Table of Contents

  • KĀRIZ ii. Technology

    Xavier de Planhol

    The technology of kārēz exploits a difference in grade between a tunnel and the groundwater table. The grade of the tunnel is less steep than the grade of the water table, so that the tunnel ends at an elevation distinctly higher than that of the water table. In Iran the average grade may be around 0.5 percent.

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  • KĀRIZ iii. Economic and Social Contexts

    Xavier de Planhol

    The major significance of the kārēz lies in its continuous discharge throughout the year. In contrast, irrigation systems that rely on surface water runoff can completely cease to discharge water during the dry season. The continuous discharge, however, needs be distinguished from a constant discharge. Significant seasonal variations can be observed.

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  • KĀRIZ iv. Origin and Dissemination

    Xavier de Planhol

    One very common technique is an underflow channel in a river valley. The underflow channel captures water from the shallow aquifer formed by seepage from the watercourse, whether it be intermittent or continuous. This technique is always subject to significant variations, because it depends on the surface flow.

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  • KĀRIZ v. Kārēz in the Late 20th Century and Their Prospects

    Xavier de Planhol

    In 1990 it was estimated that the kārēz technique supplied water to around 1.5 million hectares of the planet’s total irrigated surface area, which constituted only the minor portion of approximately 0.6 percent.

  • KARḴEH RIVER

    Eckart Ehlers

    the third longest river in Iran after the rivers Karun and Safidrud, flowing in the western provinces of the country. It rises from the Zagros mountain range. 

  • KARNĀ

    Stephen Blum

    designation of three types of musical instrument, the most prestigious being long trumpets made of brass, gold, silver, or other metals. Two regional instruments of Iran are also called karnā. Like the metal karnā, the long reed trumpet of Gilān and Māzandarān (also known as derāznāy “long reed”) lacks fingerholes and can produce only partials of the fundamental tone. 

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  • KARRĀMIYA

    Aron Zysow

    the adherents to a theological and legal movement with a broad following in Khorasan and Afghanistan from the 10th to the 13th centuries, with its intellectual center in Nishapur (Nišāpur). 

  • KARSĀSP

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Avestan dragon-slayer, son of Sāma, and eschatological hero. In the Pahlavi and Zoroastrian Persian traditions, several heroic feats are connected with him.

  • KARSĪVAZ

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø, Mahmoud Omidsalar

    in the old Iranian epic tradition the brother of the Turanian king, Afrāsiāb, and the man most responsible for the murder of the Iranian prince Siāvaš. 

  • KART DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E KART.