Table of Contents

  • ḎŪ-BAḤRAYN

    Sīrūs Šamīsā

    a term in Persian and Arabic prosody designating a poem that can be scanned according to two or more different meters (baḥr).

  • DUALISM

    Gherardo Gnoli

    feature peculiar to Iranian religion in ancient and medieval times.

  • DUBAI

    Sussan Siavoshi

    (Dobayy), second largest of the seven emirates constituting the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) on the southern shores of the Persian Gulf.

  • DUCHESNE-GUILLEMIN, JACQUES

    Pierre Lecoq

    (1910-2012), distinguished scholar of classical philology and Indo-Iranian studies.

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  • DUCK

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    technically any species of the family Anatidae but in Persian popular usage including similar waterfowl from other families, particularly some geese and grebes.

  • DŪḠ

    M. R. Ghanoonparvar

    beverage made of yogurt and plain or carbonated water and often served chilled as a refreshing summer drink or with meals, especially with kebabs or čelow-kabāb.

  • DŪḠ-E WAḤDAT

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    lit. “beverage of unity”; concoction made from adding hashish extract (jowhar-e ḥaīš) to diluted yogurt.

  • DUGDŌW

    D. N. MacKenzie

    the name of Zoroaster’s mother, which appears in several different spellings in the Pahlavi texts, mostly more or less corrupted from an original attempt at representing the Avestan form.

  • ḎU’L-AKTĀF

    Cross-Reference

    See Šāpur II.

  • ḎU’L-FAQĀR

    Jean Calmard

    lit., “provided with notches, grooves, vertebrae”; the miraculous sword of Imam ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāleb, with two blades or points, which became a symbol of his courage on the battlefield.

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  • ḎU’L-FAQĀR KHAN AFŠĀR

    J. R. PERRY

    governor (ḥākem) of Ḵamsa province (ca. 1763-80) under the Zand dynasty.

  • ḎU’L-FAQĀR ŠĪRVĀNĪ

    Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī

    MALEK-AL-ŠOʿARĀ QEWĀM-AL-DĪN ḤOSAYN b. Ṣadr-al-Dīn ʿAlī (d. ca. 691/1291), Persian poet and panegyrist of the Il-khanid period. 

  • ḎU’L-JANĀḤ

    Jean Calmard

    Imam Ḥosayn’s winged horse, known from popular literature and rituals.

  • ḎU’L-LESĀNAYN

    Hamid Algar

    lit. “possessor of two tongues”; epithet often bestowed upon bilingual poets.

  • ḎU’L-NŪN MEṢRĪ, ABU’L-FAYŻ ṮAWBĀN

    Gerhard Böwering

    b. Ebrāhīm (b. Aḵmīm in Upper Egypt, ca. 791, d. Jīza [Giza], between 859 and 862), early Sufi master.

  • ḎU’L-QADR

    Pierre Oberling

    (arabicized form of Turk. Dulgadır), a Ḡozz tribe that became established mainly in southeastern Anatolia under the Saljuqs.

  • DU’L-QARNAYN

    Cross-Reference

    See ALEXANDER THE GREAT.

  • ḎU’L-RĪĀSATAYN

    Cross-Reference

    See FAŻL B. SAHL.

  • ḎU’L-RĪĀSATAYN

    Hamid Algar

    (b. Shiraz, 1873, d. Tehran, 15 June 1953), for thirty years qoṭb (leader) of a principal branch of the Neʿmatallāhī Sufi order. 

  • ḎU’L-ŠAHĀDATAYN

    Cross-Reference

    See AŠRAF ḠAZNAVĪ.