C~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

list of all the figure and plate images in the letter C entries

 

C ENTRIES: CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

 

online entry

caption text

ČĀDOR (2)

Figure 1. Women wearing cadors in Tehran during Revolution of I35S Š./1979. After Yād-nāma-ye awwalin sālgard-e enqelāb-e eslāmi-ye Iran 22 Bahman 1358, Washington, D.C., 1980. Detail of photograph by J. Rostami.

ČAḠĀNA

Figure 30. Musician depicted on a silver flask, possibly Sasanian. Muza-ye Irān-e Bāstān (Drawing by Ḥ-ʿA. Mallāḥ)

ČAḠĀNA

Figure 31. Dancer depicted on a silver flask, possibly Sasanian. Muza-ye Irān-e Bāstān (Drawing by Ḥ-ʿA. Mallāḥ)

ČAHĀRṬĀQ i. In Pre-Islamic Iran

Figure 32. Qaḷʿeh Dukhtar (Qaḷʿa-ye Doḵtar) at Fīrūzābād (čahārqāpū). Central hall of the early palace of Ardašīr I. From Huff, 1971, figs. 5 and 6.

ČAHĀRṬĀQ i.

Figure 33. Takht-i Nishin (Taḵt-e Nešīn) at Fīrūzābād (čahārṭāq). Probably the fire temple of Ardašīr I in the circular city of Ardašīr-Ḵorra. From Huff, 1972, figs. 7 and 8.

ČAHĀRṬĀQ i.

Figure 34. The so-called palace of Šāpūr I at Bīšāpūr. Čahārṭāq with surrounding ambulatory. Possibly a fire temple. From Ghirshman, 1956, plan II

ČAHĀRṬĀQ i.

Figure 35. The čahārqāpū at Qasr-i Shirin (Qaṣr-e Šīrīn). Probably fire temple of Ḵosrow II Parvēz. From Reuther, pp. 553f. figs. 158 and 159, with corrections.

ČAHĀRṬĀQ i.

Figure 36. Zarshir (Zaršīr). Late Sasanian or early medieval čahārṭāq southeast of Fasā in Fārs. Probably fire temple. From Huff, 1975a, p. 251, fig. 5b

ČAHĀRṬĀQ i.

Plate XXVI. Zarshir (Zaršīr) čahārṭāq. View from the east. From Huff, 1975a, p. 251, fig. 5a.

ČĀLDERĀN

Figure 1. The battle of Čalderān: wall painting by the 18th-century artist Ostād Ṣādeq Naqqāπ (Eser-e Ostad Sadiq Naqqash). It decorates one of the reception rooms in the Čehel Sotun Palace, Isfahan. (Printed by Bonyād-e Yādgarhā-ye Farhangi)

CALLIGRAPHY ii. Scripts

Figure 37. The execution of korsī in nastaʿlīq, šekasta, nasḵ, and ṯolṯ

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Figure 38. Comparative table of scripts: Kufic, moḥaq­qaq or rayḥān, ṯolṯ, tawqī, reqāʿ

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Figure 39. Comparative table of scripts: nasḵ, taʿlīq, nastaʿlīq, šekasta(-nastaʿlīq)

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Figure 40. Fragment illustrating 7 different scripts, by Mortażā ʿAbd-al-Rasūlī, 1367 Š./1988

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Figure 41. Decorative Kufic, Mosque of Nāʾīn: “Āman beʿllāh wa’l-yawm”

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Figure 42. Decorative Kufic by Faraj-Allāh Baḏl, Ḥaydarīya Mosque, Qazvīn, early 6th/12th century

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Figure 43. Simple bannāʾī Kufic: “Lā Allāha ellaʾllāh Moḥammad rasūl Allāh yā ʿAlī”

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Figure 44. Medium bannāʾī Kufic, style of Moḥammad Moṣaddeqzāda, by Aḥmad Fażāʾelī: “Enn al-ṣalāt tanhā ʿan al-faḥšāʾ wa’l-monkar”

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Figure 45. Maʿqelī (bannāʾī) Kufic: 1. “Šokr-e to ke pīr-e dayr o tarsā ke šavad”; 2. “Tā āḵer-e kār z’ātaš būta-ye ʿešq”

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Figure 46. Nasḵ, individual letters and their measurements in points, zeroes, and lines

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Figure 47. Ṯolṯ, Size of alphabet with points, zeros, and lines

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Figure 48. Nastaʿlīq, 1. elements: movements and round strokes; 2. elements: proportion, frame, and height of letters

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Figure 49. Nastaʿlīq, size of letters by Amīr-al-Kottāb ʿAbd-al-Ḥamīd Malek-al-kalāmī “Šarqī,” Tarāz-e neveštan, Tehran, 1318 Š./1939

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Figure 50. Šekasta-nastaʿlīq, alphabet, classification of letters, and their sizes with points and lines

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Figure 51. Šekasta-nastaʿlīq, two-letter combinations

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Figure 52. Šekasta-nastaʿlīq, three-letter combinations

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Figure 53. Šekasta-nastaʿlīq, three- and four-letter combinations

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XXVII. Sīāhmašq by Moḥammad Khan Ṣabā, d. 1301/1883-84

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XXVIII. Persian-style Kufic, Koran, library of Āstān-e Qods-e Rażawī, Mašhad

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XXIX. Persian-style Kufic, Koran, by ʿOṯmān b. Ḥosayn Warrāq, 466/1073-74

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XXX. Persian-style Kufic, Koran, 5th/11th century

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XXXI. Persian-style Kufic, Persia, 5th/11th century, Museum für Islamische Kunst, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XXXII. Persian-style Kufic, ms. of Abū Manṣūr Heravī’s al-­Abnīa ʿan ḥaqāʾeq al-adwīa written by Asadī Ṭūsī, dated 447/1055-56

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XXXIII. Persian-style Kufic, ms. of Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī’s Taḥdīd nehāyat al-amāken le-taṣḥīḥ masāfāt al-masāken, dated 416/1025, probably author's handwriting; Fatih library, Istanbul

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XXXIV. Persian-style Kufic, ms. of Moḥammed b. ʿOmar Rādūyānī’s Tarjomān al-balāḡa, dated 507/1113-14, copied by Abu’l-Hayjā Deylamsopār

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XXXV. Persian-style Kufic, Tafsīr-e Qorʾān-e Pāk, ca. 450/ca. 1060

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XXXVI. Persian-style Kufic, Manāfeʿ al-ḥayawān, written at Marāgā in 690/1291, 697/1297-98, or 699/1299-1300

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XXXVII. Maʿqelī (Bannāʾī) Kufic, from an inscription in the Jāmeʿ Mosque, Isfahan

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XXXVIII. Persian nasḵ, 7th/13th century

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XXXIX. Nasḵ, from Saʿdī’s Golestān, written by Yāqūt Mostaʿṣemī, 668/1269-70

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XL. Nasḵ, Koran by Aḥmad Neyrīzī, 12th/18th century

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XLI. Moḥaqqaq, Koran by Bāysonḡor, d. 837/1433-34

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XLII. Moḥaqqaq, Koran, about 9th/15th century; library of Āstān-e Qods-e Rażawī, Mašhad

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XLIII. Rayḥān in the style of Bāysonḡor, 9th/15th century

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XLIV. Rayḥān, by Majd-al-Dīn Naṣīrī Amīnī

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XLV. Ṯolṯ, combinations of letters; Mūza-ye Honarhā-ye Tazyīnī/Museum of Decorative Arts, Tehran

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XLVI. Ṯolṯ, by Moṣtafā Rāqem, 1362/1943, Turkey

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XLVII. Ṯolṯ with translation in nastaʿlīq, by Mortażā ʿAbd-al­-Rasūlī, kalemāt-e qeṣār, Tehran, 1355 Š./1976, p. 27

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XLVIII. Ṯolṯ inscriptional style dated 1347/1928-29

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate XLIX. Ṯolṯ (“experimental,” similar to ṭoḡrā), by Ḥāmed al-­Āmedī, circular Besmellāh and Sura I

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate L. Ṯolṯ (lines 1-3) and tawqīʿ (lines 4-5), by Ebn Bawwāb ʿAlī b. Halāl, d. 413/1022-23; Evkaf Museum, Istanbul

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LI. Tawqīʿ, by ʿAbd-Allāh Amāsī, between 840/1436-37 and 926/1519-20

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LII. Ṯolṯ (line 1) and tawqīʿ (lines 2-3), by Ḥāfeẓ ʿOṯmān, 1093/1682

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LIII. Reqāʿ, from Eḥyā al-rosūm, 1334/1915-16, by Majd-al­-Dīn Naṣīrī Amīnī

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LIV. Ḡobār, by Ḥabīb-Allāh Fażāʾelī, 1349 Š./1970

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LV. Taʿlīq. Dīvānī-e jalī (line 1), by Hāšem-Moḥammad Ḵaṭṭāt, and dīvānī-e ḵafī (line 2), by Sayyed Ebrāhīm

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LVI. Šekasta-taʿlīq from Iran; Topkapı Sarayı library (no. 2138)

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LVII. Šekasta-taʿlīq, by Moḥammad-ʿAlī ʿAṭṭār Heravī, a contemporary Afghan calligrapher

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LVIII. Šekasta-taʿlīq, by Mortażā Abd-al-Rasūlī, Kalemāt-e qeṣār, Tehran, 1355 Š./1976

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LIX. Šekasta-taʿlīq, from the mausoleum of ʿOmar Ḵayyām, Nīšāpūr, by Mortażā ʿAbd-al-Rasūlī

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LX. Nastaʿlīq, “western” style, by ʿAbd-al-Karīm Ḵᵛārazmī, 9th-10th/15th-16th centuries, Leningrad

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LXI. Nastaʿlīq, “eastern” style, by Ẓahīr-al-Dīn Aẓhar Tabrīzī, 9th/15th century, Leningrad

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LXII. Nastaʿlīq, “eastern” style, by Solṭān-ʿAlī Mašhadī, 895/1489-90

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LXIII. Nastaʿlīq, by Mīr ʿEmād Ḥasanī Sayfī, d. 1024/1615; Ketāb-ḵāna-ye Mellī, Tehran

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LXIV. Šekasta-nastaʿlīq, by Mortażāqolī Khan Šāmlū, dated 1059/1649 and 1078/1667

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LXV. Šekasta-nastaʿlīq, by Darvīš ʿAbd-al-Majīd Ṭālaqānī, 1181/1767-68

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LXVI. Šekasta-nastaʿlīq taḥrīrī, Abu’l-Qāsem Qāʾemmaqām Farāhānī, d. 1251/1835-36

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LXVII. Ṭoḡrā, by Ḥāmed Āmedī, contemporary Turkish cal­ligrapher

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LXVIII. Ṭoḡrā, by Moḥammad Ṣabrī Halālī ʿErāqī, 1360/1941

CALLIGRAPHY ii.

