Table of Contents

  • FIRE TEMPLES

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀTAŠKADA.

  • FIRE WORSHIP

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀTAŠ.

  • FIREARMS i. HISTORY

    Rudi Matthee

    in Persia. This article surveys the history and production of various firearms and artillery in Persia from their introduction to the 19th century.

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  • FIREARMS ii. PRODUCTION OF CANNON AND MUSKETS

    Parviz Mohebbi

    By the last quarter of the 16th century, cannon-making was so common that cannons were constructed even on the spot during siege operations.

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  • FIRMAN

    Cross-Reference

    See FARMĀN.

  • FĪRŪZ

    Klaus Schippmann

    (PĒRŌZ) Sasanian king (r. 459-84), son of Yazdegerd II (r. 439-57). 

  • FĪRŪZ BAHRĀM

    Fariborz Majīdī and Hūšang Etteḥād

    one of Tehran’s oldest high schools, founded by Parsi philanthropist Bahramji Bikaji as a memorial to his son Fīrūz, who was lost at sea in the Mediterranean in 1915. Bikaji’s initial plan was to build an elementary school in

  • FĪRŪZ MAŠREQĪ

    Aḥmad Edāračī Gīlānī

    (or Pīrūz; not Mošrefī as in Majmaʿ al-foṣaḥāʾ, p. 946), poet at the court of the Saffarids Yaʿqūb b. Layṯ (r. 867-78) and his brother ʿAmr b. Layṯ.

  • FĪRŪZ MĪRZA

    Cross-reference

    (1817-1886), sixteenth son of ʿAbbās Mīrzā and grandson of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah. See FARMĀNFARMĀ, FĪRŪZ MĪRZĀ.

  • FĪRŪZ ŠĀPŪR

    Cross-reference

    name of a town on the left bank of the Euphrates five km north-west of Fallūǰa and sixty-two km west of Baghdad. See ANBĀR.

  • FIRUZ, MARYAM

    Maziar Behrooz

    Firuz was born into the royal Qajar family.  Her father was ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Mirzā Farmānfarmā, the second son of Firuz Mirzā Noṣrat-al-Dawla Farmānfarmā, the sixteenth son of ʿAbbās Mirzā, son and the crown prince of Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah, the second Qajar king.

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  • FĪRŪZA

    Cross-reference

    See TURQUOISE.

  • FĪRŪZĀBĀD

    Dietrich Huff

    The plain of Fīrūzābād has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with a major Chalcolithic site, Tall-e Rīgī, in the south. Surrounded by precipitous mountains with few and easily defensible access roads, it was chosen by Ardašīr-e Bābakān as the key stronghold in his revolt against the last Parthian King.

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  • FĪRŪZĀBĀDĪ, ABŪ ṬĀHER MOḤAMMAD

    Cross-reference

    See Supplement.

  • FĪRŪZKŪH

    Bernard Hourcade

    name of two towns: (1) a fortified city in the medieval Islamic province of Ḡūr in Central Afghanistan, which was the capital of the senior branch of the Ghurid sultans (see GHURIDS) for some sixty years in the later 6th/12th and 7th/13th centuries; (2) fortress and surrounding settlement in the Damāvand region of the Alborz mountains in northern Persia.

  • FĪRŪZŠĀH-NĀMA

    William L. Hanaway

    pre-Safavid prose romance, the hero of which is Fīrūzšāh, son of Dārāb of the Kayanid house. 

  • FISCAL SYSTEM

    Multiple Authors

    i. Achaemenid Period. ii. Sasanian Period. iii. Islamic Period. iv. Safavid and Qajar Periods. v. Pahlavi Period. vi. Islamic Republic..

  • FISCAL SYSTEM i. ACHAEMENID, ii. SASANIAN

    Mohammad A. Dandamayev, Rika Gyselen

    There probably was no clear distinction between state and royal incomes in the Achaemenid empire. All state receipts were considered royal property, as was the income from the king’s estates. Beginning from ca. 519 B.C.E., when Darius I established a new tax system, the peoples subject to the Persians paid 7,740 Babylonian talents of silver (i.e., 232,200 kg) a year.

  • FISCAL SYSTEM iii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    JÜRGEN PAUL

    iii. ISLAMIC PERIOD Such a system can be studied in at least three aspects: First, its relationship to the ruler or the government; second, its relationship to those groups in the population who serve as sources of revenue (“taxpayers”);

  • FISCAL SYSTEM iv. SAFAVID AND QAJAR PERIODS

    Willem Floor

    iv. SAFAVID AND QAJAR PERIODS The Safavid shah’s fiscal prerogatives were expressed by terms like bājgoḏār, bājsetān, and jezyagoḏār (tax assessor or tax taker).