia). See CHORASMIA ii. In Islamic times and ĀL-E AFRĪḠ.


    Meir Litvak

    a city in Iraq, situated about 90 km southwest of Baghdad. It is one of the four Shiʿite shrine cities (with Najaf, Kāẓemayn, and Sāmarrāʾ) in Iraq known in Shʿite Islam as ʿatabāt-e ʿaliāt or ʿatabāt-e moqaddasa.