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(Ar. and Pers. “circle”), term applied to scales and also to rhythmic cycles, both commonly diagramed as circles in classical musicology of Persian, Arab, and Turkish groups. Such diagrams are appropriate for representing both the cyclical nature of the scales and the periodic nature of rhythmic formulas.This Article Has Images/Tables.
C. Edmund Bosworth
or Dawraq al-Fors; name of a district (kūra), also known as Sorraq, and of a town that was sometimes its chef-lieu in medieval Islamic times.
Most Dawtānī nomads wintered in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, in either southern Waziristan or Dērajāt. A minority wintered in southern Afghanistan, mainly in the Qandahār oasis, where some owned houses, or in the middle Helmand valley.This Article Has Images/Tables.
or DĀʾŪD; the biblical David, mentioned in a number of passages in the Koran as the hero who fought with and killed Jālūt, the prophet who received the Book of Psalms (Zabūr) from God, and the king who was given the power to rule, enforce justice, and distinguish between truth and falsehood.
(b. Kabul, 1909; d. Kabul, 27 April 1978), prime minister (1953-63) and first president of Afghanistan (1973-78). During his tenure as minister (known as “Dāwūd’s decade”), he transformed the Afghan state.Throughout his career he combined a strong desire to modernize the country with a close identification with the military.This Article Has Images/Tables.
W. W. Malandra
(Av. daδuuah-, Pahl. day “creator”), an epithet of Ahura Mazdā that became the name of the tenth month, as well as of the eighth, fifteenth, and twenty-third days in each month of the Zoroastrian calendar.
Mahmoud Omidsalar and Theresa Omidsalar
b. Moḥammad b. Šāhāvar b. Anūšervān Rāzī (1177–1256), mystic and author.
Robert G. Bedrosian
a form of child rearing practiced in Armenia and other parts of the Caucasus.