Table of Contents

  • AGRICULTURE in Iran

    E. Ehlers

    The tendency to possess not certain, regionally fixed parts of the land but shares of the total, is made possible by the custom of splitting each property or any part of it into “ideal” or “imaginary” shares or allotments.

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  • ĀHAK

    E. Ehlers, T. S. Kawami

    “lime,” a solid, white substance consisting essentially of calcium oxide.

  • ĀHAN

    V. C. Pigott

    With the Tartar conquest of Syria, Tamerlane is said to have deported to Iran the skilled craftsmen he captured. It is suggested that from this point onward Iran supplied itself as well as India and the west with the finest damascene arms and armor, though the steel ingots still originated in India.

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  • AHAR

    ʿA. ʿA. Kārang

    the name of a county (šahrestān) and town in Azerbaijan.

  • AHAR RIVER

    ʿA. ʿA. Kārang

    Originating in the mountains of Eškanbar, Sārī Čaman and Qarāǰa-dāḡ, the Ahar river runs from east to west.

  • AHARĪ

    İ. Aka

    (8th/14th cent.), author of Tārīḵ-eŠāh Oways, dedicated to the Jalayerid ruler Oways (757-76/1356-74).

  • AHASUREUS

    W. S. McCullough

    name of a Persian king in pre-Christian Jewish tradition; it appears in the biblical books of Esther (1.1 et passim), Ezra (4.6), and Daniel (9.1) and in the apocryphal book of Tobit (14.15).

  • AḤDĀṮ, WOJŪH-E

    R. M. Savory

    fines collected in Safavid times by the officers of the night watch (aḥdāṯ), who were under the supervision of the dārūḡa.

  • ĀHĪ JOḠATĀʾĪ

    ʿA. ʿA. Rajāʾī

    Chaghatay amir, poet, and companion of Ḡarīb Mīrzā, a son of the Timurid sultan, Ḥosayn Bāyqarā.

  • ĀHI, MAJID

    Bāqer ʿĀqeli

    (b. Tehran, 1265 Š./1886; d. 22 Šahrivar 1325 Š./12 September 1946), judge, governor of Fārs, minister of justice, and ambassador to the Soviet Union.

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  • AHL-E BAYT

    I. K. A. Howard

    (Ahl al-Bayt), the “family of the house” or “household,” i.e., of the Prophet. 

  • AHL-E ḠARQ

    Nasrin Raḥimieh

    (The drowned, 1990), best-known novel of Moniru Ravanipur.

  • AHL-E ḤAQQ

    H. Halm

    “People of (the absolute) Truth,” a sect found in western Persia and some regions of northeastern Iraq; the name has also been adopted by other Islamic sects (Noṣayrīs, Ḥorūfīs) and appears to be rooted in the tradition of the extremist Shiʿites (ḡolāt).

  • AHL-E HAQQ ii. INITIATION RITUAL

    M. Reza Fariborz Hamzeh’ee

    The initiation ritual is one of the most important institutions in the tradition of Ahl-e Ḥaqq.

  • AHLAW

    Ph. Gignoux

    (Ahlav; written ʾhlwb), a middle Persian term which plays a fundamental role in Mazdean soteriology and which is usually translated as “just.”

  • AHLĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ

    W. Thackston

    poet (858/1454?-942/1535).

  • AHLOMŌG

    C. J. Brunner

    Middle Persian form of Younger Avestan ašəmaoγa- “one who produces confusion of Truth,” a term applied to Iranian priests who deviated from Zoroastrian doctrine.

  • AḤMAD ʿALAWĪ

    H. Corbin

    philosopher and author in Persian and Arabic (d. between 1054/1644 and 1060/1650). 

  • AḤMAD ʿALĪ HĀŠEMĪ SANDĪLAVĪ

    S. S. Alvi

     Indo-Persian litterateur (b. 1162/1748-49 in Sandila, a town near Lucknow; d. after 1224/1809).

  • AḤMAD B. ʿABDALLĀH

    H. Halm

    (3rd/9th century), son of the supposed founder of Ismaʿili doctrine and grandfather of the first Fatimid caliph, Mahdī.

  • AḤMAD B. ASAD

    C. E. Bosworth

    (d. 250/864), early member of the Samanid family and governor of Farḡāna under the ʿAbbasids and Taherids.

  • AḤMAD B. AYYŪB

    A. A. Kalantarian

    7th-8th/13th-14th Azerbaijani architect, one of the best representatives of the architectural school of Naḵǰavān.

  • AḤMAD B. AYYŪB ḤĀFEẒ

    A. A. Kalantarian

    7th-8th/13th-14th architect from the city of Naḵǰavān. He constructed in Barda (Bardaʿa) a mausoleum, completed in 722/1322 according to the building inscription. 

  • AḤMAD B. BAHBAL

    Hameed ud-Din

    Mughal historian and author of a Persian work, Maʿdan-e aḵbār-e Aḥmadī, also known as Maʿdan-e aḵbār-e Jahāngīrī

  • AḤMAD B. FAŻLĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    author of an extremely important travel narrative written after he had been a member of an embassy in the early 4th/10th century from the ʿAbbasid caliphate to the ruler of the Bulghars on the middle Volga in Russia.

