Table of Contents

  • HORN, PAUL

    Erich Kettenhofen

    German philologist and specialist in Iranian and Turkish languages (1863-1908).

  • HOROSCOPE

    David Pingree

    the horoscopic diagram or theme which depicts the positions of the planets in the zodiacal signs and of the zodiacal signs relative to the local horizon at a given time. 

  • ḤORR-E ʿĀMELI

    Meir M. Bar Asher

    (1624-1693), one of the outstanding Twelver Shiʿite Hadith scholars of the Aḵbāri school and a prolific author.

  • ḤORR-E RIĀḤI

    Jean Calmard

    a leading tribesman in Kufa, who intercepted Ḥosayn b. ʿAli and his party and led them to Karbalā, but later repented and fought and died (10 October 680) there on Ḥosayn’s side.

  • HORSE

    cross-reference

    See ASB.

  • HORSE RACING

    Azartash Azarnoush

    The history of horse racing in Iran can be traced back to the Achaemenid period. Xenophon refers to a race set up by Cyrus II.

  • HORSESHOES

    Wolfram Kleiss

    (naʿl), iron protectors for the hooves of pack animals and mounts. In Persia, as in southern Europe, both horses and donkeys are shod.

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  • HORUFISM

    Hamid Algar

    a body of antinomian and incarnationist doctrines evolved by Fażl-Allāh Astarābādi (d. 1394), known to his followers also as Fażl-e Yazdān (“the generosity of God”). Its principal features were elaborate numerological interpretations of the letters of the Perso-Arabic alphabet and an attempt to correlate them with the human form.

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  • ḤOSĀM-AL-DIN ʿALI BEDLISI

    Tahsin Yazici

    NURBAḴŠI, Kurdish Sufi author of a commentary on the Koran, among other works (d. 1494-95).

  • ḤOSĀM-AL-DIN ČALABI

    Mohammad Estelami

    (d. 1284), ḤASAN B. MOḤAMMAD b. Ḥasan, Ebn Aḵi Tork, leading disciple and first successor of Jalāl-al-Din Rumi.

  • HŌŠANG

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    called Pēšdād, an early hero-king in Iranian tradition, father of the Iranians and founder of the Pēšdādian dynasty.

  • HŌŠANG JĀMĀSP

    Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal

    a distinguished Parsi scholar-priest (1833-1908).

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA

    cross-reference

    See JALĀYERIDS.

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI

    Multiple Authors

    Hosayn b. Ali is the second surviving grandson of the Prophet Moḥammad through his daughter Fāṭema and the third Imam of the Shiʿites after his father and his elder brother Ḥasan.

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI i. LIFE AND SIGNIFICANCE IN SHIʿISM

    Wilferd Madelung

    In contrast to the pacifist and conciliatory character of his elder brother, Ḥosayn inherited his father’s fighting spirit and intense family pride, although he did not acquire his military prowess and experience.

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI ii. IN POPULAR SHIʿISM

    Jean Calmard

    Legendary accounts about Ḥosayn and his martyrdom were from the outset influenced by his status as a Shiʿite Imam.

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI iii. THE PASSION OF ḤOSAYN

    Peter Chelkowski

    The taʿzia (literally “mourning”) is a dramatic form which Shiʿite Muslims in Persia have created to commemorate the tragedy of Ḥosayn ebn ʿAli, and thus it is comparable to the Christian passion play. See also TA'ZIA.

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  • ḤOSAYN B. OVAYS

    cross-reference

    See JALAYERIDS.

  • ḤOSAYN B. RUḤ

    Said Amir Arjomand

    (d. 938), SHAIKH ABU’L-QĀSEM ḤOSAYN B. RUḤ B. ABI BAḤR NOWBAḴTI, third of the four “special vicegerents” (nowwab-e ḵāṣṣa) of the Hidden Imam.

  • ḤOSAYN BĀYQARĀ

    Hans R. Roemer

    the common designation for Sultan Abu’l-Ḡāzi Ḥosayn Mirzā b. Manṣur b. Bāyqarā, the last Timurid ruler of major importance in Khorasan (r. 1469-70 and 1470-1506).