Table of Contents

  • AḤSAN AL-TAQĀSĪM

    C. E. Bosworth

    a celebrated geographical work in Arabic written towards the end of the 4th/10th century.

  • AḤSAN AL-TAWĀRĪḴ

    ʿA. Navāʾī

    a chronological history of Iran and the neighboring countries written by Ḥasan Beg Rūmlū (b. 937/1530-31), a qūṛčī in the service of the Safavid Shah Ṭahmāsb.

  • AHU

    B. Schlerath

    two homonymous Avestan terms: (1) “Existence, life” in a range of religious phrases, (2) “Lord, overlord,” linked with ratu- “lord, judge.”

  • ĀHŪ

    B. P. O’Regan, H. Javadi

    Two species of gazelle occur in Iran, Gazella sub-gutturosa and G. dorcas.

  • AHUNWAR

    C. J. Brunner

    Middle Persian form of Avestan Ahuna Vairya, name of the most sacred of the Gathic prayers.

  • AHURA

    F. B. J. Kuiper

    designation of a type of deity inherited by Zoroastrianism from the prehistoric Indo-Iranian religion.

  • AHURA MAZDĀ

    M. Boyce

    the Avestan name with title of a great divinity of the Old Iranian religion, who was subsequently proclaimed by Zoroaster as God.

  • AHURA.ṰKAĒŠA

    M. Boyce

    an infrequent Avestan adjective meaning “following the Ahuric doctrine.”

  • AHURĀNĪ

    B. Schlerath

    feminine deity of the waters.

  • AHVĀZ

    C. E. Bosworth, X. De Planhol, J. Lerner

    a town of southwestern Iran.

  • AHVĀZĪ

    D. Pingree

    a 4th/10th century mathematician.

  • AHVĀZĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-ḤASAN AHWĀZĪ.

  • ĀĪN GOŠASP

    A. Tafażżolī

    a general of Hormazd IV (A.D. 579-590), sent by him to campaign against the rebellious general Bahrām Čūbīn.

  • ĀĪN-E AKBARĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See AKBAR-NĀMA.

  • ĀĪN-NĀMA

    A. Tafażżolī

    Arabic and New Persian form of Middle Persian ēwēn nāmag (“book of manners”), a general term for texts dealing with the exposition of manners, customs, skills, and arts and sciences.

  • ĀĪNA-KĀRĪ

    Eleanor G. Sims

    the practice of covering an architectural surface with a mosaic of mirror-glass.

  • ĀĪNA-YE ḠAYBNOMĀ

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    “The Revealing Mirror,” a fortnightly illustrated magazine which began publication in Tehran on 22 Jomādā I 1325/3 July 1907, edited by Sayyed ʿAbd-al-Raḥīm Kāšānī.

  • AIRYAMAN

    M. Boyce

    an ancient Iranian divinity and a yazata of the Zoroastrian pantheon, known in Manichean Middle Persian as Aryaman, in Pahlavi as Ērmān.

  • AIRYAMAN IŠYA

    C. J. Brunner

    Gathic Avestan prayer.

  • AIWYǠŊHANA

    M. F. Kanga

    Avestan term “wrapping round, girdle”: (1)  a strip from a date-palm leaf used to tie bundle of wires which constitute the barsom, (2) the kusti or sacred girdle.