Table of Contents

  • AḠRĒRAṮ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (Av. Aγraēraθa), Turanian warrior and brother of Afrāsīāb in the Avestan yašts and in the the Šāh-nāma.

  • AGRICULTURE in Iran

    E. Ehlers

    The tendency to possess not certain, regionally fixed parts of the land but shares of the total, is made possible by the custom of splitting each property or any part of it into “ideal” or “imaginary” shares or allotments.

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  • ĀHAK

    E. Ehlers, T. S. Kawami

    “lime,” a solid, white substance consisting essentially of calcium oxide.

  • ĀHAN

    V. C. Pigott

    With the Tartar conquest of Syria, Tamerlane is said to have deported to Iran the skilled craftsmen he captured. It is suggested that from this point onward Iran supplied itself as well as India and the west with the finest damascene arms and armor, though the steel ingots still originated in India.

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  • AHAR

    ʿA. ʿA. Kārang

    the name of a county (šahrestān) and town in Azerbaijan.

  • AHAR RIVER

    ʿA. ʿA. Kārang

    Originating in the mountains of Eškanbar, Sārī Čaman and Qarāǰa-dāḡ, the Ahar river runs from east to west.

  • AHARĪ

    İ. Aka

    (8th/14th cent.), author of Tārīḵ-eŠāh Oways, dedicated to the Jalayerid ruler Oways (757-76/1356-74).

  • AHASUREUS

    W. S. McCullough

    name of a Persian king in pre-Christian Jewish tradition; it appears in the biblical books of Esther (1.1 et passim), Ezra (4.6), and Daniel (9.1) and in the apocryphal book of Tobit (14.15).

  • AḤDĀṮ, WOJŪH-E

    R. M. Savory

    fines collected in Safavid times by the officers of the night watch (aḥdāṯ), who were under the supervision of the dārūḡa.

  • ĀHĪ JOḠATĀʾĪ

    ʿA. ʿA. Rajāʾī

    Chaghatay amir, poet, and companion of Ḡarīb Mīrzā, a son of the Timurid sultan, Ḥosayn Bāyqarā.

  • ĀHI, MAJID

    Bāqer ʿĀqeli

    (b. Tehran, 1265 Š./1886; d. 22 Šahrivar 1325 Š./12 September 1946), judge, governor of Fārs, minister of justice, and ambassador to the Soviet Union.

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  • AHL-E BAYT

    I. K. A. Howard

    (Ahl al-Bayt), the “family of the house” or “household,” i.e., of the Prophet. 

  • AHL-E ḠARQ

    Nasrin Raḥimieh

    (The drowned, 1990), best-known novel of Moniru Ravanipur.

  • AHL-E ḤAQQ

    H. Halm

    “People of (the absolute) Truth,” a sect found in western Persia and some regions of northeastern Iraq; the name has also been adopted by other Islamic sects (Noṣayrīs, Ḥorūfīs) and appears to be rooted in the tradition of the extremist Shiʿites (ḡolāt).

  • AHL-E ḤAQQ ii. INITIATION RITUAL

    M. Reza Fariborz Hamzeh’ee

    The initiation ritual is one of the most important institutions in the tradition of Ahl-e Ḥaqq.

  • AHLAW

    Ph. Gignoux

    (Ahlav; written ʾhlwb), a middle Persian term which plays a fundamental role in Mazdean soteriology and which is usually translated as “just.”

  • AHLĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ

    W. Thackston

    poet (858/1454?-942/1535).

  • AHLOMŌG

    C. J. Brunner

    Middle Persian form of Younger Avestan ašəmaoγa- “one who produces confusion of Truth,” a term applied to Iranian priests who deviated from Zoroastrian doctrine.

  • AḤMAD ʿALAWĪ

    H. Corbin

    philosopher and author in Persian and Arabic (d. between 1054/1644 and 1060/1650). 

  • AḤMAD ʿALĪ HĀŠEMĪ SANDĪLAVĪ

    S. S. Alvi

     Indo-Persian litterateur (b. 1162/1748-49 in Sandila, a town near Lucknow; d. after 1224/1809).