  • AḤMAD B. ḤOSAYN

    İ. Aka

    historian of the 9th/15th century born in Yazd, author of the Tārīḵ-e ǰadīd-e Yazd

  • AḤMAD B. JAʿFAR

    D. M. Dunlop

    poet, man of letters, musician, wit, and bon vivant at the court of several ʿAbbasid caliphs, hence sometimes called al-Nadīm.

  • AḤMAD B. MOḤAMMAD

    C. E. Bosworth

    (r. 311-52/923-63), amir in Sīstān of the Saffarid dynasty (that part of it sometimes called “the second Saffarid dynasty”).

  • AḤMAD B. MOḤAMMAD B. ṬĀHER

    C. E. Bosworth

    governor in Ḵᵛārazm and son of the last Tahirid governor in Khorasan. 

  • AḤMAD B. NEẒĀM-AL-MOLK

    C. E. Bosworth

    (d. 1149-50), son of the well-known Saljuq vizier (d. 485/1092) and himself vizier for the Great Saljuqs and then for the ʿAbbasid caliphs. 

  • AḤMAD B. ʿOMAR B. SORAYJ

    T. Nagel

    Shafeʿite author from Shiraz (249/863-306/918-19)/

  • AḤMAD B. QODĀM

    C. E. Bosworth

    a military adventurer who temporarily held power in Sīstān during the confused years following the collapse of the first Saffarid amirate and the military empire of ʿAmr b. Layṯ in 287/900.

  • AḤMAD B. SAHL B. HĀŠEM

    C. E. Bosworth

    governor in Khorasan during the confused struggles for supremacy there between the Saffarids, Samanids, and various military adventures in the late 3rd/9th and early 4th/10th century, d. 307/920. 

  • AḤMAD ČARMPŪŠ

    S. H. Askari

    (ČERAMPŌŠ), Sohravardī poet-saint of 14th century Bihar (d. 26 Ṣafar 755/22 March 1354).

  • AḤMAD HERAVĪ

    D. Pingree

    one of the many eminent astronomers employed by the Buyids in the 4th/10th century.

  • AḤMAD INALTIGIN

    C. E. Bosworth

    Turkish commander and rebel under the early Ghaznavid sultan Masʿūd I (421-32/1030-41), d. 426/1035.

  • AḤMAD KĀSĀNĪ

    J. Fletcher

    (1461-62—1542-43), known as MAḴDŪM-E AʿẒAM, Sufi, author of about thirty religious treatises, political activist, and founding ancestor of two important saintly lineages of Naqšbandī ḵᵛāǰagān.

  • AḤMAD KHATTŪ

    K. A. Nizami

    famous medieval Gujarati saint whose name is associated with the foundation of the city of Ahmadabad (b. Delhi, 737/1336; d. Sarkhej, 10 Šawwal 849/9 January 1446).

  • AḤMAD ḴOJESTĀNĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    military commander in 3rd/9th century Khorasan, one of several contenders for authority in the region after the collapse of Taherid rule had left a power vacuum, d. 268/882.

  • AḤMAD MAYMANDĪ

    Ḡ. Ḥ. Yūsofī

    (d. 424/1032), Ghaznavid vizier, statesman, and foster brother and schoolfellow of Sultan Maḥmūd of Ḡazna (r. 388-421/998-1030).

  • AḤMAD MŪSĀ

    P. P. Soucek

    8th/14th century painter. 

  • AḤMAD NEHĀVANDĪ

    D. Pingree

    2nd/8th century ʿAbbasid astronomer.  

  • AḤMAD QAVĀM

    Cross-Reference

    See QAVĀM-AL-SALṬANA, forthcoming online.

  • AḤMAD RODAWLAVĪ

    B. B. Lawrence

    early Muslim saint of the Ṣāberīya Češtīya (d. 837/1434.

  • AḤMAD ṢĀḠĀNĪ

    D. Pingree

    one of the many astronomers who worked for the Buyids in Baghdad in the 4th/10th century.

  • AḤMAD SERHENDĪ (1)

    Y. Friedmann

    , Shaikh (1564-1624), outstanding Mughal mystic and prolific writer on Sufi themes. 

  • AHMAD SERHENDI (2)

    Demetrio Giordani

    , Shaikh (1564-1624), Indian Sufi known as Mojadded-e alf-e Ṯāni, the Renovator of the second millennium (of Islam).

  • AḤMAD SHAH DORRĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See AFGHANISTAN X. POLITICAL HISTORY.

  • AḤMAD SHAH QĀJĀR

    M. J. Sheikh-ol-Islami

    (r. 1909-1925), the seventh and last ruler of the Qajar dynasty.

  • AḤMAD ŠĪRĀZĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    Ghaznavid official and vizier, d. ca. 434/1043.