Plate LXIX. Ṭoḡrā, by Mortażā ʿAbd-al-Rasūlī, 1367 Š./1988

CALLIGRAPHY iv. Inscriptions

Plate LXX. Ṯolṯ, inscription above the meḥrāb in mosque of Shaikh Loṭf-Allāh, Isfahan, dated 1028/1618

CALLIGRAPHY vii. Calligraphy outside Persia

Plate LXXI. Nastaʿlīq, by ʿAzīz-al-Dīn Wakīlī, contemporary Afghan calligrapher, dated 1354 Š./1975

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate LXXII. Nastaʿlīq, by ʿAzīz-al-Dīn Wakīlī, contemporary Afghan calligrapher

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate LXXIII. Nastaʿlīq, by ʿAzīz-al-Dīn Wakīlī, Kabul, 1347 Š./1968

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate LXXIV. “Eastern” nastaʿlīq, by Moḥammad-ʿAlī ʿAṭṭār Heravī, contemporary Afghan calligrapher

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate LXXV. Nasḵ, by ʿAzīz-al-Dīn Wakīlī

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate LXXVI. Nasḵ, by ʿAzīz-al-Dīn Wakīlī

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate LXXVII. Nasḵ, by Moḥammad-ʿAlī ʿAṭṭār Heravī

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate LXXVIII. Šekasta, by ʿAzīz-al-Dīn Wakīlī, Qaḷʿa-ye Dīvānbīgī, Kabul, 1344 Š./1965

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate LXXIX. Ṯolṯ and dīvānī, by ʿAzīz-al-Dīn Wakīlī

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate LXXX. Ṯolṯ and nastaʿlīq, by ʿAzīz-al-Dīn Wakīlī, Qaḷʿa-ye Dīvānbīgī, Kabul, 1354 Š./1975

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate LXXXI. Ṭoḡra and dīvānī, by ʿAzīz-al-Dīn Wakīlī

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate LXXXII. Nastaʿlīq, from the Bābor-nāma, by ʿAlī Kateb, 937/1530-31, India

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate LXXXIII. Nastaʿlīq, from Moraqqaʿ-e golšan, dated 1017/1608-09, by Moḥammad-Ḥosayn Zarīnqalam Kašmīrī, d. 1020/1611-12; Golestān Palace library

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate LXXXIV. Nastaʿlīq, from Moraqqaʿ-e golšan, by Moḥammad-Ḥosayn Zarīnqalam Kašmīrī; Golestān Palace library

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate LXXXV. Nastaʿlīq, from Moraqqaʿ-e golšan, by ʿAbd-al-Raḥīm ʿAnbarīnqalam, 11th/17th century; Golestān Palace library

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate LXXXVI. Nastaʿlīq, by Dārā Šokūh, d. 1069/1658-59; Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Islamisches Museum

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate LXXXVII. Nastaʿlīq, Mīr Moḥammad-Ḥosayn ʿAṭā Khan, Moraṣṣaʿ-Raqam Khan, 11th/17th century; Staatliche Museen zu. Berlin, Islamisches Museum

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate LXXXIX. Taʿlīq, by Mīr Ḵalīl-Allāh Haftqalamī, India, dated 1152/1739-40; Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Islamisches Museum

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate XC. Nastaʿlīq, by Moḥammad Asʿad Yasārī, Turkish cal­ligrapher, 12th/18th century; Topkapı Sarayı library

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate XCI. Nastaʿlīq, from Moraqqaʿ-e golšan, by Ẓahīr-al-Dīn Aẓhar Tabrīzī Kāteb, 9th/15th century; Golestān Palace library

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate XCII. Nastaʿlīq, from Moraqqaʿ-e golšan, by Faqīr-ʿAlī (Mīr ʿAlī Heravī), dated 938/1531-32; Golestān Palace library

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate XCIII. Nastaʿlīq, by Faqīr-ʿAlī (Mīr ʿAlī Heravī), d. 951/1544-­45; private collection

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate XCIV. Nastaʿlīq, by Mīr ʿAlī Heravī, Bukhara, ink and opaque watercolor on paper, Harvard University Art Museums

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate XCV. Ṯolṯ, Samarkand, Šāhzanda, mosque and tomb of Tūmān Āḡā, early 15th century

CALLIGRAPHY vii.

Plate XCVI. Ṯolṯ, Samarkand, Bībī Khanom mosque, main entrance, 1399-1404

CALLISTHENES

Figure 1. E. A. W. Budge, The History of Alexander the Great, vol. I, Cambridge, 1890.

CAMA, KHARSHEDJI RUSTAMH

Figure 1. K.R. Cama (frontispiece, K. R. Cama Oriental Institute Golden Jubilee Volume, Bombay, 1969)

CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF IRAN

Figure 1. Jacket of Cambridge History of Iran, Volume I.

CAMBYSENE

Figure 54. Cambysene.

CAMEL vi. Šotor-Qorbānī

Plate XCVII. A jahāz.

CAMEL vi.

Figure 1. Camels grazing on a ridge south of Kabul, Afghanistan (1974; photograph C. J. Brunner).

CAMEL vi.

Figure 2. Camels at rest, Mazār-e Šarif, Afghanistan (1974; photograph C. J. Brunner).

CAMEL vi.

Figure 3. Camel train on the road, Balḵ, Afghanistan (1974; photograph C. J. Brunner).

CANDLESTICKS

Plate XCVIII. Candlestick, brass inlaid with copper and silver, Khora­san, late 6th/12th-early 7th/13th century, Freer Gallery of Art, no. 51.17 (Courtesy of the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.).

CANDLESTICKS

Plate XCIX. Candlestick, brass inlaid with gold and silver, Fārs, mid-8th/14th century, al-Ḥomayżī Collection, Kuwait.

CANDLESTICKS

Plate C. The Bier of Eskandar, Šāh-nāma, Tabrīz, ca. 730-36/1330-36, Freer Gallery of Art, no. 38.3 (Courtesy of the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.).

CANDLESTICKS

Plate CI. Candlestick, brass, Khorasan, late 9th/15th century. Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo, no. 15201.

CANDLESTICKS

Plate CII. Couple entertained in a Pavilion, Haft manẓar of Hātefī, Bukhara, dated 944/1538, Freer Gallery of Art, no. 56.14, fol. 74r (Courtesy of the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.).

ČANG

Figure 55. Fragment of an unbaked clay sealing with the impression of a cylinder seal from Čoḡā Mīš; Early Protoliterate (Protoliterate b), ca. 3400 b.c.; The Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, No. Ch.MIII-913a. (Courtesy of The Oriental Institute)

ČANG

Figure 56. Čang from Ketāb al-adwār by Ṣafī-al-Dīn ʿAbd-al-Moʾmen Ormawī (d. 693/1293-94). National Library of Cairo (drawing by H.-ʿA. Mallāḥ, from Mallāḥ, 1350, p. 96).

CAPITALS

Figure 57. Capitals, Achaemenid period.

CAPITALS

Figure 58. Capitals, Parthian-Sasanian periods.

CAPITALS

Figure 59. Capitals, medieval mosques.

CAPITALS

Figure 60. Capitals showing European influence, 13th/19th century, Tehran.

CARACAL

Figure 1. Caracal, By permission of E. Firouz (The Complete Fauna of Iran, London and New York, 2005, p. 62

CAPUCHINS IN PERSIA

Figure 1. Gabriel de Chinon. Relations Nouvelles du Levant; ou Traite's de la Religion, du Gouvernment, & des Coûtumes des Perses, des Armeniens, & des Gaures, Lyon 1671.

CARAVANSARY

Figure 61. Plan of large, courtyard caravansaries. 

CARAVANSARY

Figure 62. Plans and sections of mountain  caravansaries. 

CARAVANSARY

Figure 63. Plans and sections of three pavilion caravansaries. 

ČARḴ-E ČĀH

PLATE CIII. Example of a well wheel.

ČARḴ-E ČĀH

PLATE CIV. Example of a well wheel.

CARMELITES IN PERSIA

Figure 1. Ange de Saint-Joseph, Gazophylacium linguae Persarum triplici linguarum clavi, Italice, Latine, Gallice, nec non specialibus praeceptis ejusdem linguae reseratum, Amsterdam, 1684.

CARPETS iii. Knotted-pile carpets: Techniques and structures

Figure 64. Foundation: a. warps; b. wefts

CARPETS iii.

Figure 65. Knots: a. symmetrical knots; b. asymmetrical knots, open right; c. asymmetrical knots, open left

CARPETS iii.

Figure 66. Loom: a. warp; b. shed stick; c. heddle rod; d. weft

CARPETS iii.

Figure 67. Side finishes: a. overcasting; b: selvedges

CARPETS iv. Knotted-pile carpets: Designs, motifs, and patterns

Figure 68. Central-medallion format a. Field; b. Main border stripe; c. Minor border stripes; d. Medallion; e. Guards

CARPETS iv.

Figure 69. Cartouche.

CARPETS iv.

Figure 70. Arabesque.

CARPETS iv.

Figure 72. Palmette.

CARPETS iv.

Figure 73. Herātī pattern unit.

CARPETS iv.

Figure 74. S-stem.

CARPETS v. Flat-woven carpets: Techniques and structures

Figure 75. Balanced plain weave.

CARPETS v.

Figure 76. Loosely packed weft-faced plain weave.

CARPETS v.

Figure 77. Tightly packed warp-faced plain weave.

CARPETS v.

Figure 78. Loosely packed weft-faced plain weave with discontinuous weft, known as slit-tapestry weave.

CARPETS v.

Figure 79. Dovetailing (shared warp).

CARPETS v.

Figure 80. Single-interlocking wefts.

CARPETS v.

Figure 81. Double-interlocking wefts (front of carpet).

CARPETS v.

