Table of Contents

  • FISCAL SYSTEM v. PAHLAVI PERIOD

    MASSOUD KARSHENAS

    The first attempts at setting up a modern fiscal system in Persian began after the Constitutional Revolution.

  • FISCAL SYSTEM vi. ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

    Adnan Mazarei

    The receipt of large revenues from oil exports and their expenditure for developing various sectors of the economy, improving infrastructure, and providing social services have made the government’s fiscal policies a major determinant of the overall economic incentives, structure and level of economic activity.

  • FISCHEL, WALTER JOSEPH

    David Yeroushalmi

    (b. 12 November 1902; d. 14 July 1973), a scholar of Oriental Jewry and Islamic civilization.

  • FISH

    Multiple Authors

    in Persia. With about 1,800 km of coastline along the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman, and about 990 km on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea, plus some inland fresh waters, Persia has a great variety of aquatic fauna: mollusks, crustaceans, chelonians, mammals (dolphins, whales, seals), and particularly, fishes. Thus the country has rich aquatic resources and considerable potential for fishing and aquaculture.

  • FISH i. FRESHWATER FISHES

    Brian W. Coad

    With about 1,800 km of coastline along the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman, and about 990 km on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea, plus some inland fresh waters, Persia has a great variety of aquatic fauna: mollusks, crustaceans, chelonians, mammals, and especially fishes.

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  • FISH ii. SALT WATER FISHES

    Hušang Aʿlam

    Except for occasional short reports by foreign researchers on some individual fish species from the Sea of Oman and the Persian Gulf, there was no comprehensive scientific study of the ichthyofauna of the region until the Danish H. Blegvad and B. Løppenthin’s systematic survey.

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  • FISH iii. IN PRE-ISLAMIC PERSIAN LORE

    Hušang Aʿlam

    The Bundahišn contains interesting pseudo-scientific, mythical, and sometimes inconsistent information about fishes.

  • FISH iv. FISH AS FOOD

    NAJMIEH BATMANGLIJ

    Although fish is the main source of animal protein along the northern and southern coasts of Persia, it is not much eaten in the rest of the country but in a smoked form as a delicacy traditionally served with rice and fresh herbs on the first day of the new year at the end of the zodiacal month of Pisces.

  • FISHERIES

    Houshang Alam

    There was no real fishing organization in Persia until the second half of the 19th century when Russian subjects, encouraged and backed by the Tsarist Russia’s expansionist policy, becameinncreasingly involved in coastal and fluvial fishing activities in the Caspian provinces of Persia.

  • FITZGERALD, EDWARD

    Dick Davis

    (1809-1883),  British translator of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam (by far the most famous translation ever made from Persian verse into English), as well as Jāmī’s Salāmān o Absāl and ʿAṭṭār’s Manṭeq al-ṭayr.

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  • FLAGS

    Multiple Authors

    This article is meant to supplement earlier entries on Iranian vexillology (see ʿALAM VA ʿALĀMAT, BANNERS, and DERAFŠ).

  • FLAGS i. Of Persia

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    The earliest-known representation of lion and sun as a banner device is a miniature painting illustrating a copy, dated 1423, of the Šāh-nāma of Šams-al-Dīn Kāšānī—an epic composition on the Mongol conquest. A similar early depiction is on a large, double-paged miniature dated ca. 1460.

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  • FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

    Habib Borjian

    Nāder Shah’s (1929-33) policy of moderate reforms was reflected in the flag he reportedly used when he seized power—the tricolor flag introduced by Amān-Allāh; it was soon modified as a bound sheaf of wheat circling a stylized mosque, which recalls the mausoleum of Aḥmad Shah Dorrānī.

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  • FLAGS iii. of Tajikistan

    Habib Borjian

    On 28 April 1929, the constitution of the Tajik ASSR adopted a state arms and flag. The arms consisted of a hammer (bālḡa) and local sickle (dās) symbol against a star, which depicts a blue sky brightened by golden rays of sun rising above snowy mountains. The star is encircled on each side by wreaths of wheat and cotton.

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  • FLANDIN AND COSTE

    Jean Calmard

    Eugène Flandin was the son of Jean-Baptiste Flandin, an intendant in Napoléon’s armies. Little is known about his mother Marie-Agnès Durand. Eugène’s early years were linked with his father’s tumultuous career. He was only two years old when his family returned from Naples, where his father had been assigned since 1807, serving with Murat.

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  • FLANDIN, Eugène Napoléon Jean-Baptiste

    Cross-Reference

    (1809-1889), French orientalist, painter, archeologist, and politician, famous for the illustrated account of his travels in Persia. See FLANDIN AND COSTE.

  • FLOODS

    Eckart Ehlers, Charles Melville

    (sayl, sayl-āb) in Persia. i. Geographical survey. ii. Historical survey. Surplus or deficit of water, mainly caused by Persia’s topography, undergoes seasonal variations with decisively stronger precipitation during the winter months, which explains why floods occur predominantly during these periods.

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  • FLORA

    Multiple Authors

    i. Historical Background. ii. In Persia. iii. In Afghanistan

  • FLORA i. Historical Background

    Karl Hummel

    The indigenous knowledge of plants in Persia had a long standing tradition before the country’s flora was explored by Europeans, who were eventually joined in modern scientific botany by Persian botanists.

  • FLORA ii. IN PERSIA

    Wolfgang Frey, Harald Kürschner, Wilfried Probst

    With approximately six thousand recorded species of ferns and flowering plants, Persia harbors one of the richest floras of the Near Eastern countries, ranging from subtropical forests to dry-adapted woodlands, dwarf shrubs and thorn cushion formations, and semidesert shrublands.

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