Table of Contents

  • GERMANY iii. Iranian studies in German: Pre-Islamic period

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    This contribution aims at presenting an overview of the studies on all aspects of the culture of pre-Islamic Iran as conducted by German, Austrian, and Swiss scholars.

  • GERMANY iv. Iranian studies in German: Islamic Period

    Bert G. Fragner

    Until World War I, there were only a few scholars concentrating on subjects specifically Iranian, but many Orientalists did not refrain from dealing with Iranian, particularly Persian, affairs.

  • GERMANY v. German travelers and explorers in Persia

    Oliver Bast

    Hans Schiltberger, a Bavarian soldier, was the first German to give an eyewitness account of his travels in Persia. Initially captured by the Ottomans in 1396, he later became a prisoner of Tīmūr at the battle of Ankara (1402).

  • GERMANY vi. Collections and Study of Persian Art in Germany

    Jens Kröger

    From the 19th century on, Persian works of art were collected systematically to acquire knowledge of the world and to educate and inspire artists and craftsmen. Collecting, exhibiting, and studying Persian art reached an unprecedented scale in the 20th century.

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  • GERMANY viii. German cultural influence in Persia

    Christl Catanzaro

    A lasting influence was mainly exercised on Persians who either attended a German school in Persia, had other personal contacts with Germans, studied in Germany, or worked there.

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  • GERMANY ix. Germans in Persia

    Oliver Bast

    The Germans in Persia who have risen to a certain prominence fall mainly into one or more of the following categories: a) travelers and explorers (see above); b) experts in the service of the Persian government; c) agents and soldiers; d) members of German institutions in Persia.

  • GERMANY x. The Persian community in Germany

    Asghar Schirazi

    Only a small number of Persians resided in Germany before World War I. They were for the most part students besides several merchants and a few political emigrants.

  • GERMANY xi. Iranian Coins in the Federal Bank of Germany

    Karin Mosig-Walburg

    The collection of Iranian coins in the Deutsche Bundesbank comprises a number of pieces of rare or very rare specimens, almost all minted in precious metal, from Achaemenids to Pahlavi dynasties.

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    a pair of Middle Persian terms that designate the two forms of existence according to the traditional Zoroastrian view of the world as expressed in the Pahlavi books.


    William W. Malandra

    (the fashioner of the Cow), a divine craftsman who figures prominently in the Gathas of Zoroaster but falls into obscurity in the Younger Avesta, being there associated with the fourteenth day of the month, known in Middle Persian simply as Gōš.


    William W. Malandra

    “the soul of the Cow,” the name of the archetypal Bovine, whose plight is a subject of Zoroaster’s gāθā, often identified as “the Cow’s Lament.”

  • GĒV

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    one of the foremost heroes of the national epic in the reigns of Kay Kāvūs and Kay Ḵosrow.


    Michele Epinette

    (1922-2006), Iranian artist and one of the founders of the National Archives of Iranian Cinema; he served as one of the directors of the National Iranian Radio-Television, worked as the chief organizer of the Shiraz Festival of Arts.


    C. Edmund Bosworth

    an Islamic dynasty of Turkish slave origin 977-1186, which in its heyday ruled in the eastern Iranian lands, briefly as far west as Ray and Jebāl; for a while in certain regions north of the Oxus, most notably, in Kᵛārazm; and in Baluchistan and in northwestern India.

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  • GHILAIN, Antoine

    Aloïs van Tongerloo

    In addition to his demanding teaching responsibilities, Ghilain continued with his academic work at the University of Leuven. The commitment documents his intellectual stamina and iron will, as he had to travel by train between La Louvière and Leuven, even in the dark days of World War II when Belgium was under German occupation.

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    Laurianne Martinez-Sève

    Ghirshman came from an affluent family in Kharkov and was enlisted in 1914 into the Russian army. In 1917, he joined the counter-revolutionary camp, and after the Communist victory took refuge in Istanbul, where he earned a living as a violinist.

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    C. Edmund Bosworth

    There were at least three raids by the early Ghaznavids into Ḡūr, led by Sultan Maḥmūd and his son Masʿūd, in the first decades of the 11th century; these introduced Islam and brought Ḡūr into a state of loose vassalage to the sultans.

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