Figure 82. Double-interlocking wefts (back of carpet).

CARPETS v.

Figure 83. Twill weave in a ratio of 2:2.

CARPETS v.

Figure 84. The warp-float face of a float weave with weft passes of 3:1 and 1:1 in alternating rows, with the span under three warps in each successive row of 3:1 offset one warp.

CARPETS v.

Figure 85. Face of extra-weft float brocading with spans of different lengths on balanced plain-weave ground.

CARPETS v.

Figure 86. Back of weaving in Figure 85, showing reverse pattern created by extra wefts, which float on the back when not used on the front.

CARPETS v.

Figure 87. Two-color complementary-weft compound weave forming lozenge motifs.

CARPETS v.

Figure 88. Plain two-strand, two-color weft twining on balanced plain-weave ground.

CARPETS v.

Figure 89. Countered two-strand, two-color weft twining on balanced plain-weave ground.

CARPETS v.

Figure 90. Plain extra-weft wrapping (plain sumak) with ground weft.

CARPETS v.

Figure 91. Countered extra-weft wrapping (countered sumak), with ground weft.

CARPETS v.

Figure 92. Reverse extra-weft wrapping (reverse sumak), with ground weft.

CARPETS v.

Figure 93. Diagonal supplementary (“extra”) weft wrapping on plain weave with discontinuous wefts.

CARPETS v.

Figure 94. Structure of zīlū carpet, showing both faces. For demonstration purposes the diagram depicts the structure of a fabric with a checked pattern.

CARPETS v.

Figure 95. Fringe produced by knotting groups of warps together.

CARPETS v.

Figure 96. Fringe produced by knotting alternate groups of warps together in successive rows to create a net or web.

CARPETS v.

Figure 97. Fringe produced by interlooping warps.

CARPETS v.

Figure 98. Fringe produced by braiding groups of warps in flat vertical plaits.

CARPETS v.

Figure 99. Fringe produced by plaiting warps diagonally.

CARPETS v.

Figure 100. Fringe produced by twisting pairs of warps, and leaving ends uncut.

CARPETS v.

Figure 101. Fringe produced by twisting groups of warps together.

CARPETS vi. Pre-Islamic Carpets

Plate CV. Drawing of the Pazyryk Carpet.

CARPETS vii. Islamic Persia and the Mongols

Plate CVI. “Lion Carpet”—reconstruction drawing by Steven Sechovec.

CARPETS viii. The Il-khanid and Timurid Periods

PLATE CVII. “Laylī and Majnūn at School,” detail, from a copy of Neẓāmī Ganjaviʾs Ḵamsa dated 866/1461, from Baghdad or western Persia (Topkapı Sarayı , Istanbul, Hazine 761, fol. 106r).

CARPETS ix. Safavid Period

Plate CX. Emperor’s carpet (one of a pair).

CARPETS ix.

Plate CVIII. Medallion carpet

CARPETS ix.

Plate CIX. Ardabīl carpet

CARPETS ix.

Plate CXI. Polonaise carpet

CARPETS ix.

Plate CXII. Polonaise carpet, detail

CARPETS x. Afsharid and Zand Periods

Plate CXIII. Millefiori carpet attributed to Persia in the second half of the 12th/18th century.

CARPETS xi. Qajar Period

Plate CXIV. Cartoon for one-quarter of a medallion-and-corner carpet commissioned by Emil Alpiger from the Farāhān, (šahrestān of) Solṭānābād

CARPETS xi.

Plate CXV. Cartoon for one-quarter of a medallion-and-corner carpet produced for Ziegler’s before 1313/1896

CARPETS xiv. Tribal Carpets

Figure 102. Examples of Yomūt weaving.

CARPETS xiv. Tribal Carpets

Figure 103. Yomūt woven objects.

CARPETS xv. Caucasian Carpets

Figure 1. Map of the Caucasus

CARPETS xv.

Plate I. Kazach/Borchaly carpet

CARPETS xv.

Plate II. Kuba/Shirvan carpet

CARPETS xv.

Plate III. Ganja/Karabakh carpet

CARPETS xvi. Central Asian Carpets

Plate IV. Tekke Turkman main carpet, early 13th/19th century; wool pile, wool foundation; 128

CARPETS xvi.

Plate V. Tekke Turkman torba, early 13th/19th century; wool pile, wool foundation, 15

CARPETS xvi.

Plate VI. Salor Turkman kejebe, late 12th/18th century. The Textile Museum, Washington, D.C., no. 1979.35.6

CARPETS xvi.

Plate VII. Ersari Turkman prayer rug, 13th/19th century. The Textile Museum, Washington, D.C., no. 1968.18.2

CARPETS xvi.

Plate VIII. Khotan commercial carpet, 13th/19th century. The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, no. 1474-1883

CARTER ADMINISTRATION

Figure 1. Official White House portrait of President Jimmy Carter.

ČAŠMA

Figure 2. Types of wells and springs (modified after Ward, 1967)

CASPIAN SEAL

Figure 1. Caspian Seal (Phoca caspica)

CASTLES

Figure 3. Pre-Islamic fortifications

CASTLES

Figure 4. Fortifications from the Islamic period

CAT ii. Persian cat

Figure 1. Photograph of a Persian cat

CAUCASUS i. Physical Geography, Population, and Economy

Figure 5. Relief map of the Caucasus (after Kavkaz 1966)

CAUCASUS i.

Figure 6. Map of the Caucasus

ČĀY

Figure 7. Areas of tea cultivation in Persia

ČEHEL SOTŪN, ISFAHAN

Figure 8. Plan of the Čehel Sotūn (after Ferrante, fig. 1)

ČEHEL SOTŪN, ISFAHAN

Plate IX. View of the tālār from the east (after Dieulafoy, p. 247)

ČEHEL SOTŪN, ISFAHAN

Plate X. Detail of Shah Ṭahmāsb receiving Homāyūn, from the banquet hall (after Beny, pl. 241)

ČEHEL SOTŪN, KABUL

Plate XI. Čehel Sotūn, Kabul (photo L. Dupree)

ČENĀR

Figure 10. The plane at Tajrīš (after Dieulafoy, facing p. 158).

CENSUS ii. In Afghanistan

Figure 11. Reliability of the First National Demographic Census of Afghanistan (1358 Š./1979), by District. 1 = fully enumerated district; 2 = partly enumerated district; 3 = district not enumerated. Source: Author’s inquiry in Kabul, 1360 Š./1981

CENSUS ii. In Afghanistan

Figure 12. Geographical Distribution of the Settled Population in Afghanistan, According to the 1358 Š./1979 Census. Source: CSO, Natāyej, pp. 148 ff.

CENTRAL DIALECTS

Figure 13. The extent of the area where Central dialects are spoken.

CENTRAL DIALECTS

Figure 14. Central dialects.

CERAMICS i. The Neolithic Period through the Bronze Age in Northeastern and North-central Persia

Figure 15. Neolithic Caspian Djeitun ware from the Hotu cave (lower left) and Tureng Tepe (lower center and right); Chalcolithic Caspian Cheshmeh Ali (or Ismailabad) ware from the Hotu cave (third row right and fourth row), Tureng Tepe (third row center), and Shah Tepe (second row right, third row left); Late Chalcolithic black-on-red ware from Shah Tepe (first row and second row left).

CERAMICS i.

Figure 16. Painted pottery from Neolithic Sang-i Chakhmaq (fifth row and fourth row right); Chalcolithic Tepe Hissar = Schmidt periods IA (fourth row left and center), IB (second row right and third row), and IC (second row left); Bronze Age Tepe Hissar = Hissar II (first row; Dyson and Howard)

CERAMICS i.

Figure 17. Early Bronze Age = Hissar II (fourth row) and Middle Bronze Age = Hissar III (first through third rows) from Tepe Hissar.

CERAMICS ii. The Neolithic Period in Northwestern Persia

Figure 18. Hajji Firuz pottery.

CERAMICS iii. The Neolithic Period in Central and Western Persia

Figure 19. Painted pottery from Tepe Guran.  a. Bowl painted in fugitive red ocher, ca. 6500 B.C.E. b-d. Characteristic Zagros Neolithic bowls, painted in red on a buff slip, ca. 6500-5500 B.C.E.

CERAMICS iv. The Chalcolithic Period in the Zagros Highlands

Figure 20. Decorated pottery wares from the Mahidasht (Md) and Kangavar (Kg) Valleys: Zagros Early Chalcolithic and Middle Chalcolithic I-II. 1: Shahnabad ware (Kg). 2-3: J ware (Md). 4-5: Dalma monochrome (Kg). 6-7: Dalma impressed (Kg). 8: Dalma-era black-on-buff ware (Kg). 9: Dalma untempered painted ware (Kg). 10: Seh Gabi painted ware (Kg). 11: Black-on-buff ware (Md; M.C. II). 12-13: Red, white, and black ware (Md).

CERAMICS iv.

Figure 21. Zagros Middle Chalcolithic III and Late Chalcolithic pottery wares from the Kangavar valley. 1-3: Period VII buff wares. 4: Period VII red-slipped ware. 5: Period VII unsmoothed coarse ware. 6: Period VII “5” ware. 7-9 and 14: Period VI painted ware. 10-13 and 15: Period VI buff wares.

CERAMICS v. The Chalcolithic Period in Southern Persia

Figure 22. Major ceramic types of southern Persia in the Chalcolithic period, 5000-3300 B.C.E. (from Beale, 1986, reprinted with permission from the Peabody Museum, Harvard University).

CERAMICS vi. Uruk, Proto-Elamite, and Early Bronze Age in Southern Persia

Figure 23. Lapui Ware (P-T).—1. KRB ceramic production site 6055-8426, fine red ware bowl.—2. KRB ceramic production site 6055-8426, fine red ware bowl.—3. KRB ceramic production site 6055-8426, fine red ware pot.—4. KRB site 5951-9171, common red ware beaker.—5. KRB site 5959-9157, common red ware bowl.

CERAMICS vi.

Figure 24. Banesh Ware from Tal-e Malyan.

CERAMICS vi.

Figure 25. Kaftari Ware from Tal-e Malyan.

CERAMICS vii. The Bronze Age in Northwestern, Western, and Southwestern Persia

Figure 26. Bronze Age ceramics of central western Persia.

CERAMICS vii.

