Table of Contents

  • GILĀN xv. Popular and Literary Perceptions of Identity

    Christian Bromberger

    In Afghanistan, Uzbeks are called “noodle eaters” by their neighbors and in Persia the Arabs from Khuzestan are stigmatized as susmārḵor “lizard eaters”.


    Christian Bromberger

    Even today, old women believe that cutting down an āzād tree is an act of sacrilege. Whether they are themselves objects of worship or simply grow near the tombs of saints, near cemeteries or inside mosques, these trees are places of devotion, each one dedicated to a specific type of wish (naẕr).

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  • GILAN xvii. Gender Relations

    Christian Bromberger

    In Gilan roles and tasks are distributed according to a more flexible pattern: to a large extent, women take an important part in agricultural work; in their homes, the line between male and female spaces is blurred; craftwork, industrial, and commercial activities are not the exclusive prerogative of men in this region.

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  • GILAN xviii. Rural Production Techniques

    Christian Bromberger

    Chaff produces a great amount of smoke and was once used to punish miscreants or disobedient children who were locked up in the dud otāḡ (literally “smoke room,” where sheaves of rice were dried and cocoons stifled). This punishment was called fal-a dud (“the smoke from the rice chaff”).

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  • GILĀN xix. Landholding and Social Stratification

    Christian Bromberger

    Prior to the Land Reform of 1962 that began the process of land redistribution, the dominant production system in Gilān, as in the majority of Persianprovinces, was of a feudal nature.

  • GILĀN xx. Handicrafts

    Christian Bromberger

    Gilān was a region that produced raw materials (including silk), to which one came for supplies, much more than a region where finished products were made; and the area long remained rural, with only minor importance accorded to towns housing professionals, workshops, and master craftsmen.

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  • GILĀN xxi. Cooking

    Christian Bromberger

    Eating habits and culinary preparations in Gilān have several distinct characteristics. In this rice-producing region, the consumption of rice is much higher than elsewhere in Persia. Garden vegetables and kitchen herbs (sabzi) generally appear in the makeup of most dishes and give the regional cuisine the green touch that is its hallmark.

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    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of four newspapers published in Rašt.


    Ina Baghdiantz McCabe

    a compendium of reports collated as a journal by Petros di Sarkis Gilanentz (Gilanencʿ), which constitutes an important source for the history of events in Transcaucasia and Persia during the period March 1722 to August 1723, notably the Afghan invasion and siege of Isfahan.






    See CHERRY.


    John R. Perry

    (1759-1841), physician, Indologist, and teacher of Persian and Urdu who pioneered the Western study and teaching of modern Indian languages in British India.

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    M. Jamil Hanifi

    or ḠALZĪ, one of three major Pashtun/Paxtun tribal confederations in Afghanistan.


    Erich Kettenhofen

    present-day Jendīres, a town in the ancient region of Cyrrhestike in Syria.


    Colin MacKinnon

    or Giāni; a Persian dialect of the Northern Lor type, spoken in the village of Giān/Giō, 12 km west of the city of Nehāvand.



    b. Jani Beg. See KISTĀN QARĀ b. Jani Beg.


    Richard M. Eaton

    or Gēsu-darāz (b. Delhi, 1321-d. Gulbarga, 1422), the popular title of Sayyed MOḤAMMAD b. Yusof Ḥosayni, the most important transmitter of Sufi traditions from North India to the Deccan plateau.

  • GITI

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a leftist daily paper published from 24 June 1943 to December 1943 by Ḵalil Enqelāb Āḏar as the official organ of the Workers union.

  • Giv


    Giv. See Gēv.


    Farhang Mehr

    In 1953, Giv created the Rostam Giv Charitable Foundation for the promotion of the education and welfare of the Zoroastrian community. In the same year, he encouraged his brother’s heirs to endow an elementary school for girls in Tehran. He also built sixty low-rent houses, equipped with modern amenities, for needy Zoroastrians.

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