Table of Contents

  • ĀŠPAZĪ

    B. Fragner

    "cooking." The history of food consumption in Iran is primarily part of the history of agriculture and stockbreeding on the Iranian plateau.

  • ASPBED

    M. L. Chaumont

    “master of horses, chief of cavalry,” Parthian title attested in the Nisa documents and the inscription of Šāpūr I on the Kaʿba-ye Zardošt.

  • ASPET

    C. Toumanoff

    Armenian title.

  • ʿAṢR-E ENQELĀB

    N. Parvīn

    a journal of news and political comment published at Tehran in 1333-1915.

  • ʿAṢR-E JADĪD

    N. Parvīn

    (New era), the name of several journals and a magazine published in Iran at various times.

  • ĀŠRAF GĪLĀNĪ

    M. Rahman

    (1870-1934), poet and leading journalist of the Constitutional era.

  • ĀŠRAF ḠILZAY

    D. Balland

    the Afghan chief who ruled as Shah over part of Iran from 1137/1725 to 1142/1729.

  • ĀŠRAF

    Cross-Reference

    town in Māzandarān. See BEHŠAHR.

  • ĀŠRAF-ʿALĪ KHAN FOḠĀN

    M. Baqir

    (or FEḠĀN), poet writing in Persian and Urdu (1140-86/1727-72).

  • ĀŠRAFI

    B. Fragner

    term used from the mid-15th century for a gold coin first minted in Mamluk Egypt in 810/1407-08.

  • ĀŠRAFĪ

    A. Hairi

    religious leader, born sometime before 1235/1819 and died 1315/1897-98.

  • ASRĀR AL-ḤEKAM

    M. Moḥaqqeq

    the title of a book written for Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah Qāǰār, by the philosopher Ḥāǰǰ Mollā Hādī Sabzavāri (1212-89/1797-1872).

  • ASRĀR AL-TAWḤĪD

    H. Algar

     principal source for the life and teachings of the well-known mystic of Khorasan, Abū Saʿid b. Abi’l-Ḵayr (b. 357/967, d. 440/1049).

  • ĀSRĒŠTĀR

    P. O. Skjærvø

    in Middle Persian Manichean texts a kind of demons, often associated with the mazans.

  • ĀSRŌN

    EIr

    Middle Persian form of Avestan āθravan.

  • ʿAṢṢĀR TABRĪZĪ

    Z. Safa

    poet, scholar, and mystic of the 8th/14th century.

  • ʿAṢṢĀR, Sayyed MOḤAMMAD-KĀẒEM

    Ahmad Kazemi Mousavi and EIr

    (b. 1302/1884-85; d. Tehran, 19 Dey 1353 Š./9 January 1975), outstanding Shiʿite scholar and professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran.

  • ASSARHADDON

    J. A. Delaunay

    king of Assyria 680-69 B.C., son of Sennacherib and the Arameo-Babylonian princess Zakūtu.

  • ASSASSINS

    Cross-Reference

    (Ar. Ḥaššāšin), pejorative name given to Neẓāri Ismaʿilis by their adversaries during the Middle Ages. See ISMAʿILISM iii. History.

  • AŠŠURBANIPAL

    J. A. Delaunay

    The Cimmerians (Gimirru) had entered Assyria about 700 B.C. but were stopped by Assarhaddon and so turned towards Lydia (Luddu). The king of Lydia, Gyges (Gūgu, Guggu), who had founded the Mermandes dynasty, following the advice of the god Aššur in a dream, sent a delegation to Aššurbanipal to ask for assistance.

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  • ASSYRIA

    M. Dandamayev and È. Grantovskiĭ, M. Dandamayev, K. Schippmann

    i. The Kingdom of Assyria and its relations with Iran. ii. Achaemenid Aθurā. iii. Parthian Assur.

  • ASSYRIANS IN IRAN

    R. Macuch, A. Ishaya

    The ancient name “Assyrian,” derived from that of the god Aššur, designated the Semitic population of north Mesopotamia and their capital city. Even before the final destruction of the Assyrian empire in 612 B.C., its population had become largely Aramaic-speaking; knowledge of its ancient language, Akkadian, had become restricted to the educated people and to scribes.

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  • ASTABED

    M. L. Chaumont

    The word astabid occurs in two Syriac texts as the title of a high-ranking Iranian officer and is applied to three different individuals.

  • ĀŠTĀD

    G. Gnoli

    Old Iranian female deity of rectitude and justice.

  • ĀŠTĀD YAŠT

    P. O. Skjærvø

    Yt. 18, though dedicated to Aštād, the goddess of rectitude, does not mention her.

