Table of Contents

  • HUNS

    Martin Schottky

    collective term for horsemen of various origins leading a nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle, thought to have descended from the Hsiung-nu, a nomadic people first mentioned in Chinese sources in 318 BCE.

  • HUNTING IN IRAN

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    i. In the pre-Islamic period. ii. In the Islamic period. See Supplement. Persian has two terms for hunting, naḵjīr and šekār, both of which have spread beyond Iranian languages.

  • HUNTINGTON, ELLSWORTH

    Ursula Sims-Williams

    American geographer (1876-1947). In Central Asia ihe collected extensive data and acquired several manuscripts and wooden documents in Kharoṣṭhī, Tibetan, Sanskrit, and Khotanese.

  • HUR

    Nassereddin Parvin

    name of a newspaper (1943-45) and a bilingual (Persian and Armenian) monthly journal (1971-74).

  • HÜSING, GEORG

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    versatile German scholar, whose fields included Old Iranian and Elamite studies (1869-1930).

  • HUŠT

    Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal

    Zoroastrian-Persian term for the area (in known practice a town-quarter, a village, or a group of villages) assigned to a priest.

  • HUŠYĀR ŠIRĀZI

    DARYOUSH ASHOURI

    Upon his return to Persia with his German wife, Sirazi was employed as professor in the newly established University of Tehran. As a devoted and enthusiastic educator and author, his life, until his early death, was spent on energetically teaching his students and on introducing certain texts of German literature to Persian readers.

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  • HUTAOSA

    cross-reference

    See ATOSSA.

  • HUTH, GEORG

    Michael Knüppel

    (1867-1906) German Indologist, Tibetologist, Tugusologist, Mongolist, and the founder of Tibetology as a field of research at German universities.

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  • HUTUXŠ

    cross-reference

    and HUTUXŠBED, artisans as a class and the chief of artisans in Sasanian society. See CLASS SYSTEM ii.

  • HUVIŠKA

    A. D. H. Bivar

    ruler of the Great Kushan lineage, successor of Kaniška I the Great, known chiefly from inscriptions and from a prolific coinage. He reigned from at least the year 28 to 60 of the Kaniška Era, equivalent to 154-86 CE.

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  • HUZWĀREŠ

    D. Durkin-Meisterernst

    a term describing the use of Semitic word masks in Middle Persian texts, written in the official orthography of the Sasanian state and surviving in Zoroastrian texts, and a small number of inscriptions, and letters.

  • HVARCIERA

    cross-reference

    See XWARČIHR.

  • HYDARNES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. Hydárnēs), rendering of the Old Persian male name Vidṛna held by several historical persons of the Achaemenid period.

  • HYDE, THOMAS

    A. V. Williams

    (1636-1703), D.D., English orientalist, Professor of Arabic and Hebrew in the University of Oxford, the first scholar to attempt to write a comprehensive description of the religion of Zoroaster.

  • HYDERABAD

    Gavin Hambly, Deborah Hutton

    (Ḥaydarābād), city in the Deccan of India, the former capital of the Nizams (Neẓāms) of Hyderabad (ca. 1724-1948) and at present the state capital of Andhra Pradesh in southern India. It had a three and a half century history as one of the major Muslim states and as a center of Indo-Persian culture in the subcontinent.

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  • HYDROLOGY

    Multiple Authors

    i. Iranian plateau. ĀB. ii. Southwestern Persia. iii. Afghanistan. From a hydrological perspective, southwestern Persia must be considered as part of the Persian Gulf drainage region. Extending over an area of more than 350,000 km², its main drainage area covers the central and southwestern Zagros mountain areas with their extremely complex geomorphology.

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  • HYENA

    Steven C. Anderson

    Hyaena hyaena (Linnaeus, 1758), Pers. kaftār. The striped hyena is the only current Asian representative of the mammalian family Hyaenidae. Principal threats to hyena populations today are vehicular traffic (since they scavenge road kills at night), wanton shooting, and secondary poisoning. The hyena is a protected species in Iran.

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  • HYGIENE

    Cross-Reference

    See HEALTH IN PERSIA.

  • HYMN OF THE PEARL

    J. R. Russell

    or Hymn of the Soul, a Syriac poem, of which an early Greek translation also exists, composed probably in the third century CE in the region of Edessa.