Table of Contents

  • FICTION, ii(a)

    SĪMĪN BEHBAHĀNĪ and EIr

    ii(a). HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF MODERN FICTION.  The long reign of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah (1848-96) and the Constitutional Revolution a decade after his death witnessed the gradual emergence of modern fiction in Persia.

  • FICTION, ii(b)

    Houra Yavari

    ii(b). THE NOVEL.

  • FICTION, ii(c)

    Jamāl Mīrṣādeqī

    ii(c). THE SHORT STORY. Historically, the modern Persian short story has undergone three stages of development: a formative period, a period of consolidation and growth, and a period of diversity.

  • FICTION, ii(d)

    Houra Yavari

    ii(d). THE POST-REVOLUTIONARY SHORT STORY. The post-revolutionary short story is marked by its formal sophistication and has carved out a distinct and experimental space of its own in fiction.

  • FICTION, ii(e)

    Houra Yavari

    ii(e). POST-REVOLUTIONARY FICTION ABROAD. Not only were the novel and short story imported genres, the very first works of Persian fiction were either written or first published outside Persia.

  • FICTION, ii(f)

    Houra Yavari

    ii(f). BY PERSIANS IN NON-PERSIAN LANGUAGES. Persian fiction is not limited to works written in the Persian language, or to works written within the geographical boundaries of Persia herself.

  • FICTION, ii(g)

    Shahwali Ahmadi

    ii(g). IN AFGHANISTAN. The introduction of modern fiction in Afghanistan was concomitant with the institution of new educational and literary organizations, namely the Ḥabībīya School and Anjoman-e adabī, and the publication of the bi-weekly Serāj al-aḵbār-e afḡānīya, edited by Maḥmūd Ṭarzī, in the early twentieth century.

  • FICTION, ii(h)

    Keith Hitchins

    ii(h). IN TAJIKISTAN. Tajik fiction in the 20th century has drawn from a variety of sources.

  • FIEF

    Cross-Reference

    See EQṬĀʿ; LAND TENURE.

  • FIG

    Hušang Aʿlam

    the “fruit” of several species and subspecies of Ficus L. (fam. Moraceae) in the geobotanical area covered by K. H. Rechinger’s Flora Iranica.

  • FIGUEROA, GARCÍA DE SILVA Y

    Michele Bernardini

    (b. Zafra, 1550; d. at sea returning from Persia, 1624), Spanish diplomat and traveler.

  • FIGURES OF SPEECH

    Cross-reference

    See BADIʿ (1).

  • FĪL

    Cross-Reference

    See ELEPHANT.

  • FILBERT

    Cross-Reference

    See HAZELNUT.

  • FILIPPI, FILIPPO DE

    Anna Vanzan

    (1814-1867), a professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at Turin University.

  • FILM PRODUCTION

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement; see also CINEMA.

  • FĪN

    Cross-Reference

    strict and spring near Kāšān. See BĀḠ-E FĪN.

  • FINKENSTEIN, TREATY OF

    Cross-Reference

    See FRANCE iii; GARDANE MISSION.

  • FIRE

    Cross-reference

    See ĀDUR, ĀTAŠ, ĀTAŠKADA.

  • FIRE ALTARS

    Mark Garrison

    a structure used to to hold fire for urposes of veneration, probably contained within a metal or clay bowl. The term should probably be restricted to those structures which have a clear Zoroastrian religious context.

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