Figure 27. Bronze Age pottery of central western and northwestern Persia

CERAMICS viii. The Early Bronze Age in Southwestern and Southern Persia

Figure 28. The Susa sequence, Shimashki phase, ca. 2100-1900 B.C.E. Drawing T. Seymour.

CERAMICS viii.

Figure 29. The Susa sequence, Sukkalmah phase, ca. 1900-1600/1500 B.C.E. Drawing T. Seymour.

CERAMICS viii.

Figure 30. The Susa sequence, Middle Elamite I (transitional) phase, ca. 1600/1500-1300 B.C.E. Drawing T. Seymour.

CERAMICS viii.

Figure 31. The Susa sequence, Middle Elamite II-III phase, ca. 1300-1000 B.C.E. Drawing T. Seymour.

CERAMICS viii.

Figure 32. Ceramics from Fars, Middle Elamite II-III phase, ca. 1300-1000 B.C.E. Drawing T. Seymour.

CERAMICS viii.

Figure 33. Qaleh ware from Pars, Middle Elamite II-III phase, ca. 1300-1000 B.C.E. Drawing T. Seymour.

CERAMICS viii.

Figure 34. Shogha ware from Fārs, late 2nd millennium B.C.E. Drawing T. Seymour.

CERAMICS viii.

Figure 35. Teimuran ware from Fārs, late 2nd millennium B.C.E. Drawing T. Seymour.

CERAMICS xiv. The Islamic Period, 11th-15th centuries

Plate XII. Sgraffiato bowl, diam. 17.8 cm, ht. 8.3 cm. Persia, 5- 6th/11-12th century. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Cora Timken Burnett Collection of Persian Miniatures and other Persian Art Objects, Bequest of Cora Timken Burnett, 1956, no. 57.51.17

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XIII. Carved-slipware bowl (“Guebri ware”), diam. 16.2 cm, ht. 7.2 cm. Garrūs, near Bījār, Persia. The Cleveland Museum of Art. Gift from J. H. Wade, 25.1182

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XIV. Glazed sgraffiato bowl, diam. 25.5 cm, ht. 13.8 cm. Āmol district, Mūza-ye Īrān-e Bāstān, Tehran, no. 3056

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XV. Glazed sgraffiato bowl, “Āḡkand” district, diam. 22.6 cm, ht.11.3 cm. Persia, 6-7th/12-13th century. Cour tesy of the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., no. 25.11

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XVI. Unglazed ewer decorated in a combination of incised, carved, and molded techniques, Persia, probably 7th/13th century. Present location unknown

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XVII. Footed bowl with monochrome glaze over carved relief decoration, diam. 15.2 cm, ht. 11.4 cm. Persia, 7th/13th century? The Brooklyn Museum, no. EE/FN 125

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XVIII. Jar with turquoise glaze over molded relief decoration, diam. 50.0 cm, ht. 79.7 cm. Persia, 6-7th/12-13th century. The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Mo. (Nelson Fund), 32-1

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XIX. Model of house courtyard containing figures, with turquoise glaze, 18 x 11.4 x 7 cm. Persia, 7th/13th century. The Metropolitan Museum of Act, New York, Rogers Fund, 1967, no. 67.117

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XX. Slip-carved ewer, diam. 8.9 cm, ht. 13.3 cm. Persia, 7th/13th century. The Cleveland Museum of Art, Edward L. Whittemore Fund, 47.495

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXI. Underglaze-painted howl, diam. 20.7 cm, ht. 9.4 cm. Persia, 7th/13th century. Mūza-ye Īrān-e Bāstān, Tehran, no. 4762

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXII. Reticulated ewer with underglaze-painted decora tion, ht. 19.2 cm, Kāšān, 612/1215. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Fletcher Fund, 1932, no. 32.52.1

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXIII. Luster-painted bowl, diam. 45.6 cm, ht. 10 cm. Probably Kāšān, early 7th/13th century. Mūza-ye Īrān-e Bāstān, Tehran, no. 3339

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXIV. Interior, luster-painted bowl, diam. 49.7 cm, probably Kāšān, first half 7th/13th century. Gift of Mrs. J. Montgomery Sears in memory of her son J. M. Sears. Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, no. 09.103

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXV. Exterior, luster-painted bowl shown in plate xxiv. Cour tesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, no. 09.103

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXVI. Mīnāʾī bowl signed by Abu’l-Zayd al-Kāšānī, diam. 21.5 cm, ht. 9 cm, probably Kāšān, 4 Moḥarram 583/26 March 1186. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Fletcher Fund, 1964, no. 64.178.1

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXVII. Detail of tile dodo with border frieze, ḥaram of Emām Reżā, Mašhad. Border frieze, w. ca 45 cm, Persia, 7th/13th century.

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXVIII. “Lajvardina” bowl, Persia, 8th/14th century. Victoria and Albert Museum, no. C.52-1955

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXIX. Luster-painted tile with molded relief, Persia, 8th/14th century. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Rogers Fund, 1912, no. 12.49.4

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXX. Underglaze-painted bowl, diam. 22.2 cm, ht. 9.2 cm. Persia, 8th/14th century. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Mr. and Mrs. Isaac D. Fletcher Collection, Bequest of Isaac D. Fletcher, 1917, no. 17.120.61

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXXI. “Sultanabad” bowl, diam. 35 cm, ht. 2.6 cm. Persia, 8th/14th century. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Mr. and Mrs. Isaac D. Fletcher Collection, Bequest of Isaac D. Fletcher, 1917, no. 17.120.99

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXXII. Bowl in monochrome relief ware, diam. 16.4 cm, ht. 7.2 cm. Persia, 8th/14th century. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Purchase, Friends of the Islamic Dept. Fund, 1972, no. 1972.124

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXXIII. Imitation celadon bowl, diam. 25.7 cm, ht. 12.8 cm. Persia, 8th/14th century. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Gift of Mrs. Horace Havemeyer in memory of her husband, Horace Havemeyer, 1959, no. 59.60.

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXXIV. Meḥrāb, ht. 328 cm, w. 212 cm., signed Yūsuf b. ʿAlī b. Moḥammad b. Abī Ṭāher. From the emāmzāda of ʿAlī .b. Jaʿfar, Qom, 734/1334. Mūza-ye Īrān-e Bāstān, Tehran, no. 3270

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXXV. Blue-and-white bowl in “Persian” style, Persia, ca. mid- 8th/14th century. From the collection of the late Henry Scipio Reitlinger (photo E. Grube)

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXXVI. Blue-and-white bowl in “Persian” style, diam. 30.9 cm, ht. 14.5 cm. Persia, ca. mid-8th/10th century. Mūza-ye Īrān-e Bāstān, Tehran, no. 8678

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXXVII. Blue-and-white ewer in “Chinese” style, ht. 15 cm. Persia, ca. late 8th/14th century. The David Collection, Copenhagen, no. 33/1987

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXXVIII. Bowl painted in black under green glaze, diam. 25.2 cm, ht. 12.7 cm. Probably northern Persia, 9th/15th century. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, The H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Gift of Horace Havemeyer, 1941, no. 41.165.46

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XXXIX. Bowl painted in black under green glaze, diam. 35.8 cm. Persia, 873/1468-9. Courtesy Istituto per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, Rome

CERAMICS xiv.

Plate XL. Ewer painted in black slip under green glaze, ht. 16 cm. Probably northern Persia, 9th/15th century. Keir Collec tion, Ham, Richmond, England

CERAMICS xv. The Islamic Period, 16th-19th centuries

Plate XLI. Polychrome Kubachi dish; diam. 31 cm; late 10th/16th century; Musée National de la Céramique, Sevres, no. 22693 (photo R.M.N.)

CERAMICS xv.

Plate XLII. Blue-and-white Persian kraak dish; diam. 43.5 cm; early 11th/17th century; by courtesy of the Board of Trustees of the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, no. 419-1874

CERAMICS xv.

Plate XLIII. Blue-and-white qalīān base, h. 29 cm; 1049/1658; by courtesy of the Board of Trustees of the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, no. 616-1889

CERAMICS xv.

Plate XLIV. Cuerda seca tile; 22 x 22.5 cm; ca. 1030/1620; courtesy of Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Museum, Lisbon, no. 1566

CERAMICS xv.

Plate XLV. Spandrel with tile mosaic, caravansary of Ganj ʿAlī Khan, Kermān; ca. 1008/1600 (photo Y. Crowe)

CERAMICS xv.

Plate XLVI. Polychrome-tile panel; 1240/1824; Madrasa-ye Ebrāhīmī, Kermān (photo Y. Crowe)

CERAMICS xv.

Plate XLVII. Polychrome enamel bowl; diam. 41.5 cm; 1262/1846; by courtesy of the Board of Trustees of the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, no. C632-1878

CHAMPION, JOSEPH

Figure 1. Joseph Champion, The Poems of Ferdosi, Calcutta, 1785, title page (orig. h. 32 cm). Courtesy of the Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University in the City of New York.

CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS xiv. The Influence of Eastern Iranian Art

Plate I. Tomb sculpture of the Later Han Era (25-220 CE): a winged leonine creature, designated in Chinese as a bixiemeaning, “to ward off evil spirits.” 

CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS xiv.

Plate II. Gilt silver ewer of Iranian type with a relief frieze of figures seemingly taken from Greek mythology, found in a mid-6th century tomb in Ningxia province. 

CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS xiv.

Plate III. Stone funerary bed.

CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS xiv.

Plate IV. Robe of a Buddhist deity at Dunhuang (Akiyama and Matsubara, 1969, pp. 60-61).

CHINKARA

Figure 1. Jabeer, Gazella bennettii, Qeshm Island. (Photograph © Shahab Cheraghi).

CHITRAL i. Geography

Figure 37. Map of Chitral.

CHLORITE

Plate XLVIII. Two views of chlorite handle with opposed “combatant” snakes, Tepe Yahya IVB2. Courtesy of The Peabody Museum, Harvard University.

CHLORITE

Plate XLIX. Chlorite bowl with inlaid procession of felines in “intercultural” style, from Nāṣerīya, near Ur, in southern Mesopotamia. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.

CHOLERA ii. In Afghanistan

Figure 38. Cholera epidemics in Afghanistan according to season (corrected and expanded after Fischer, 1968, fig. 12).

