Table of Contents

  • DAVĀNĪ, JALĀL-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    Andrew J. Newman

    b. Asʿad Kāzerūnī Ṣeddīqī (b. Davān, q.v., near Kāzerūn in Fārs, 1426-27, d. 1502), often referred to as ʿAllāma Davānī, leading theologian, philosopher, jurist, and poet of late 15th-century Persia.

  • DĀVAR

    Cross-Reference

    See DĀTABARA.

  • DĀVAR, ʿALĪ-AKBAR

    Bāqer ʿĀqelī

    (b. Tehran, 1885, d. Tehran, 10 February 1937), journalist, politician, statesman, and founder of the modern Persian judicial system, as well as of several state enterprises in the time of Reżā Shah.

  • DĀVARĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ, Mīrzā Moḥammad

    ʿAbd-al-Wahhāb Nūrānī Weṣāl

    (b. Shiraz 1822-23, d. Shiraz, 1866), poet, calligrapher, and painter of some renown in Qajar Persia and a contemporary of Moḥammad Shah and Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah.

  • DAVĀZDAH EMĀMĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; IRAN ix. Relgions in Iran (2) Islam in Iran.

  • DAVĀZDAH ROḴ

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    lit. "twelve combats"; designation of a relatively long episode in the Šāh-nāma (2,500 verses), in which a battle takes place on the borders of Tūrān between Iranians under the command of Gūdarz and Turanians under the command of Pīrān.

  • DAVID OF ASHBY

    Peter Jackson

    (fl. 1260-75), Dominican friar and visitor to Il-khanid Persia.

  • DAVID, JACOB

    Eden Naby

    (1873-1967) Assyrian pastor and relief worker.

  • DAWĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See DRUGS.

  • DAWĀMĪ, ʿABD-ALLĀH

    DĀRYŪŠ ṢAFVAT

    (b. Ṭā near Tafreš, 1891; d. Tehran, 10 January 1981), a master of classical Persian vocal music with a perfect command of the radīf (repertoire), as well as a gifted player of the Persian drum (tonbak) and a virtuoso of rhythmic (żarbī) pieces and songs (taṣnīf).

  • DAWĀNUS

    Dariush Kargar

    the name of a man seen in the other world by Ardā Wirāz, as described in both the Middle Persian and the Zoroastrian Persian versions of the Ardā Wirāz-nāmag.

  • DAWĀT

    LINDA KOMAROFF

    lit. "inkwell"; a utilitarian receptacle that also served as a symbol or metaphor for the instrument of state, with a long history in Islamic Persia. Inkwells were characterized in Persian poetry and historical works from the 10th century on as symbols of royal and by extension ministerial office.

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  • DAʿWAT AL-ESLĀM

    Nassereddin Parvin

    A biweekly Persian journal published in Bombay by Ḥājj Sayyed Moḥammad Dāʿī-al-Eslām from 19 October 1906 until the end of 1909.

  • DAʿWAT-E ESLĀMĪ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    lit. "the Islamic call"; a monthly religious journal published in Kermānšāh from November-December 1927 to June 1936.

  • DAWĀTDĀR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    lit. “keeper, bearer of [the royal] inkwell or inkstand”; title of various officials in medieval Islamic states.

  • DAWLATĀBĀD

    Daniel Balland

    name of several localities in Afghanistan that have grown up around civil or military government buildings.

  • DAWLATĀBĀDĪ, SAYYED ʿALĪ-MOḤAMMAD

    Cyrus Amir-Mokri

    (b. Dawlatābād, 1868, d. Tehran, Šawwāl May-June 1923), prominent politician and deputy of the Persian parliament.

  • DAWLATĀBĀDĪ, SAYYED YAḤYĀ

    Abbas Amanat

    (b. Dawlatābād. near Isfahan, 8 January 1863, d. Tehran, 26 October 1939), celebrated educator, political activist, and memoirist of the constitutional and postconstitutional periods.

  • DAWLATĀBĀDĪ, ṢEDDĪQA

    Mehranguiz Manoutchehrian

    (b. Isfahan, 1883, d. Tehran, 28 July 1961), journalist, educator, and pioneer in the movement to emancipate women in Persia.

  • DAWLATḴĒL

    Daniel Balland

    tribal name common among the eastern Pashtun at various levels of tribal segmentation.

  • DAWLATŠĀH, AMIR

    ḎABĪH-ALLĀH ṢAFĀ

    (b. ca. 1438, d. 1494 or 1507), one of the few authors before the 16th century to have devoted a work entirely to poets, arranged more or less chronologically.

  • DAWLATŠĀH, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ MĪR-ZĀ

    Abbas Amanat

    (1789-1821), eldest son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah and powerful prince-governor of western provinces of Persia.

  • DAWLATZĪ

    Daniel Balland

    (singular Dawlatzay), ethnic name common among the eastern Pashtun on both sides of the Durand Line.

  • DAWR (1)

    Farhad Daftary

    (Ar. and Pers.), period, era, or cycle of history, a term used by Ismaʿilis in connection with their conceptions of time and the religious history of mankind.

  • DAWR (2)

    Jean During

    Lāḏeqī, who represented the Ottoman tradition, first described eighteen cycles “widely current in our days,” then three new and less common rhythmic cycles and nine obsolete cycles, among them four that had been the creations of Marāḡī. Fourteen of these cycles were later cited in Bahjat al-rūḥ, which includes mention of about thirty rhythmic cycles.

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  • DAWRAQ

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    or Dawraq al-Fors; name of a district (kūra), also known as Sorraq, and of a town that was sometimes its chef-lieu in medieval Islamic times.

