Table of Contents

  • AWLĪĀʾALLĀH ĀMOLĪ

    W. Madelung

    the author of the history of Rūyān, Tārīḵ-e Rūyān, written about 760/1359.

  • AWQĀF

    Cross-Reference

    See WAQF (pending).

  • AWRANGĀBĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-ḤAYY

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-ḤAYY AWRANGĀBĀDĪ.

  • AWRANGĀBĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ AWRANGĀBĀDĪ.

  • AWRANGĀBĀDĪ, SHAH NEẒĀM-AL-DĪN

    M. L. Siddiqui

    the celebrated Češtī saint said to be a descendant of Abū Bakr, the first caliph, in the line of Šehāb-al-dīn Sohravardī.

  • AWRANGZĒB

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • AWRŌMĀN

    Cross-Reference

    or AWRŌMĀNI, See AVROMAN; AVROMANI.

  • AWṢĀF AL-AŠRĀF

    G. M. Wickens

    a short mystical-ethical work in Persian by Naṣīr-al-dīn Ṭūsī, written late in life, ca. 670/1271-72.

  • AWTĀD

    Cross-Reference

    See ABDĀL; AWLĪĀʾ.

  • AXSE

    M. L. Chaumont

    name of a Parthian hostage in Rome, inscribed in the dedication of an epitaph engraved on a marble plaque and discovered at the Forum Boarium in Rome.

  • ĀXŠTI

    B. Schlerath

    (Avestan) “Peace, contract of peace.”

  • AXT

    M. F. Kanga

    a sorcerer and, according to Zoroastrian tradition, a vehement, early opponent of the Religion.

  • AXTAR

    W. Eilers

    (Middle and New Persian) “star” or “constellation.”

  • AXTARMĀR

    A. Tafażżolī

    “astronomer.” The astronomers were included in the category of the third of the four Sasanian social classes, i.e., the class of the scribes, together with the physicians and poets.

  • ĀXWARR

    W. Eilers

    Middle Persian term for “manger” or “stall” borrowed into Armenian as axoṙ.

  • ĀXWARRBED

    A. Tafażżolī

    Middle Iranian term for the “Stablemaster, Royal Equerry.”

  • ĀY ḴĀNOM

    O. Bernard

    or AÏ KHANUM (Tepe), a local Uzbek name designating the site of an important Greek colonial city in northern Afghanistan excavated since 1965 by a French mission and which belonged to a powerful hellenistic state born of Alexander’s conquest in Central Asia (329-27 B.C.)

  • AY TĪMŪR

    J. M. Smith, Jr.

    Sarbadār commander and ruler, “the son of a slave”.

  • ĀYADANA

    J. Duchesne-Guillemin

    “place of cult.” The term occurs once in the Old Persian Bīstūn inscription of Darius I.

  • AYĀDGĀR Ī JĀMĀSPĪG

    M. Boyce

    “Memorial of Jāmāsp,” a short but important Zoroastrian work in Middle Persian, also known as the Jāmāspī and Jāmāsp-nāma.

  • AYĀDGĀR Ī WUZURGMIHR

    S. Shaked

    a popular-religious andarz composition in Pahlavi, attributed to one of the best-known sages of the Sasanian period, Wuzurgmihr (Bozorgmehr) ī Buxtagān, who was active at the court of Ḵosrow I Anōšīravān (531-79 A.D.).

  • AYĀDGĀR Ī ZARĒRĀN

    M. Boyce

    “Memorial of Zarēr,” a short Pahlavi text which is the only surviving specimen in that language of ancient Iranian epic poetry.

  • AYĀDĪ-E AMR ALLĀH

    D. M. MacEoin

    “Hands of the Cause of God”, term used in Bahaʾism to designate the highest rank of the appointed religious hierarchy.

  • AʿYĀN AL-ŠĪʿA

    W. Ende

    a monumental dictionary (56 vols. altogether) of Shiʿite celebrities and learned men compiled by the Shiʿite scholar Sayyed Moḥsen Amīn ʿĀmelī (d. 1952).

  • ĀYANDA

    Ī. Afšār

    Persian journal which began publication in Tīr, 1304 Š./June-July, 1925, under the editorship of its founder, Maḥmūd Afšār (1893-1983).

  • ĀYANDAGĀN

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton and P. Mohajer

    a daily morning newspaper that first appeared in Tehran on 16 December, 1967.

  • ĀYATALLĀH

    H. Algar

    (Sign of God; Engl. Ayatullah, Ayatollah), an honorific title awarded by popular usage to mojtaheds, particularly the foremost among them.

  • ĀYATĪ, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN

    Ī. Afšār

    (b. 1288/1871; d. 1332 Š./1953), son of Mollā Moḥammad-Taqī Āḵūnd Taftī, Bahāʾi missionary, journalist, author, and teacher.