CHORASMIAN COINAGE

Plate I. a. A I (AR); b. A II (AR); c. A III (AR); d. B1 I (AR); e. B1 II (AR); f. B1 III (AR) – Vainberg, 1977, pl. XVI; g. B1 IV (AR); h. B2 V (AR); i. B2 1 (AE); j. B2 5 (AE) – Vainberg, 1977, pl. XVII; k. B2 20 (AE); l. B2 21(AE) – Vainberg, 1977, pl. XVIII. (All illustrations are with permission of the author.)

CHORASMIAN COINAGE

Plate II. a. C IV (AR); b. C 11 (AE) – Vainberg, 1977, pl. XIX; c. C V (AR); d. C VIb (AR); e. C 15 (AE) – Vainberg, 1977, pl. XX. (All illustrations are with permission of the author.)

CHRISTIANITY iii. In Central Asia And Chinese Turkestan

Figure 1. James Legge, The Nestorian Monument of Hsî-an Fû in Shen-hsî, China, Relating to the Diffusion of Christianity in China in the Seventh and Eighth Centuries, Lonndo, 1888, frontispiece.

CHRISTIANITY v. Christ in Manicheism

Figure 1. G. Flügel, Mani, seine Lehre und seine Schriften, Leipzig, 1862.

CHRISTIANITY viii. Christian Missions in Persia

Figure 1. Lazarist Catholic Mission School in Tabrīz, 1904. (After H. Nāṭeq, Kār-nāma-ye farhangī-e farangī dar Īrān, Paris, 1375 Š./1996, p. 346)

CHRONICLE OF ARBELA

Figure 1. A. Mingana, ed. and tr., Sources syriaques I. Mšiḥa-Zkha ..., Leipzig, 1907, p. 1.

CHRONICLE OF EDESSA

Figure 1. Edessa, in detail of map of the Parthian empire at its greatest extent, In George Rawlinson, The Seven Great Monarchies Of The Ancient Eastern World, Vol 6. Parthia, New York, 1885.

CHUBAK, SADEQ

Figure 1. Photograph of Sadeq Chubak.

CHURNS AND CHURNING

Figure 39. Types of traditional churns used in Persia and Afghanistan. 1. Globular pottery churn. 2. Oblong pottery churn. 3. Skin bag suspended from a tripod for churning by means of shaking. 4. Skin bag suspended from a tripod for churning by means of a stick. 5. Cylindrical wooden churn. 6. Pottery churn operated by rotating the vertical paddle in alternating directions by means of a strap.

CHURNS AND CHURNING

Figure 40. Distribution of traditional churn types in Persia and Afghanistan (Sources: For Persia, various works cited in the bibliography; for Afghanistan, data from Atlas linguistique de l’Afghanistan).

CLIMATE

Figure 45. Mean Annual Precipitation Surpluses and Deficits in Southwestern Asia. After Beaumont, 1973; Bowen-Jones; based on Carter, Thornthwaite, and Mather, 1958.

CLOTHING ii. In the Median and Achaemenid periods

Figure 46. Drawing of throne bearers representing the subject nations, from a relief on the tomb of Darius the Great at Naqš-e Rostam. After Walser, foldout plate I.

CLOTHING ii.

Figure 47. Drawing of archer from the glazed-brick frieze, royal palace, Susa, now in the Louvre, 5th century b.c.e. After M. G. Houston, Ancient Egyptian, Mesopotamian and Persian Costume and Decoration, 2nd ed., A & C Black (Publishers) Limited, p. 164, fig. 155.

CLOTHING ii.

Figure 48. Drawings of fillets worn by royal guards, from reliefs on the jambs of the eastern and western doorways to the portico in the main hall, harem building, Persepolis. After A. B. Tilia, Studies and Restorations at Persepolis and Other Sites of Fārs II, pp. 64-65 figs. 11a-b.

CLOTHING ii.

Figure 49. Drawing of Xerxes, relief from the western jamb of the north doorway to the main hall, harem building, Persepolis. After A. B. Tilia, Studies and Restorations at Persepolis and Other Sites of Fārs II, p. 54 fig. 6.

CLOTHING ii.

Figure 50. Drawing of fluted hat worn by Persian guard, from a relief on the great staircase, “palace of Xerxes,” Persepolis. After M. G. Houston, Ancient Egyptian, Mesopotamian and Persian Costume and Decoration, 2nd ed., A & C Black (Publishers) Limited, p. 167 fig. 159.

CLOTHING ii.

Figure 51. Drawing, detail of “Median” headgear with eagle device from a silver rhyton, Erebuni, ca. 500 b.c.e. Yerevan Museum. After Harper, p. 30 fig. 1a.

CLOTHING ii.

Figure 52. Drawing, detail of Persian wearing ordinary “tiara” from the Alexander sarcophagus, Archeological Museum, Istanbul, ca. 312 b.c.e. After Dalton, p. xxxii fig. 14.

CLOTHING ii.

Figure 53. Drawing, detail of Darius III from the Alexander mosaic, Museo Nazionale, Naples, 1st century b.c.e., after an original of ca. 317 b.c.e. After Dalton, p. xxxi fig. 13.

CLOTHING ii.

Figure 54. Reconstruction of man’s headgear from kurgan 3, Pazyryk, late 4th-early 3rd century b.c.e. After Rudenko, pl. 155B.

CLOTHING ii.

Figure 55. Drawings, front and back, of caftan from kurgan 3, Pazyryk. After Rudenko, p. 84 fig. 30.

CLOTHING ii.

Figure 56. Drawing, detail of royal ladies with attendants from a woven wool textile excavated in kurgan 5 at Pazyryk. After Rudenko, p. 297 fig. 139.

CLOTHING ii.

Figure 57. Drawing from a cylinder seal with seated lady and attendants, formerly le Clerq collection, Paris. After Dalton, p. xxiv fig. 9.

CLOTHING ii.

Figure 58. Drawing, detail from stone relief from Ergili in northwestern Anatolia. After M. G. Houston, Ancient Egyptian, Mesopotamian and Persian Costume and Decoration, 2nd ed., A. & C. Black (Publishers) Limited, p. 165 fig. 156.

CLOTHING ii.

Figure 59. Drawing, Iranian couple incised on underside of lid to cylindrical silver box, said to have been found near Erzincan in Turkey, ca. 5th century b.c.e., The British Museum. After Dalton, p. xxxviii fig. 19.

CLOTHING ii.

Figure 60. a. Drawing, woman’s cape or caftan from kurgan 2, Pazyryk. After Rudenko, p. 90 fig. 32. b. Drawing of sleeve from cape in a. After Rudenko, p. 91 fig. 33.

CLOTHING ii.

Plate L. Detail of Bactrians (?), tribute relief, Apadāna staircase facade, Persepolis. Courtesy Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Istanbul, after Walser, pl. 65.

CLOTHING ii.

Plate LI. Relief of Cappadocian (?) tribute bearers from the Apadāna stairway facade, Persepolis. Photograph courtesy of Judith Lerner.

CLOTHING ii.

Plate LIi. Relief of Scythians wearing pointed caps, tribute frieze, Apadāna stairway facade, Persepolis. Photograph courtesy of Judith Lerner.

CLOTHING ii.

Plate LIII. Relief of “master of animals,” on the western jamb of the southern doorway, room 16, the Palace of Darius, Persepolis. Photograph courtesy of Judith Lerner.

CLOTHING ii.

Plate LIV. Front and back views of silver statuette from the “Oxus treasure,” probably 5th century b.c.e., The British Mu seum London, no. 123901. Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum.

CLOTHING ii.

Plate LV. Persian nobleman, cylinder seal of Artaxerxes (III?), The Hermitage, Leningrad. Photograph after Dandamaev, pl. XV.

CLOTHING ii.

Plate LVI. Detail of Achaemenid courtiers, Apadāna stairway relief, Persepolis. Photograph courtesy of Judith Lerner.

CLOTHING ii.

Plate LVII. Three views of silver figurine, courtesy of Vorderasia tisches Museum, Staatliche Museen, Berlin, no. VA 4852.

CLOTHING ii.

Plate LVIII. Detail of “griffin grappler,” based on the design of Achaemenid cylinder seals, from stone stele found at Kamini, Athens, late 4th century b.c.e. Formerly National Archeological Museum, Athens, now lost. Photograph after Perrot

CLOTHING ii.

Plate LIX. Detail of Persian warrior from the Alexander sarcopha gus, Archeological Museum, Istanbul, no. 370, ca. 312. Photograph courtesy of W. Schiele, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Istanbul.

CLOTHING ii.

Plate LX. Man’s shirt from kurgan 2, Pazyryk, late 4th-early 3rd century b.c.e. Photograph after Rudenko, pl. 63.

CLOTHING ii.

Plate LXI. Detail of Areians (or Arachosians), tribute relief, Apadāna staircase facade, Persepolis. Courtesy Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Berlin, after Walser, pl. 50.

CLOTHING ii.

Plate LXII. Banqueting scene engraved on ivory plaque from Demetrias, formerly National Museum, Athens, now lost. After Dentzer, p. 217 fig. 7.

CLOTHING ii.

Plate LXIII. Banqueting scene engraved on ivory plaque from Demetrias, formerly National Museum, Athens, now lost. After Dentzer, p. 218 fig. 8.

CLOTHING ii.

Plate LXIV. Detail of banquet scene from “Satrap sarcophagus,” Archeological Museum, Istanbul, no. 367. Photograph courtesy of W. Schiele, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Istanbul.

CLOTHING ii.

Plate LXV. Scaraboid gem, blue chalcedony, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, no. 1921.2. By courtesy of the visitors of The Ashmolean Museum.

CLOTHING ii.

Plate LXVI. Woman’s headdress with leather cutouts, from kurgan 2, Pazyryk, late 4th-early 3rd century. Photograph after Rudenko, pl. 65 C.

CLOTHING iii. In the Arsacid period

Plate LXVII. Life-sized cast-bronze sculpture of an Arsacid nobleman, Šāmī, Ḵūzestān, now in the Iran Bastan Museum, Tehran. Photograph after Vanden Berghe, pl. 92a.

CLOTHING iii.

Plate LXVIII. Stone relief from Bard-e Nešānda, Ḵūzestān, now in the Iran Bastan Museum, Tehran. Photograph T. S. Kawami.

CLOTHING iv. In the Sasanian period

Figure 61. Drawing, wool caftan from a tomb in Upper Egypt, 6th-7th century, now in the Ägyptologisches Museum, Berlin. After Tilke, pl. 4 nos. 5-7.

