Table of Contents

  • ḤOSAYNI DAŠTAKI ŠIRĀZI

    cross-reference

    See DAŠTAKI, AMIR JAMĀL-AL-DIN.

  • ḤOSAYNIYA

    Jean Calmard

    buildings specifically designed to serve as venues for Moḥarram ceremonies commemorating the martyrdom of Ḥosayn b. ʿAli.

  • ḤOSAYNIYA-YE MOŠIR

    Jean Calmard

    a ḥosayniya building in the Sang-e Siāh quarter of Shiraz, famous for its exquisite tile paintings.

  • ḤOSAYNQOLI KHAN MĀFI

    Cross-Reference

    See NEẒĀM-AL-SALṬANA MĀFI, ḤOSAYNQOLI KHAN.

  • ḤOSAYNQOLI KHAN SARDĀR-E IRAVĀNI

    George A. Bournoutian

    important governor in the early Qajar period (b. ca. 1742, d. 1831).

  • ḤOSAYNQOLI, ĀQĀ

    Ameneh Youssefzadeh

    noted tār player and teacher (1853-1916). His performances were considered both technically brilliant and artistically exquisite. The regularity and force of the down and up strokes (rāst and čap) of his plectrum were much admired. He used a five-string tār and disapproved of the addition of the sixth string.

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  • ḤOSN O DEL

    Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā

    an allegorical work by Fattāḥi Nišāburi (1404-46), one of the best examples of rhyming prose in the Timurid period.

  • ḤOSN-E TAʿLIL

    Natalia Chalisova

    (lit. “beauty of rationale”), “fantastic etiology,” a rhetorical device among the figures of ʿelm-e badiʿ (the science of rhetorical embellishment).

  • HOSSEIN, ANDRÉ

    Iraj Khademi

    As a composer, Hossein was much inspired by traditional Persian music, and most of his works demonstrate this intellectual preoccupation. He knew the tār very well and could be considered one of the great tār players of his time. He began playing this instrument as a child, and later composed several works for it.

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  • HOSTAGE CRISIS

    Mohsen M. Milani and EIr

    the events following the seizure of the American embassy in Tehran by leftist Islamist students in 1979 with subsequent wide-ranging repercussions on Iran’s domestic politics as well as on U.S.-Iran relations.

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  • HOTZ, ALBERT PAUL HERMAN

    Cyrus Ala’i

    a Dutch trader, collector of artifacts, and author on Iran (1855-1930).

  • HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

    cross-reference

    See MAJLES.

  • HOUSING IN IRAN

    Habibollah Zanjani

    This entry examines: (1) the growth of housing units during 1966-96; (2) housing policies adopted in various development plans and the results; (3) main characteristics of housing in Iran; and (4) investment in, and economics of, housing.

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  • HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, ALBERT

    John D. Gurney

    , Sir, engineer and employee of the Persian government for over thirty years in the later 19th and early 20th centuries (1846-1916). For both the Persian government and the expatriate community, his importance reached far beyond any official position he held. Unlike many of the foreign advisers employed by successive Persian governments, he was both loyal and knowledgeable.

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  • HOVEYDA, AMIR-ABBAS

    Abbas Milani

    (Amir ʿAbbās Hoveydā; 1919-1979), the longest serving prime minister in the modern history of Iran (1964-1975). His tenure  can be divided into two phases. In the 1960s, he was full of optimism and energy; in the 1970s he was characterized by cynicism, a clinging attachment to power and its perks, and an almost despondent air of resignation. What remained the same were his economic policies.

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  • HUART, CLÉMENT

    Jean Calmard

    French orientalist (1854-1926), especially known as editor and translator of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish sources and prolific author of works covering many aspects of Oriental studies.

  • HÜBSCHMANN, (JOHANN) HEINRICH

    Erich Kettenhofen and Rüdiger Schmitt

    Hübschmann felt himself to be an orientalist. Originally an Iranian scholar, through his fundamental studies he became also the founder of modern Armenian linguistics; for it was he who created a solid basis for future historical-comparative research in this field.

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  • ḪUDIMIRI

    Inna Medvedskaya

    a peripheral district and city in Elam, mentioned only in the 7th century BCE, in the Assyrian sources during the reign of Ashurbanapal.

  • HŪGAR

    cross-reference

    See ALBORZ.

  • HŪITI

    cross-reference

    See AVESTAN PEOPLE.