Table of Contents

  • KĀRIZ v. Kārēz in the Late 20th Century and Their Prospects

    Xavier de Planhol

    In 1990 it was estimated that the kārēz technique supplied water to around 1.5 million hectares of the planet’s total irrigated surface area, which constituted only the minor portion of approximately 0.6 percent.


    Eckart Ehlers

    the third longest river in Iran after the rivers Karun and Safidrud, flowing in the western provinces of the country. It rises from the Zagros mountain range. 


    Stephen Blum

    designation of three types of musical instrument, the most prestigious being long trumpets made of brass, gold, silver, or other metals. Two regional instruments of Iran are also called karnā. Like the metal karnā, the long reed trumpet of Gilān and Māzandarān (also known as derāznāy “long reed”) lacks fingerholes and can produce only partials of the fundamental tone. 

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    Aron Zysow

    the adherents to a theological and legal movement with a broad following in Khorasan and Afghanistan from the 10th to the 13th centuries, with its intellectual center in Nishapur (Nišāpur). 


    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Avestan dragon-slayer, son of Sāma, and eschatological hero. In the Pahlavi and Zoroastrian Persian traditions, several heroic feats are connected with him.


    Prods Oktor Skjærvø, Mahmoud Omidsalar

    in the old Iranian epic tradition the brother of the Turanian king, Afrāsiāb, and the man most responsible for the murder of the Iranian prince Siāvaš. 



    See ĀL-E KART.


    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    a prominent Zoroastrian priest  in the second half of the 3rd century CE, known from his inscriptions and mentioned in Middle Persian, Parthian, and Coptic Manichean texts.


    George Sanikidze

    region occupying most of eastern Georgia. The original name of Georgia (Sakartvelo) and the Georgian people (Kartvelebi) derive from Kartli. 

  • KARUN RIVER i. Geography and Hydrology, ii

    Habib Borjian

    the largest river and the only navigable waterway in Iran. It rises in the Baḵtiāri Zagros mountains west of Isfahan, flows out of the central Zagros range, traverses the Khuzestan plain, and joins the Shatt al-Arab. before the latter discharges into the Persian Gulf.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.