CLOTHING iv.

Plate LXIX. Ewer, silver with mercury gilding, Persia, 6th-7th centu ries. Courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, no. 67.10, Purchase, Mr. and Mrs. C. Douglas Dillon Gift and Rogers Fund, 1967.

CLOTHING iv.

Plate LXX. Detail of Boar Hunt relief, Ṭāq-e Bostān, 7th century. Photograph E. H. Peck.

CLOTHING iv.

Plate LXXI. Detail of Boar Hunt relief, Ṭāq-e Bostān, 7th century. Photograph E. H. Peck.

CLOTHING iv.

Plate LXXII. Detail, relief of the investiture of Narseh I, Naqš-e Rostam, 3rd-4th centuries. Photograph E. H. Peck.

CLOTHING iv.

Plate LXXIII. Relief of the investiture of Ḵosrow II, Ṭāq-e Bostān, 7th century. Photograph E. H. Peck.

CLOTHING iv.

Plate LXXIV. Relief of the investiture of Ardašīr I, Naqš-e Rajab, 3rd century. Photograph E. H. Peck.

CLOTHING iv.

Plate LXXV. Detail, relief of Šāpūr I and his entourage, Naqš-e Rajab, 3rd century. Photograph E. H. Peck.

CLOTHING iv.

Plate LXXVI. Relief of the investiture of Ardašīr I, Naqš-e Rostam, 3rd century. Photograph E. H. Peck.

CLOTHING iv.

Plate LXXVII. Detail, relief of Šāpūr I and his entourage, Naqš-e Rajab, 3rd century. Photograph E. H. Peck.

CLOTHING iv.

Plate LXXVIII. Detail, relief of the triumph of Šāpūr I, Naqš-e Rostam, 3rd century. Photograph E. H. Peck.

CLOTHING iv.

Plate LXXIX. Plate, silver with mercury gilding, Persia, 5th century. Courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, no. 1970.6.

CLOTHING iv.

Plate LXXX. Detail of the Boar Hunt relief, Ṭāq-e Bostān, 7th century. Photograph E. H. Peck.

CLOTHING iv.

Plate LXXXI. Detail of the Boar Hunt relief, Ṭāq-e Bostān, 7th century. Photograph E. H. Peck.

CLOTHING vi. Of the Sogdians

Plate LXXXII. Drawings after wall paintings from Panjikant, Afrāsiāb, and other sites.

CLOTHING vi.

Plate LXXXIII. Drawings after wall paintings from Panjikant, Afrāsiāb, and other sites.

CLOTHING vii. Of the Iranian Tribes on the Pontic Steppes and in the Caucaus

Plate LXXXIV. Clothing of the Scythian and related Iranian tribes on the Pontic steppes and in the Caucasus. 1. 4th century b.c.e., Scythians. 2. 3rd-1st centuries b.c.e., Sarmatians. 3. 1st-2nd centuries c.e., Alans-“Scythians.” 4. 2nd-4th centuries, Alans-“Massagetes.”

CLOTHING viii. In Persia from the Arab conquest to the Mongol invasion

Figure 62. Diagram showing cut of “sīmorḡ caftan” from a tomb at Moshchevaya Balka, 8th-9th centuries. After Jeroussalimskaja, pl. XIII fig. 17.

CLOTHING viii.

Figure 63. Drawing of a rider from a wall painting found in the palace of Sabzpūšān, Nīšāpūr, 3rd-4th/9th-10th centuries. After Wilkinson, 1986, p. 207 fig. 240.

CLOTHING viii.

Plate LXXXV. “The standing caliph,” stucco relief from the entrance porch to the audience hall at Ḵerbat al-Mafjar, ca. 105-25/724-43. Photograph after Ettinghausen, 1972, pl. XXII fig. 75.

CLOTHING viii.

Plate LXXXVI. “Hunter” from a polychrome fresco excavated at the palace of Jawsaq al-Ḵāqānī, Samarra, 218-27/833-42. Photograph after Herzfeld, 1927, pl. LXIX.

CLOTHING viii.

Plate LXXXVII. Buff-ware bowl from Nīšāpūr, 3rd-4th/9th-10th centu ries, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, no. 38.40.290. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1938.

CLOTHING viii.

Plate LXXXVIII. Illustration of the constellation Cepheus from Ṣūfī’s Ketāb ṣowar al-kawākeb al-ṯābeta, dated 400/1009. Courtesy of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, Ms. Marsh 144, p. 161.

CLOTHING viii.

Plate LXXXIX. Female dancers on a fragment from a polychrome fresco excavated at the palace of Jawsaq al-Ḵāqānī, Samarra, 218-27/833-42. Photograph after Herzfeld, 1927, pl. 11.

CLOTHING viii.

Plate XC. Polychrome-painted stucco relief of a Turkish official, early 7th/13th century. Photograph courtesy of The Detroit Institute of Arts, no. 25.64, City of Detroit purchase.

CLOTHING viii.

Plate XCI. Illustration of the constellation Auriga from a manuscript of Ṣūfī’s Ketāb ṣowar al-kawākeb al-ṯābeta, dated 647/1249- 50, in the Topkapı Sarayı, Istanbul, Aya Sofya 259. After Wellesz, pl. 19 fig. 48.

CLOTHING viii.

Plate XCII. “Varqa and Golšāh in school,” from a manuscript of ʿAyyūqī’s Varqa wa Golšāh, early 7th/13th century, Topkapı Sarayı, Istanbul, Hazine 841. Photograph after İpşiroğlu, fig. 13.

CLOTHING viii.

Plate XCIII. “The surprise attack,” from a manuscript of ʿAyyūqī’s Varqa wa Golšāh, early 7th/13th century, Topkapı Sarayı, Istanbul, Hazine 841, fol. 41. After İpşiroğlu, fig. 17.

CLOTHING viii.

Plate XCIV. Bowl with polychrome underglaze decoration, Persia, 7th/13th century. Courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, no. 57.61.16, Henry G. Leberthon Collection, gift of Mr. and Mrs. A. Wallace Chauncey.

CLOTHING ix. In the Mongol and Timurid periods

Plate XCV. “Shah Zav, son of Ṭahmāsb, enthroned,” from the “Demotte” Šāh-nāma, ca. 730-40/1330-40, opaque watercolor, ink, and gold on paper, 15 13/16 x 11 7/16 inches (40.2 x 29.0 cm). Courtesy of the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., s1986.0107.

CLOTHING ix.

Plate XCVI. Right half of a double-page composition, Hazine 2153, fol. 148v, Tabrīz, ca. 700/1300, Topkapı Sarayı, Istanbul.

CLOTHING ix.

Plate XCVII. Portrait of Solṭān-Ḥosayn Mīrzā, ink and gold on paper, Herat (?), ca. 900/1500. Courtesy of the Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, no. 1958.59, gift of John Goelet.

CLOTHING ix.

Plate XCVIII. “Homāy and Homāyūn in a garden,” detached leaf from a manuscript of Rašīd-al-Dīn’s Jāmeʿ al-tawārīḵ, no. 57.51.20, colors and gilt on paper. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Cora Timken Burnett Collection of Persian Miniatures and Other Persian Art Objects, no. 57.51.20, bequest of Cora Timken Burnett, 1956.

CLOTHING x. In the Safavid and Qajar periods

Plate XCIX. “Nighttime in a palace,” attributed to Mīr Sayyed ʿAlī, from a manuscript of Ḵamsa by Neẓāmī made for Shah Ṭahmāsb, 946-50/1539-43, opaque watercolor on paper, 28.3 x 20 cm. Courtesy of the Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, no. 1958.76. Gift of John Goelet, formerly collection of Louis J. Cartier.

CLOTHING x. 

Plate C. Detail, Moḥammad Haravī, portrait of a prince wearing a mantle of gold brocade, Qazvīn, mid-16th century, colors and gold on paper, 19.5 x 10.5 cm. Courtesy of the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., no. 37.8.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CI. Mīr Sayyed ʿAlī, “Nomadic encampment,” from a manuscript of Ḵamsa by Neẓāmī made for Shah Ṭahmāsb, 946-50/1539- 43, opaque watercolor on paper, 27.8 x 19.3 cm. Courtesy of the Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, no. 1958.75. Gift of John Goelet, formerly collection of Louis J. Cartier.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CII. “Seated princess,” attributed to Mīrzā Sayyed ʿAlī, ca. 947/1540, opaque watercolor on paper, 24.5 x 17 cm. Cour tesy of the Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Harvard Univer sity, Cambridge, Massachusetts, no. 1958.60. Gift of John Goelet, formerly collection of Louis J. Cartier.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CIII. Coat, velvet on gold-brocade ground, Persia, ca. 1730. Photograph courtesy of the Royal Armoury Museum, Stockholm, no. 3414.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CIV. Silk-brocade qabā, Persia, 17th century. By courtesy of the Board of Trustees of the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, no. 280-1906.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CV. Reżā ʿAbbāsi, “Birdand scene of lovers with an attendant,” 1629-35, colors and gold on paper, 34.5 × 22.2 cm. The Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, Wash., no. 50 111. Photograph Paul Macapia.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CVI. Persian clothing of the 17th century. After Chardin, pl. 22.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CVII. Sleeveless silk-brocade coat, Persia, 17th-18th centuries. Museum für Islamische Kunst, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin—Preussischer Kulturbesitz, no. 1.8/69.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CVIII. Embroidered silk jacket, Persia, 17th-18th century. By courtesy of the Board of Trustees of the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, no. 1935-1886.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CIX. Persian women’s clothing of the 17th century. After Chardin, pl. 23.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CX. Woman’s silk-brocade buskin, Persia, 17th-18th century. By courtesy of the Board of Trustees of the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, no. 962-1889.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CXI. Moʿīn Moṣawwer, “Young man in European clothing,” 17th century, watercolors and gold on paper, 20.5 x 10 cm, Dauphin collection. Photograph after Treasures, p. 120 no. 90.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CXII. Moʿīm Mosawwer, “Young woman in European-style  dress,” watercolors and gold on paper, 20.5 × 10 cm. Dauphin collection. Photograph after Treasures, p. 121 no. 91.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CXIII. Man wearing kolāh-e naderī, mid-18th century, watercolors on paper, 26 × 12.5 cm. Musee d'Art et d’Histoire, Geneva, no. 1971-107/106. Photograph Y. Sisa.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CXIV. Portrait of a Zand prince, 1208/1794, oil on canvas, 142 × 68 cm, Negārestān Museum, Tehran, no. 75.1.1. Photograph after Falk, pi. 1.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CXV. "Lady with a parrot and a rabbit,” oil on canvas, Zand period, Tehran. (Photograph after Falk, p. 29, pl. 10) 

CLOTHING x.