  • DAWTĀNĪ

    Daniel Balland

    Most Dawtānī nomads wintered in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, in either southern Waziristan or Dērajāt. A minority wintered in southern Afghanistan, mainly in the Qandahār oasis, where some owned houses, or in the middle Helmand valley. From a social geographical point of view, four different subgroups can thus be distinguished.

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  • DĀWŪD

    Fatḥ-Allāh Mojtabāʾī

    or DĀʾŪD; the biblical David, mentioned in a number of passages in the Koran as the hero who fought with and killed Jālūt, the prophet who received the Book of Psalms (Zabūr) from God, and the king who was given the power to rule, enforce justice, and distinguish between truth and falsehood.

  • DĀWŪD B. MOʾMEN

    Cross-Reference

    See JEWISH PERSIAN LITERATURE.

  • DĀWŪD KHAN, MOḤAMMAD

    Barnett Rubin

    (b. Kabul, 1909; d. Kabul, 27 April 1978), prime minister (1953-63) and first president of Afghanistan (1973-78). During his tenure as minister (known as “Dāwūd’s decade”),  he transformed the Afghan state.Throughout his career he combined a strong desire to modernize the country with a close identification with the military.

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  • DAY

    W. W. Malandra

    (Av. daδuuah-, Pahl. day “creator”), an epithet of Ahura Mazdā that became the name of the tenth month, as well as of the eighth, fifteenth, and twenty-third days in each month of the Zoroastrian calendar.

  • DĀYA

    Mahmoud Omidsalar and Theresa Omidsalar

    wet nurse.

  • DĀYA, NAJM-AL-DĪN ABŪ BAKR ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Moḥammad-Amīn Rīāḥī

    b. Moḥammad b. Šāhāvar b. Anūšervān Rāzī (1177–1256), mystic and author.

  • DAYEAKUTʿIWN

    Robert G. Bedrosian

    a form of child rearing practiced in Armenia and other parts of the Caucasus.

  • DĀYERAT AL-MAʿĀREF-E FĀRSĪ

    Dāryūš Āšūrī

    the first general encyclopedia in Persian compiled along modern lines.

  • DAYLAMITES

    Cross-Reference

    people inhabiting a shifting region in northern Persia and adjacent territories, including the Deylamān uplands. See DEYLAMITES; BUYIDS.

  • DAYR

    QAMAR ĀRYĀN

    monastery; in early Islamic Arabic and Persian literature usually a building in which Christian monks (rāheb) lived and worshiped.

  • DAYR AL-ʿĀQŪL

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    lit., “the monastery at the bend in the river”; a medieval town in Iraq situated on the Tigris 15 farsangs (= 80 km) southeast of Baghdad.

  • DAYR-E GAČĪN

    Mehrdad Shokoohy

    lit., “gypsum hospice”;  Sasanian caravansary situated in the desert halfway between Ray and Qom, on the ancient route from Ray to Isfahan. It is recorded in most early Muslim geographies. Over time, it underwent major reconstruction at least twice.

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  • DAYSAM

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Ebrāhīm KORDĪ, ABŪ SĀLEM, Kurdish commander who ruled sporadically in Azerbaijan between 938 and 955 after the period of Sajid domination there.

  • DA’TID BAHRANA

    Eden Naby

    (with the Persian title Āyanda-ye rowšan “Bright future”), Assyrian bilingual periodical published in Tehran in 1951.

  • DE BRUIN, CORNELIS

    Willem Floor

    or de Bruyn, also known as Corneille Le Brun or Le Bruyn (b. The Hague 1652, d. Utrecht 1726 or 1727), Dutch painter and author of two accounts of his travels in Persia and other eastern lands.

  • DE GOEJE, MICHAIL JAN

    A. J. M. Vrolijk

    (b. Dronrijp, Friesland, 18 August 1836, d. Leiden, 17 May 1909), Dutch orientalist and chief editor of Ṭabari’s world history, Taʾriḵ al-rosol wa’l-moluk.

  • DE MORGAN, Jacques

    Pierre Amiet

    (1857-1924), French archeologist and prehistorian. He came from an exceptionally gifted family, in which cultivation of humane learning was combined with scientific rigor. It seems clear that he was less interested in Elamite history than in the overall prehistory of the East. In 1902 he declared: "Susa, because of its very early date, provided the possibility of solving the greatest and most important problem, that of our origins."

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  • DEAD SEA SCROLLS

    Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin

    parchment and papyrus scrolls written in Hebrew, mainly of the 1st centuries B.C.E. and C.E., found in caves around Qomrān on the northwest coast of the Dead Sea and considered to represent a sect of Judaism.

  • DEATH (1)

    Mary Boyce

    AMONG ZOROASTRIANS

  • DEATH (2)

    Cross-Reference

    IN RELIGIONS OTHER THAN ZOROASTRIANISM. See CORPSE and BURIAL.

  • DECCAN

    Carl W. Ernst, Priscilla P. Soucek

    or Dakhan, Pers. Dakan; the south-central plateau of India, bounded on the north by the Narbada river, on the west by the Sea of Oman, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, and on the south by the Tungabhadra river.

  • DECORATION

    Priscilla P. Soucek

    the use of consciously designed patterns to embellish building surfaces and objects for aesthetic effect. Despite progress in identifying or classifying the features of Persian decorative patterns, few scholars have attempted to explain why particular designs were used in specific periods, regions, or circumstances, even though it can be observed that in a given area or epoch the form and character of ornament are often consistent within a particular craft or different media.

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  • DECORATIONS

    Yaḥyā Šahīdī

    , honors granted by the Persian government. In Persia there were no orders in the Western sense, but only decorations and medals. The practice of awarding such honors was initiated by Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah (r. 1797-1834), who introduced the Lion and sun (nešān-e šīr o ḵoršīd) in 1808, apparently inspired by the Red Crescent adopted by the Ottoman sultan Salīm III (r. 1789-1807).

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