Table of Contents

  • AKBAR I

    F. Lehmann

    (949-1014/1542-1605), third and greatest of the Mughal emperors of India. 

  • AKBAR KHAN ZAND

    J. R. Perry

    (d. 1196/1782), youngest son of Zakī Khan Zand.  

  • AKBAR-NĀMA

    R. M. Eaton

    Official history of the reign of the Mughal Emperor Akbar (964-1015/1556-1605), including a statistical gazetteer of sixteenth century North India, compiled by Abu’l-Fażl ʿAllāmī.

  • AḴBĀRĪ, MĪRZĀ MOḤAMMAD

    H. Algar

    A leading exponent of the Aḵbārī school of Islamic jurisprudence (feqh) and a violent polemicist against its opponents (1178-1233/1765-1818).

  • AḴBĀRĪYA

    E. Kohlberg

    A school in Imamite Shiʿism which maintains that the traditions (aḵbār) of the Imams are the main source of religious knowledge, in contrast to the Oṣūlī school.

  • AKES

    M. A. Dandamayev

    (Greek Akēs), a river in Central Asia, the modern Tejen or Harī-rūd (q.v.).

  • AḴESTĀN

    Ż. Sajjādī

    a late 12th-century ruler of the Šervānšāh dynasty, patron of the poet Ḵāqānī Šervānī.

  • AKHAVAN-E SALESS, MEHDI

    Saeid Rezvani

    Akhavan was born to an apothecary from Fahraj, and Maryam, a native of Khorasan.  He completed his elementary education in Mashad and entered the city's Technical School in 1941 to study welding;  he graduated in 1947. He was attracted to music in his youth, and, wary of his father’s displeasure, secretly learned to play the tār

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  • ʿAKKĀS-BĀŠĪ

    F. Gaffary

    photographer and pioneer motion-picture cameraman (1874-1915).

  • AḴLĀQ

    F. Rahman

    “ethics” (plural form of ḵoloq “inborn character, moral character, moral virtue”).

  • AḴLĀQ AL-AŠRĀF

    P. Sprachman

    (“The ethics of the aristocracy”), a satire composed in 740/1340-41, the most important work of ʿObayd Zākānī. 

  • AḴLĀQ-E JALĀLĪ

    G. M. Wickens

    an “ethical” treatise in Persian by Moḥammad b. Asʿad Jalāl-al-dīn Davāni (15th century).

  • AḴLĀQ-E MOḤSENĪ

    G. M. Wickens

    an ostensibly serious treatise on ethics by the prolific prose-stylist Kamāl-al-dīn Ḥosayn Wāʿeẓ Kāšefī, completed in 900/1494-95.

  • AḴLĀQ-E NĀṢERĪ

    G. M. Wickens

    by Ḵᵛāǰa Naṣīr-al-dīn Ṭūsī, the principal treatise in Persian on ethics, economics, and politics, first published according to the author in 633/1235.

  • AḴLĀṬ

    C. E. Bosworth, H. Crane

    a town and medieval Islamic fortress in eastern Anatolia.

  • AḴNŪḴ

    J. P. Asmussen

    Enoch, in Manichean texts. According to the Cologne Mani Codex, the outstanding Greek Mani-vita, the prophet grew up in a Judeo-Christian environment, in the sect founded by Elkhasai in Eastern Syria about 100 CE.

  • AKŌMAN

    J. Duchesne-Guillemin

    “Evil Mind,” a term personified as a demon in Zoroastrianism.

  • AḴORSĀLĀR

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀXWARR.

  • AḴSĪKAṮ

    C. E. Bosworth

    in early medieval times the capital of the then still Iranian province of Farḡāna.

  • AḴSĪKATĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See AṮĪR AḴSĪKATĪ.