  • AYĀZ, ABU’L-NAJM

    J. Matīnī

    favorite Turkish slave of the Ghaznavid Sultan Maḥmūd, whose passion for Ayāz is a recurrent theme in Persian poetry, where he is also called Ayās or Āyāz.

  • AYBAK

    L. Dupree

    (Uzbek “cave dweller”), now called Samangān, capital of Samangān province, associated with several important archeological sites.

  • AYBAK, QOṬB-AL-DĪN

    N. H. Zaidi

     founder of the Moʿezzī or Slave Dynasty and the first Muslim king of India, also called Ībak (moon chieftain) and Aybak Šel.

  • ĀYENAHĀ-YE DARDĀR

    Mohammad Mehdi Khorrami

    (Mirrors with cover doors, Tehran, 1992), one of the last major works by Hushang Golshiri.

  • AYMĀQ

    A. Janata

    (Turk. Oymaq), a term designating tribal peoples in Khorasan and Afghanistan, mostly semi-nomadic or semi-sedentary, in contrast to the fully sedentary, non-tribal population of the area.

  • ʿAYN-AL-DAWLA, ʿABD-AL-MAJĪD

    J. Calmard

    ATĀBAK-E AʿẒAM (1845-1926) son of Solṭān Aḥmad Mīrzā ʿAżod-al-dawla, Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah’s forty-eighth son and a prominent political figure of Moẓaffar-al-dīn Shah’s reign (1896-1907).

  • ʿAYN-AL-QOŻĀT HAMADĀNĪ

    G. Böwering

    (492/1098-526/1131), brilliant mystic philosopher and Sufi martyr.

  • AYNALLŪ

    P. Oberling

    (or ĪNALLŪ, ĪNĀLŪ, ĪMĀNLŪ), a tribe of Ḡozz Turkic origin inhabiting Azerbaijan, central Iran and Fārs.

  • ʿAYNI, KAMĀL

    Habib Borjian

    As a textual and literary critic, Kamāl ʿAyni centered his work on Persian works of the Timurid era and contiguous periods, mainly the 15th and 16th centuries. He thus published a number of essays and monographs, such as Badr-al-Din Helāli’s Layli o Majnun (1954), ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Jāmi’s Salāmān o Absāl (1964), and Moḵtār Ḡaznavi’s Šahriār-nāma (1964).

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ʿAYNĪ, ṢADR-AL-DĪN

    K. Hitchins

    (1878-1954), poet, novelist, and the leading figure of Soviet Tajik literature, born 18 Rabīʿ II 1295/15 April 1878 in the village of Sāktarī in the emirate of Bukhara, a Russian protectorate.

  • AYŌKĒN

    M. Shaki

    a Middle Persian legal term denoting the category of persons to whom descends the obligation of stūrīh (marriage by proxy or substitution).

  • AYRARAT

    R. H. Hewsen

    region of central Armenia in the broad plain of the upper Araxes.

  • ĀYRĪMLŪ

    P. Oberling

    (in Persian often Āyromlū), Turkic tribe of western Azerbaijan.

  • ĀYROM, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN KHAN

    M. Amanat

    army commander and the head of the police under Reżā Shah (r. 1304-20 Š./1925-41).

  • AYVĀN

    O. Grabar

    (palace, veranda, balcony, portico), a Persian word used also in Arabic (īwān, līwān) and Turkish.

  • AYVĀN-E KESRĀ

    E. J. Keall

    Ayvān-e Kesrā has been described in Arabic and Persian sources and is the subject of a moving qaṣīda by the poet Ḵāqānī who visited its ruins in mid-6th/12th century. Once the most famous of all Sasanian monuments and a landmark in the history of architecture, it is now only an imposing brick ruin.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ʿAYYĀR

    Cl. Cahen, W. L. Hanaway, Jr.

    a noun meaning literally “vagabond,” applied to members of medieval fotowwa (fotūwa) brotherhoods and comparable popular organizations.

  • ʿAYYĀŠĪ, ABU’L-NAŻR MOḤAMMAD

    I. K. Poonawala

    Imami jurist and scholar of the 3rd-4th/9th-10th centuries.

  • AYYOHAʾL-WALAD

    I. Abbas

    a short treatise by Abū Ḥāmed Moḥammad Ḡazālī Ṭūsī (fl. 450-505/1058-1111), originally composed in Persian.

  • AYYŪB KHAN, MOḤAMMAD

    Cross-Reference

    B. AMĪR ŠĒR ʿALĪ KHAN. See MOḤAMMAD AYYŪB KHAN.

  • AYYUBIDS

    R. S. Humphreys

    (Ar. Banū Ayyūb), a Kurdish family who first became prominent as members of the Zangid military establishment in Syria in the mid-sixth/twelfth century.

  • ʿAYYŪQĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    a poet of the fifth/eleventh century who versified the romance of Varqa o Golšāh.