Table of Contents

  • ĀDUR FARNBĀG

    M. Boyce

    an Ātaš Bahrām, that is, a Zoroastrian sacred fire of the highest grade, held to be one of the three great fires of ancient Iran, existing since creation.

  • ĀDUR GUŠNASP

    M. Boyce

    an Ātaš Bahrām, that is, a Zoroastrian sacred fire of the highest grade, held to be one of the three great fires of ancient Iran, existing since creation.

  • ĀDUR NARSEH

    A. Tafażżolī

    son of the Sasanian king Hormozd II (302-09 CE) and ruler for several months after his father.

  • ĀDUR-ANĀHĪD

    Ph. Gignoux

    3rd century CE  Sasanian “queen of queens.”  

  • ĀDUR-BŌZĒD

    A. Tafażżolī

    a Sasanian mobad of mobads (mowbedān mowbed) or high priest.

  • ĀDURBĀD ĒMĒDĀN

    A. Tafażżolī

    second author of the 9th century CE Zoroastrian compilation, Dēnkard.  

  • ĀDURBĀD Ī MAHRSPANDĀN

    A. Tafażżolī

    (“Ādurbād, son of Mahrspand”), Zoroastrian mobad of mobads (mowbedān mowbed) or high priest in the reign of the Sasanian king Šāpūr II (309-79 CE). 

  • ĀDURFARNBAG Ī FARROXZĀDĀN

    A. Tafażżolī

    first author of the 9th century CE Zoroastrian compilation, the Dēnkard

  • ĀDURFRĀZGIRD

    C. J. Brunner

    a brother of the Sasanian king Šāpūr II (309-79 CE) who is mentioned in the Syriac Acts of the Persian Martyrs.

  • AELIANUS, CLAUDIUS

    M. L. Chaumont

    a sophist of the first third of the 3rd century CE, from Praenest near Rome. His chief service to Iranian history was the preservation of some data from the works of Ctesias of Cnidus, the Greek physician of Artaxerxes II.

  • AĒŠMA

    J. P. Asmussen

    “wrath” in Younger Avestan, both metaphysically, as a distinct demon, and psychologically as the function and quality of that demon realized in man.

  • ĀFARĪN LĀHŪRĪ

    Z. Ahmad and W. Kirmani

    Punjabi Persian poet (b. ca. 1070/1660, d. 1154/1741).

  • ĀFARĪN-NĀMA

    J. Matīnī

    a poem in the motaqāreb meter by the 4th/10th century poet Abū Šakūr Balḵī.

  • AFḠĀNĪ, JAMĀL-AL-DĪN

    N. R. Keddie

    Outstanding ideologist and political activist of the late 19th century Muslim world, whose influence has continued strong in many Muslim countries (1254-1314/1838 or 39-97).

  • AFGHAN

    Ch. M. Kieffer

    (afḡān), in current political usage, any citizen of Afghanistan, whatever his ethnic, tribal, or religious affiliation. According to the 1977 constitution of the Republic of Afghanistan (1973-78), all Afghans are equal in rights and obligations before the law.

  • AFGHANI

    ʿA. Ḥabībī

    (afḡānī), the unit of currency in modern Afghanistan. 

  • AFGHANISTAN

    Multiple Authors

    (Islamic Republic of Afghanistan), landlocked country located in Central Asia and bordered by Iran to the west, Pakistan to the south and east, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan to the north, and China to the far northeast.

  • AFGHANISTAN i. Geography

    J. F. Shroder, Jr.

    Afghanistan has an extreme continental, arid climate which is characterized by desert, steppe, and highland temperature and precipitation regimes.

  • AFGHANISTAN ii. Flora

    M. Šafīq Yūnos

    Climate studies have shown the importance of precipitation and altitude as conditioning factors for the diversity of Afghanistan’s flora.

  • AFGHANISTAN iii. Fauna

    K. Habibi

    Thirty-two species of bats have been identified in Afghanistan. Their preferred habitat is in warmer sections of the country, where they may be found in abandoned ruins and caves of the Sīstān basin and the steppes. To the east, common bats (Myotis and Pipistrellus) have been observed in Lāgmān and the Kabul river valley.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.