Table of Contents

  • GEORGIA ii. History of Iranian-Georgian Relations

    Keith Hitchins

    Between the Achaemenid era and the beginning of the 19th century, Persia helped to shape Georgian political institutions, modified social structure and land holding, and enriched literature and culture. 

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  • GEORGIA iii. Iranian elements in Georgian art and archeology

    Gocha R. Tsetskhladze

    Ancient Georgian tribes had close cultural contacts with Near Eastern civilizations from the 18th century BCE. Iranian elements appeared from the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C.E., as they did in the art of the entire Caucasian region.

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  • GEORGIA iv. Literary contacts with Persia

    Aleksandre Gvakharia

    The tribes of Georgia had a well-established and vast literary tradition and folklore long before the Christian era. None of the pre-Christian Georgian literary works have survived, however. Christianity became established in Georgia as an official religion at the beginning of the 4th century.

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    Thea Chkeidze

    Due to many centuries of close contacts between Georgia and Persia, a large number of Iranian loanwords came into the Georgian language.

  • GEORGIA vi. Iranian studies and collections in Georgia

    Keith Hitchins

    The institutional foundations of Iranian studies in Georgia were laid after the Russian Revolution of 1917.

  • GEORGIA vii. Georgians in the Safavid Administration

    Rudi Matthee

    Safavid interaction with Georgia and its inhabitants dates from the inception of the state in the early 16th century, when Georgians fought alongside the Qezelbāš in Shah Esmāʿīl I’s arm.

  • GEORGIA viii. Georgian communities in Persia

    Pierre Oberling

    Many thousands of Georgians, Armenians, and Circassians who were transplanted to Persia by Shah ʿAbbās I (996-1038/1588-1629) were peasants, and they were settled in villages in the Persian hinterland.



    See GEORGIA, iii.


    Ezat O. Negahban

    a rich archeological site located in western Azerbaijan about 7 km south of the town of Urmia (Reżāʾīya) plain made known through the aerial survey of ancient sites in Persia carried out by Erich F. Schmidt in the 1930s.



    son of Jāmāsp. See JĀMĀSP.


    Pierre Oberling

    a Turkic tribe of Khorasan, Gorgān, and Māzandarān.


    Farhad Daftary

    a fortress on the summit of an isolated rocky hill in the Alborz mountains, situated some 18 km west of Dāmḡān in northern Persia.



    See WALNUT.


    Marcus Milwright

    (lit. "making knot”), a form of geometric interlaced strapwork ornament that is commonly found in architecture and the minor arts throughout the Islamic world. In Persian Islamic architecture gereh-sāzī designs exist in a variety of media, particularly cut brickwork (bannāʾī), stucco, and cut tilework (mosaic faïence).

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    Daniel Balland

    a small oasis-city on the right bank of the Helmand river in Southern Afghanistan, the headquarters of the district (woloswālī) of Nahr-e Serāj within the province of Helmand.


    Erich Kettenhofen

    city in the ancient country of Commagene in the Roman province of Syria, present-day Maraş in southeast Turkey.


    Pierre Briant

    (also Karmanians, Carmanians), name of an ancient Persian tribe engaged in farming.


    Multiple Authors

    i. German-Persian diplomatic relations, ii. Archeological excavations and studies, iii. Iranian studies in German: Pre-Islamic period, iv. Iranian studies in German: Islamic period, v. German travelers and explorers in Persia, vi. Collections and study of Persian art in Germany, vii. Persia in German literature, viii. German cultural influence in Persia, ix. Germans in Persia, x. The Persian community in Germany.

  • GERMANY i. German-Persian diplomatic relations

    Oliver Bast

    Around 1555 a man coming from Italy, who called himself the son of the “king of Persia,” turned up at the University of Wittenberg.

  • GERMANY ii. Archeological excavations and studies

    Dietrich Huff

    The first Germans who reported on the historical and archeological monuments of the ancient Persian world, were, as in other nations, adventurers and travelers of a different kind. 

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