  • ĀSTĀN-E QODS-E RAŻAWĪ

    ʿA.-Ḥ. Mawlawī, M. T.Moṣṭafawī, and E. Šakūrzāda

    the complex of buildings surrounding the tomb of the Imam ʿAlī al-Reżā at Mašhad.

  • ĀSTĀNA

    Eckart Ehlers, Marcel Bazin, and Christian Bromberger

    a township and a district of Lāhīǰān in the province of Gīlān.

  • ĀSTĀRĀ

    M. Bazin

    The rural inhabitants grow rice, wheat, and vegetables on the coastal plain and wheat, corn (maize), and fruit trees on the lower slopes of the mountains, and graze flocks and herds between qešlāq and yeylāq. Many find it necessary to supplement their incomes with earnings from work as migrant laborers in the cities.

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  • ASTARĀBĀD

    C. E. Bosworth, S. Blair

    (or ESTERĀBĀD), the older Islamic name for the modern town of Gorgān in northeastern Iran, and also the name of an administrative province in Qajar times.

  • ASTARĀBĀD BAY

    E. Ehlers

    a lagoon in the extreme southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea.

  • ASTARĀBĀD-ARDAŠĪR

    Cross-Reference

    See KARḴ MAYSĀN.

  • ASTARĀBĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR ASTARĀBĀDĪ.

  • ASTARĀBĀDĪ, FAŻLALLĀH

    H. Algar

    (d. 796/1394), founder of the Ḥorūfī religion.

  • ASTARĀBĀDĪ, MAHDĪ KHAN

    J. R. Perry

    court secretary and historiographer to Nāder Shah Afšār (r. 1148-60/1736-47).

  • ASTARĀBĀDĪ, MOḤAMMAD AMĪN

    E. Kohlberg

     founder of the 17th-century Aḵbārī school.

  • AŠTARAK

    KAMRAN EKBAL

    a village in the Ābārān district about six miles northwest of Yerevan (Iravān) in a mountainous region of the Caucasus.

  • ĀŠTARJĀN

    R. Hillenbrand

    (OŠTORJĀN), name of a subdistrict (dehestān) and its chief village, lying southwest of Isfahan.

  • ĀSTARKĪ

    J. Qāʾem-Maqāmī

    (or AŠTARKĪ), one sub-tribe of the six which presently constitute the Dūrkī tribe of the Haft Lang confederation of the Baḵtīārī people.

  • ASTAUENE

    Cross-Reference

    Parthian province to the north of Hyrcania (Gorgān). See OSTOVĀ.

  • ĀŠTĪĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    the name both of an administrative subdistrict (dehestān) and its chef-lieu in the First Province (ostān).

  • ĀŠTĪĀNI

    E. Yarshater

    the dialect of Āštīān, belongs to the group of “Central” dialects spoken in Kashan and Isfahan provinces and some adjacent areas.

  • ĀŠTĪĀNĪ, ḤASAN

    H. Algar

    (d. 1319/1901), late 19-century moǰtahed who played an important role in the campaign against the tobacco concession of 1309/1891.

  • ĀŠTĪĀNĪ, MAHDĪ

    H. Algar

    known as Mīrzā Kūček (1306-1372/1888-89 to 1952-53), a scholar who excelled in both the traditional (manqūl) and rational (maʿqūl) sciences.

  • ĀŠTIŠAT

    M. Van Esbroeck

    religious center of pagan Armenia and first official Christian see.

  • ASTŌDĀN

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    “bone-receptacle, ossuary.” The term has an important place in the vocabulary of ancient Iranian funerary rites.

  • ASṬORLĀB

    D. Pingree

    The altitude of the sun or of the star is determined by an observation through the alidade on the back; the rim of the upper two halves of the back is graduated from 0° to 90° from the horizontal diameter (horizon) to the apex (zenith).

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  • ASTRAKHAN

    B. Spuler

    a town (Russian since 1556) on the river Volga.

  • ASTROLABE

    Cross-Reference

    See ASṬORLĀB.

  • ASTROLOGY AND ASTRONOMY IN IRAN

    D. Pingree, C. J. Brunner

    Highly relevant are the subjects Mithraism and Zurvanism. It is here assumed that the exposure of Zoroastrian priests to Near Eastern divination, from the Achaemenid period on, helped foster cosmological speculation; and this developed a body of myth around Zurwān “Time,” who must already have served as a personification of the fructifying year-cycle.

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  • ASTVAṰ.ƎRƎTA

    M. Boyce

    the Avestan name of the Saošyant, the future Savior of Zoroastrianism.