Table of Contents

  • AIRYAMAN

    M. Boyce

    an ancient Iranian divinity and a yazata of the Zoroastrian pantheon, known in Manichean Middle Persian as Aryaman, in Pahlavi as Ērmān.

  • AIRYAMAN IŠYA

    C. J. Brunner

    Gathic Avestan prayer.

  • AIWYǠŊHANA

    M. F. Kanga

    Avestan term “wrapping round, girdle”: (1)  a strip from a date-palm leaf used to tie bundle of wires which constitute the barsom, (2) the kusti or sacred girdle.

  • ʿAJABŠĪR

    ʿA. Kārang

    a town and baḵš in East Azerbaijan. 

  • ʿAJĀʾEB AL-DONYĀ

    L. P. Smirnova

    (“Wonders of the world” or “Wonderful things”), title of a Persian geography.

  • ʿAJĀʾEB AL-MAḴLŪQĀT

    C. E. Bosworth, I. Afshar

    (“The marvels of created things”), the name of a genre of classical Islamic literature and, in particular, of a work by Zakarīyāʾ b. Moḥammad Qazvīnī.

  • ʿAJĀʾEB AL-MAQDŪR

    U. Nashashibi

    (“The wondrous turns of fate in the vicissitudes of Tīmūr”), a history of the life and conquests of Tīmūr (1336-1405).

  • ʿAJAM

    C. E. Bosworth

    the name given in medieval Arabic literature to the non-Arabs of the Islamic empire, but applied especially to the Persians.

  • ʿAJAMĪ

    A. A. Kalantarian

    6th/12th century architect under the Eldigüzid atabegs, founder of the Nakhchevan architectural school.

  • ʿAJEZ, NARAYAN KAUL

    A. Mattoo

    Kashmiri Brahman of the 17th-18th centuries, a poet and compiler of Moḵtaṣar-e tārīḵ-e Kašmīr (1710-11).

  • ĀJĪ ČĀY

    E. Ehlers

    (Talḵa-rūd, “Bitter river”), a river some 200 km in length which flows into Lake Urumia. Due to the mountain origins of many of its source rivers and tributaries, the flow of the river shows marked seasonal variations.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ʿAJIB MĀZANDARĀNI

    M. Dabirsiāqi

    19th-century poet of the Qajar court.

  • ĀJĪL

    M. Kasheff

    an assortment of nuts, roasted chickpeas and seeds such as watermelon, pumpkin, and pear, and raisins and other dried fruits.

  • AJINA TEPE

    B. A. Litvinskiĭ

    the present-day name of the mound covering the ruins of an early medieval Buddhist monastery.

  • AJMER

    F. Lehmann

    (Aǰmēr, from Skt. Ajayameru), a city in Rajasthan, western India, of great strategic, commercial, and cultural importance from the 6th/12th to the 12th/18th centuries.

  • ĀJOR

    Cross-Reference

    See BRICK.

  • ĀJŪDĀN-BĀŠĪ

    Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī

    a Persian term translating the French military title adjudant-en-chef; aide and deputy to the army commander during the Qajar period.

  • ĀKAUFAČIYĀ

    R. Schmitt

    name of a tribe resident in the southeastern part of the Achaemenid empire.

  • AḴAWAYNĪ BOḴĀRĪ

    H. H. Biesterfeldt

    4th/10th century physician who worked in Bukhara.

  • AḴBĀR AL-AḴYĀR

    B. Lawrence

    The most reliable taḏkera of early Indian Sufis, by Shaikh ʿAbd-al-Ḥaqq Moḥaddeṯ Dehlavī (d. 1052/1642).