Table of Contents

  • AFRĀSĪĀB i. The Archeological Site

    G. A. Pugachenkova and Ī. V. Rtveladze

    the ruined site of ancient and medieval Samarqand in the northern part of the modern town.

  • AFRĀSIĀB ii. Wall Paintings

    Matteo Compareti

    The Afrāsiāb wall paintings refer to 7th-century Sogdian murals, discovered in 1965 in the residential part of ancient Samarqand (Samarkand).

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  • AFRĀSĪĀBIDS

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E AFRĀSĪĀB (1).

  • AFRASIYABIDS

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E AFRĀSĪĀB (1).

  • AFRĀŠTA, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ

    B. Sholevar and H. Javadi

    poet, writer and satirist (1908-1959).

  • ĀFRĪD

    J. P. Asmussen

    5th-century Christian bishop of Sagastān.

  • AFRĪDĪ

    C. M. Kieffer

    (singular -ay), designation of a major Paṧtūn tribe in northwest Pakistan, with a few members in Afghanistan.

  • AFRIGHID DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E AFRĪḠ.

  • AFRIḠIDS

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E AFRIḠ.

  • ĀFRĪN

    F. M. Kotwal and J. W. Boyd

    “blessing,” benedictory prayers said at the conclusion of every Zoroastrian ceremony of blessings (āfrinagān).

  • ĀFRĪNAGĀN

    M. F. Kanga

    a term for one of the outer Zoroastrian liturgical services.

  • AFŠĀN

    P. P. Soucek

    (“sprinkling”), the decoration of paper with flecks of gold and silver, sometimes called zarafšān “gold sprinkling.”

  • AFŠĀR

    P. Oberling

    one of the 24 original Ḡuz Turkic tribes.

  • AFŠĀR, AḤMAD SOLṬĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See AḤMAD SOLṬĀN.

  • AFŠĀR, ḤĀJJĪ BĀBĀ

    Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī

    court physician under Moḥammad Shah Qāǰār.

  • AFŠĀRĪ

    H. Farhat

    one of the twelve dastgāhs or modal systems of classical Iranian music. In the contemporary tradition, Afšārī is customarily classified as a derivative of the dastgāh Šūr. In fact, however, Afšārī is quite independent and possesses its own modal characteristics as well as its own forūd (cadence) pattern.

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  • AFSHARIDS

    J. R. Perry

    actual power was exercised for most of this sixty years not by the nominal ruler but by military leaders or other court factions, and for a brief time by Solaymān II, whose reign was an attempted Safavid restoration. The remaining parts of Nāder’s empire were now the sphere of the Zand dynasty in western Iran.

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  • AFŠĪN

    C. E. Bosworth

    princely title of the rulers of Ošrūsana at the time of the Muslim conquest, the most famous of whom was Ḵeyḏār (Ḥaydar) b. Kāvūs, d. Šaʿbān, 226/May-June, 841.

  • AFŠĪN B. DĪVDĀD

    ʿA. Kārang and F. R. C. Bagley

    founder of the semi-independent Sajid dynasty in Azerbaijan (r. 276/889-90-317/929).

  • AFSŪS

    M. Baqir

    (AFSŌS), the taḵalloṣ of MĪR ŠĪR-ʿALĪ, late 18th century poet and translator of India.