Table of Contents

  • AHVĀZĪ

    D. Pingree

    a 4th/10th century mathematician.

  • AHVĀZĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-ḤASAN AHWĀZĪ.

  • ĀĪN GOŠASP

    A. Tafażżolī

    a general of Hormazd IV (A.D. 579-590), sent by him to campaign against the rebellious general Bahrām Čūbīn.

  • ĀĪN-E AKBARĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See AKBAR-NĀMA.

  • ĀĪN-NĀMA

    A. Tafażżolī

    Arabic and New Persian form of Middle Persian ēwēn nāmag (“book of manners”), a general term for texts dealing with the exposition of manners, customs, skills, and arts and sciences.

  • ĀĪNA-KĀRĪ

    Eleanor G. Sims

    the practice of covering an architectural surface with a mosaic of mirror-glass.

  • ĀĪNA-YE ḠAYBNOMĀ

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    “The Revealing Mirror,” a fortnightly illustrated magazine which began publication in Tehran on 22 Jomādā I 1325/3 July 1907, edited by Sayyed ʿAbd-al-Raḥīm Kāšānī.

  • AIRYAMAN

    M. Boyce

    an ancient Iranian divinity and a yazata of the Zoroastrian pantheon, known in Manichean Middle Persian as Aryaman, in Pahlavi as Ērmān.

  • AIRYAMAN IŠYA

    C. J. Brunner

    Gathic Avestan prayer.

  • AIWYǠŊHANA

    M. F. Kanga

    Avestan term “wrapping round, girdle”: (1)  a strip from a date-palm leaf used to tie bundle of wires which constitute the barsom, (2) the kusti or sacred girdle.

  • ʿAJABŠĪR

    ʿA. Kārang

    a town and baḵš in East Azerbaijan. 

  • ʿAJĀʾEB AL-DONYĀ

    L. P. Smirnova

    (“Wonders of the world” or “Wonderful things”), title of a Persian geography.

  • ʿAJĀʾEB AL-MAḴLŪQĀT

    C. E. Bosworth, I. Afshar

    (“The marvels of created things”), the name of a genre of classical Islamic literature and, in particular, of a work by Zakarīyāʾ b. Moḥammad Qazvīnī.

  • ʿAJĀʾEB AL-MAQDŪR

    U. Nashashibi

    (“The wondrous turns of fate in the vicissitudes of Tīmūr”), a history of the life and conquests of Tīmūr (1336-1405).

  • ʿAJAM

    C. E. Bosworth

    the name given in medieval Arabic literature to the non-Arabs of the Islamic empire, but applied especially to the Persians.

  • ʿAJAMĪ

    A. A. Kalantarian

    6th/12th century architect under the Eldigüzid atabegs, founder of the Nakhchevan architectural school.

  • ʿAJEZ, NARAYAN KAUL

    A. Mattoo

    Kashmiri Brahman of the 17th-18th centuries, a poet and compiler of Moḵtaṣar-e tārīḵ-e Kašmīr (1710-11).

  • ĀJĪ ČĀY

    E. Ehlers

    (Talḵa-rūd, “Bitter river”), a river some 200 km in length which flows into Lake Urumia. Due to the mountain origins of many of its source rivers and tributaries, the flow of the river shows marked seasonal variations.

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  • ʿAJIB MĀZANDARĀNI

    M. Dabirsiāqi

    19th-century poet of the Qajar court.

  • ĀJĪL

    M. Kasheff

    an assortment of nuts, roasted chickpeas and seeds such as watermelon, pumpkin, and pear, and raisins and other dried fruits.