Table of Contents


    C. M. Kieffer

    “descendants of Aḥmad” (sing. Aḥmadzay), a Paṧtō clan and tribal name.


    C. E. Bosworth

    (or BANU’L-AḤRĀR), in Arabic literally “the free ones,” a name applied by the Arabs at the time of the Islamic conquests to their Persian foes in Iraq and Iran.


    J. M. Rogers

    (806-96/1404-90), influential Naqšbandī of Transoxania.


    J. Duchesne-Guillemin

    "demon," God’s adversary in the Zoroastrian religion.


    B. Schlerath

    a learned transcription of the Avestan nominative Ašiš vaŋuhī, the goddess “Good Recompense.”


    D. M. MacEoin

    (1753-1826), Shiʿite ʿālem and philosopher and unintending originator of the Šayḵī school of Shiʿism in Iran and Iraq.


    C. E. Bosworth

    a celebrated geographical work in Arabic written towards the end of the 4th/10th century.


    ʿA. Navāʾī

    a chronological history of Iran and the neighboring countries written by Ḥasan Beg Rūmlū (b. 937/1530-31), a qūṛčī in the service of the Safavid Shah Ṭahmāsb.

  • AHU

    B. Schlerath

    two homonymous Avestan terms: (1) “Existence, life” in a range of religious phrases, (2) “Lord, overlord,” linked with ratu- “lord, judge.”

  • ĀHŪ

    B. P. O’Regan, H. Javadi

    Two species of gazelle occur in Iran, Gazella sub-gutturosa and G. dorcas.


    C. J. Brunner

    Middle Persian form of Avestan Ahuna Vairya, name of the most sacred of the Gathic prayers.


    F. B. J. Kuiper

    designation of a type of deity inherited by Zoroastrianism from the prehistoric Indo-Iranian religion.


    M. Boyce

    the Avestan name with title of a great divinity of the Old Iranian religion, who was subsequently proclaimed by Zoroaster as God.


    M. Boyce

    an infrequent Avestan adjective meaning “following the Ahuric doctrine.”


    B. Schlerath

    feminine deity of the waters.


    Multiple Authors

    city of southwestern Iran, located in the province of Ḵūzestān on the Kārun river.

  • AHVĀZ i. History

    C. E. Bosworth

    Ahvāz was apparently a flourishing town in pre-Islamic times. When the Arabs invaded Ḵūzestān in the later 630s, after the overrunning of Iraq, the general ʿOtba b. Ḡazwān destroyed the administrative half of the town of Ahvāz but preserved the commercial one.

  • AHVĀZ ii. The Modern City

    X. De Planhol

    The city has a grid plan adapted to the bends of the Kārūn river. Its heart is on the left bank of the Kārūn; a new quarter has been added on the right bank, where the railway station has been located. Besides the railway bridge an imposing road bridge links the two river banks.

  • AHVĀZ iii. Monuments

    J. Lerner

    Little of architectural interest appears to have survived from the medieval period, but a few structures in old Ahvāz and the new city are remnants of various historical and structural happenings.

  • AHVAZ iv. Population, 1956-2011

    Mohammad Hossein Nejatian

    This article deals with the following population characteristics of Ahvaz: population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

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