Plate CXVI. Mihr 'All, portrait of Fath-ʿAli Shah in court costume, 1228/1813, oil on canvas, 246 × 125 cm. Negarestan Museum. Tehran, no. 75.1.15. Photograph after Falk, pl. 15.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CXVII. Man's knitted silk stocking (one of a pair) with inscription, Persia, 19th century. The Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, New York, no. 34.1030b.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CXVIII. Girl dancing with castanets, ca. 1840, oil on canvas, 127x79 cm. Negarestan Museum, Tehran, no. 75.1.45. Photograph after Falk, pl. 45.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CXIX. “Women in the andarun,” illustrated folio from a manuscript of One thousand and one nights, 1861-63, Golestān Library, Tehran, no. 2240.  

CLOTHING x.

Plate CXX. Woman's jacket, compound silk with cotton lining, Persia, mid-1 9th century. The Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, New York, no. 18.11.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CXXI. Necklace, gold with pearls and stones, Persia, mid-19th century. Negārestān Museum, Tehran, no. 75.4.1.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CXXII. Dress ornaments, gold and pearls, Persia, 19th century, Persian royal crown jewels, Tehran. Photograph after Meen and Tushingham, p. 70.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CXXIII. Photograph of Nāṣer-al-Din Shah. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Gift of Charles Wilkinson, 1977, no.l977.683.fol.40pl.22.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CXXIV. Aigrette and ornamental belt, enameled gold and stones on silk backing, Persia, late 19th century. Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, nos. 57.882-84.

CLOTHING x.

Plate CXXV. Esmāʿīl Jalāyer, “Women around a samovar,” late 19th century, oil on canvas. (Cortesy of the Board of Trustees of the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, no. P. 56-1941.

CLOTHING xi. In the Pahlavi and post-Pahlavi periods

Plate CXXVI. Man wearing kolāh-e pahlavī, ca. 1930. Photograph courtesy of Haideh Sahim.

CLOTHING xi.

Plate CXXVII. Women wearing cadors in Tehran during Revolution of I35S Š./1979. After Yād-nāma-ye awwalin sālgard-e enqelāb-e eslāmi-ye Iran 22 Bahman 1358, Washington, D.C., 1980. Detail of photograph by J. Rostami.

CLOTHING xiii. Clothing in Afghanistan

Plate CXXVIII. Men of the Tara Ḵēl tribe of eastern Pashtun. Photograph courtesy of Josephine Powell.

CLOTHING xiii.

Plate CXXIX. Scene at the market of Āq Kopruk, near Mazār-e Šarif in western Afghanistan. Photograph courtesy of Josephine Powell.

CLOTHING xiii.

Plate CXXX. Wife of village headman, central Afghanistan, south of Taywāra in Gōr province. Photograph courtesy of Josephine Powell.

CLOTHING xiii.

Plate CXXXI. Nomad woman of the Tara Ḵēl tribe of eastern Pashtun. Photograph courtesy of Josephine Powell.

CLOTHING xiv. Clothing of the Hazāra tribes

Figure 64. Hazāra woman of Šahrestān in rare old dress. July 1954. The sleeves and the headdress are traditonal. Drawing by Haideh Sahim, after Ferdinand, p. 27, fig. 10.

CLOTHING xiv.

Plate CXXXII. “A Hazaureh,” early 19th century. After Elphinstone, pl. XII, facing p. 483.

CLOTHING xv. Clothing of Tajikistan

Plate CXXXIII. Assemblage of garments as worn by older women in Ḵojand. Photograph courtesy of G. Maĭtdinova.

CLOTHING xv.

Plate CXXXIV. Assemblage of garments as worn by young women in Kolāb. Photograph courtesy of G. Maïtdinova.

CLOTHING xv.

Plate CXXXV. Assemblage of young men's garments as worn in Ḵojand. Photograph courtesy of G. Maïtdinova.

CLOTHING xv.

Plate CXXXVI. Assemblage of garments as Worn by Tajik men in the Pamirs. Photograph courtesy of J. Maïtdinova.

CLOTHING xvi. Kurdish clothing in Persia

Plate CXXXVII. Kurdish dress from Mahābād, showing the wrapping of the dasmāl; the model is standing on a fluffy rug. Photograph S. Mohseni.

CLOTHING xvi.

Plate CXXXVIII. Kurdish dress from Mahābād, with sorānis tied behind the neck and on the head a tās-kelāw wrapped in a dasmāl. Photograph S. Mohseni.

CLOTHING xvi.

Plate CXXXIX. Kurdish dress and vest from Sanandaj. Photograph courtesy of S. Esmāʿilzāda.

CLOTHING xvi.

Plate CXL. Kurdish man's suit with kavā, showing one sorāni loose and one wrapped in the normal fashion. Photograph S. Mohseni.

CLOTHING xvi.

Plate CXLI. Kurdish man's suit with čūka and peštand. Photograph S. Mohseni.

CLOTHING xvi.

Plate CXLII. Kurdish children's dress from Mahābād. Photograph S. Mohseni.

CLOTHING xvii. Clothing of the Kurdish Jews

Figure 65. Traditional female dress of Jews in Iraqi Kurdistan. Drawing by Gayle Weiss.

CLOTHING xvii.

Figure 66. Traditional male dress of Jews in Iraqi Kurdistan. Drawing by Gayle Weiss.

CLOTHING xviii. Clothing of the Baluch in Persia

Plate CXLIII. Traditional Baluch embroidered dress. Photograph I. A. Firouz.

CLOTHING xviii.

Plate CXLIV. Detail, Baluch embroidered bodice. Photograph I. A. Firouz.

CLOTHING xviii.

Plate CXLV. Traditional Baluch men's costume. Watercolor by Loubof Kasminsky.

CLOTHING xviii.

Plate CXLVI. Traditional Baluch women's embroidered costume. Watercolor by Loubot Kasminsky.

CLOTHING xviii.

Plate CXLVII. a. Initial siāhkār stitches on the back of the material. b. Finished embroidery in the design known as panjapalang (leopard's paw). Photographs by M. Jahanbani.

CLOTHING xix. Clothing of the Baluch in Pakistan and Afghanistan

Figure 67. Present-day Baluch clothing. Quetta, northern Baluchistan, Pakistan. Drawing P. Hunte.

CLOTHING xix.

Figure 68. Patterns embroidered in cotton thread on Baluch women’s dresses.

CLOTHING xx. Clothing of Khorasan

Figure 69. Kurdish men's costume, Qūčān, northem Khorasan. Drawing by Haideh Sahim, after Żīāʾpūr , fig. 87.

CLOTHING xx.

Figure 70. Kurdish women’s dress, Qūčān, northem Khorasan. Drawing by Haideh Sahim, after Żīāʾpūr, fig. 53.

CLOTHING xxi. Turkic and Kurdish clothing of Azerbaijan

Plate CL. Two women in Kurdish costume of Mahābād. Photograph P. Andrews, 1970.

CLOTHING xxi.

Plate CLI. Two men and a woman in Harki Kurdish costume, near the borders of Persia, Iraq, and Turkey. The man on the left wears the pešmerga type of costume, the other the šāl šepik type. The woman wears the unusual high headdress. Photograph P. Andrews, 1974.

CLOTHING xxi.

Plate CXLIX. Kurdish women and girls at a wedding, Mīlān, Mākū region. Photograph P. Andrews, 1974.

CLOTHING xxi.

Plate CXLVIII. Two women of the Geyiklü tribe, Mūḡān, in Šahsevān costume. Photograph P. Andrews, 1970.

CLOTHING xxii. Clothing of the Caspian area

Figure 71. Drawing of čūmūš with thongs wrapped around the leg.

CLOTHING xxii.

Plate CLII. Women of the Gilan mountains, wearing black scarves (leček) and white shawls (dastmāl-e sefīd, kuldabād), long tunics (pirhan), and gathered skirts (tūmān); the older woman wears a jacket, the younger ones waistcoats (jelez). Photograph C. Bromberger.

CLOTHING xxii.

Plate CLIII. Woman of the centrāl Gilan plain, wearing a čadəršāb over tunic (pirhan), waistcoat (jelez), underskirt (kafalī), and pantaloons (šalvār). Photograph C. Bromberger.

CLOTHING xxii.

Plate CLIV. Woman of the Turkefied northern Taleš, near Haštpar, wearing a long tunic (kōynak), a piece of cloth (sāroq, a kind of short čadəršāb) around the waist over a gathered skirt (fumān), and a white shawl (yayliḵ) hiding the lower part of the face. Photograph C. Bromberger.

CLOTHING xxii.

Plate CLV. Marriage ceremony in the Deylamān area, with dancing women wearing tunics (pirhan) in plain bright colors over floral-patterned skirts (tūmān), embroidered shawls (dastmāl-e sefīd, kuldabād), and waistcoats (jelez) edged with coins. Photograph C. Bromberger.

CLOTHING xxii.

Plate CLVI. Ṭāleš shepherd wrapped in a cape (bašlāḵ) made of šāl and wearing molded rubber shoes (gālaš). Photograph C. Bromberger.

CLOTHING xxii.

Plate CLVII. Mountain shepherds near Rudbār, the one on the left wearing the felt cape (šawlā). Photograph C. Bromberger.

CLOTHING xxii.

Plate CLVIII. Men of Ṭāleš, the one on the left in “European dress,” the one on the right in traditional trousers, jacket, and skullcap made of šāl. Photograph A Karimi.

CLOTHING xxiii. Clothing of the Persian Gulf area

Figure 72. Women's šalvār. Drawing by Haideh Sahim.

CLOTHING xxiii.

Figure 73. Baṭṭūla. Drawing by Haideh Sahim.

CLOTHING xxiii.

Plate CLIX. Typical women’s dress of Hormozgān, 1992. Photograph R. Sh. Nadjmabadi.

CLOTHING xxiii.

CLX. Women’s šalvār with embroidered cuffs, Hormozgān, 1992. Photograph R. Sh. Nadjmabadi.

CLOTHING xxiii.

Plate CLXI. Woman wearing baṭṭūla, qaṭarī and cādor, Honnozgān, Photograph R. Sh. Nadjmabadi.

CLOTHING xxiv. Clothing of the Qašqāʾī tribes

Plate CLXII. Ḥosayn-ʿAli Qermezi, a young Qašqāʾī. Photograph by L. Beck.

CLOTHING xxiv.

Plate CLXIII. Qašqāʾī women. Photograph by L. Beck.

CLOTHING xxv. Clothing of the Baḵtīārīs and other Lori speaking tribes

Figure 74. Front and back views of striped woolen čūqā, worn by Lori-speaking men over a Western jacket.

CLOTHING xxv.

Figure 75. Headdress worn by Lori women.

CLOTHING xxv.

Figure 76. Headdress worn by women of the Baḵtiāri and Boīr Aẖmad tribes.

CLOTHING xxvi. Clothing and jewelry of the Turkmen

Plate CLXIV. Married Yomut woman wearing kōynek, balaq, čabit, with bürenğek over the ḵasaba, ca. 1900. After Tolstov et al., II, plate facing p. 88.

CLOTHING xxvi.

Plate CLXV. Married Otamiš Teke woman wearing kōynekbalaq, čabit with facings and caŋŋa at the bottom, and yašmaq. The čirpi is draped over the sommaq. Gonbad-e Qābūs, 1970. Photograph P. Andrews.

CLOTHING xxvi.

Plate CLXVI. Engraving of married Yomut woman wearing ḵasaba, buqaw, and adamliq, 19th century. After Rostkowski, in Rudolph, p, 56.

CODES

Figure 77. A letter-substitution code used by Qāʾemmaqām. After Meftāḥ-al-­Molk, 1320/1902, p. 29.

CODES

Figure 78. The “Greek script,” a traditional Persian code. After Meftāḥ-al-­Molk, 1320/1902, p. 13.

CODICES HAFNIENSES

Plate CLXVII. Folio 4, codex K 29, written in Pahlavi with an interlinear translation in Persian. Photograph after Asmussen, 1968, p. 293.

ČOḠĀ BONUT

Figure 1. Map of upper Ḵuzestān showing the location of Čoḡā Bonut. Drawing by A. Alizadeh, 1996.

ČOḠĀ BONUT

Figure 2. Čoḡā Bonut in 1996, looking west.  Photo A. Alizadeh, 1996.

ČOḠĀ BONUT

Figure 3. Samples of the earliest painted pottery (finger-painted) found at Čoḡā Bonut. Photo A. Alizadeh, 1996.

ČOḠĀ BONUT

Figure 4. Superimposed plans of various architectural phases discovered at Čoḡā Bonut. Drawing by A. Alizadeh, 1996.

ČOḠĀ BONUT

Figure 5. Examples of the early Neolithic Painted Burnished variant pottery from Čoḡā Bonut. Drawing by A. Alizadeh, 1996.

ČOḠĀ MĪŠ

Figure 1. Typical pottery of the Archaic Susiana period. a. Bowl in Painted-Burnished ware, Archaic Susiana 1; diameter 16.5 cm. b. Bowl in Red-Line ware, Archaic Susiana 2; diameter 14.0 cm. c. Bowl in Matt-Painted Ware, Archaic Susiana 3; diameter 15.0 cm. d. Bowl in Close-Line ware, Archaic Susiana 3; diameter 6.0 cm.

ČOḠĀ MĪŠ

Figure 2. a. Typical pottery of the Early Susiana period; diameter 12.0 cm. b. Typical pottery of the Middle Susiana period; diameter 21.0 cm.

ČOḠĀ MĪŠ

Figure 3. Drawing of cylinder-seal design with the siege of a city, Protoliterate period; 4.0 x 8.4 cm.

ČOḠĀ MĪŠ

Figure 4. Drawing of cylinder-seal design with victorious city ruler seated in a boat with retinue and prisoners, Protoliterate period; diam. 4.2 x 6.9 cm.

ČOḠĀ MĪŠ

Figure 5. Drawing of cylinder-seal design with feasting man, a servant and musicians, Protoliterate period; diam. 6.7 x 2.9 cm.

ČOḠĀ MĪŠ

Plate I. Sherd of a Middle Susiana 3 krater, with goats; height 6.3 cm, width 6.0 cm.

ČOḠĀ MĪŠ

Plate II. Head of an Early Susiana figurine, in sandy buff ware with red wash; height 4.7 cm, width 4.3 cm, thickness 2.3 cm.

ČOḠĀ ZANBĪL

Figure 6. Topographic plan of Čoḡā Zanbīl. After Ghirshman, 1996, plan I.

ČOḠĀ ZANBĪL

Figure 7. Čoḡā Zanbīl, plan of the ziggurat with its dependencies. After Ghirshman, 1968, plan I.

COINS AND COINAGE

Plate III Coins of the caliphates and the Saffarids.

COINS AND COINAGE

Plate IV. Coins of the Samanids, Buyids, and other.

COINS AND COINAGE

Plate V. Coins of the Mongol period.

COINS AND COINAGE

Plate VI. Coins of the Timurid period.

COINS AND COINAGE

Plate VII. Coins of the Safavids and Nāder Shah.

COINS AND COINAGE

Plate VIII. Coins of the Qajars.

COLUMNS

Figure 8. a. Tree trunk used as roof support. b. Tree trunk planted in stone base. c. Wooden capitals from the modern Caspian area. d. Column with double-protome capital from Persepolis. e. Rock-cut columns at Dokkān-e Dāwūd. f. Column from Dā o Doḵtar showing Greek influence in the capital. g. Sasanian brick column and pier. h. Sasasian capital from Verdenī near Kermānšāh.

COLUMNS

Figure 9. Columns of the Islamic period.

Copper ii. Copper resources in Iran

Figure 1. Distribution of copper deposits and indications in Iran (Qorbāni, 2002/03).

COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY ii. In Mithraism

Plate IX. Relief of the bull-slaying Mithras in the Mithraeum of the Circus Maximus, Rome. Photograph Musei Capitolini.

COSSACK BRIGADE

Plate X. Portrait of General V. A. Kosogovskiĭ by Moṣawwer-al-Molk. After Šerafāt, Ḏu’l-qaʿda 1319/February 1901.

COSSACK BRIGADE

Plate XI. Coronation procession for Reżā Shah, Maydān-e Mašq, Tehran. The shah is mounted at left center, General Amīr Aḥmadī just behind him; the Cossack Brigade rides ahead, and the gendarmes are at the rear. Oil on canvas, 83 x 1.34 m. Artist unknown. After Drouot Rive Gauche sale catalogue, Paris, 16 November 1978, no. 316.

COTTAM, RICHARD

Figure 1. Photograph of Richard Cottam. Courtesy of the author.

COTTON iii. In Afghanistan

Figure 11. Map of Cotton Production and Processing Areas in Afghanistan.

CRAFTS

Plate XII. Textile printer (qalamkārsāz) stamping design with inked wooden pattern block, Isfahan, 1355 Š./1976. Photograph courtesy of Judith Lerner.

CRAFTS

Plate XIII. Painting ceramics in a government workshop at Hamadān, 1356 Š./1977. Photograph courtesy of Judith Lerner.

CRAFTS

Plate XIV. Applying glaze to pottery bowls by dipping, Eṣṭahbānāt, 1355 Š./1976. Photograph courtesy of Judith Lerner.

CRAFTS

Plate XV. Tinner (safīdgar) coating copper tray in the bāzār at Yazd, 1356 Š./1977. Photograph courtesy of Judith Lerner.

CRANE

Figure 1. Common crane (Grus grus). By permission of E. Firouz (The Complete Fauna of Iran, London and New York, 2005, p. 136).

CROCODILE

Figure 1. Marsh crocodile (Crocodylus palustris). By permission of E. Firouz (The Complete Fauna of Iran, London and New York, 2005, p. 241).

CROESUS

Figure 1. Two coins of Lydia, attributed to Croesus. Above: gold, 124 gr. (slightly over 8 g). Below: silver, 82.4 gr. (5.3 g), a siglus. (Cf. entry DARIC.) Obverse: opposed lion and bull protomes; reverse: two punched (incuse) square impressions (B. V. Head, A Guide to the Principal Gold and Silver Coins of the Ancients, from circ. B. C. 70 to A. D. 1, London, 1881, p. 5, nos. I A 13 and 16, pl. 1).

CROW

Figure 1. Common raven (Corvus corax). By permission of E. Firouz (The Complete Fauna of Iran, London and New York, 2005, p. 192).

CROWN i. In the Median and Achaemenid periods

Figure 13. Forms of crowns on Achaemenid sculptures. Drawings Ursula Seidl.

CROWN i.

Figure 14. Tiaras from a silver and two gold statuettes from the Oxus treasure. Drawings Ursula Seidl.

CROWN ii. From the Seleucids to the Islamic conquest

Figure 15. Coin of the Parthian Mithradates II, obverse, formerly Newell collection. After Survey of Persian Art IV, pl. 141 B.

CROWN ii.

Figure 16. Coin of the Parthian Phraataces I, obverse, formerly Newell collection. After Survey of Persian Art IV, pl. 142T.

CROWN ii.

Figure 17. Coin of the Parthian Osroes I (ca. 108-28 C.E.), obverse, British Museum, London. After Wroth, pl. XXXXI/9.

CROWN ii.

Figure 18. Coin of Artaxerxes II of Persis (1st century B.C.E.) After Colledge, pl. 38f.

CROWN ii.

Figure 19. Coin of the Parthian Mithradates II, obverse, British Museum, London. After Wroth, pl. VIII/1-2.

CROWN ii.

Figure 20. Coin of Phraataces and Thea Musa, reverse, Berlin Museum. After Wroth, pl. XXIV/1.

CROWN ii.

Figure 21. Coin of Ḵosrow II, obverse. After Göbl, pl. 13/212.

CROWN ii.

Figure 22. Coin of Queen Bōrān, obverse. After Göbl, pl. 15/228.

CROWN ii.

Plate xvi. Relief of Artabanus IV handing the ring to Khwasak, satrap of Susa (215 C.E.), from Susa, Iran Bastan Museum, Tehran. After Ghirshman, 1962, p. 56 fig. 70.

CROWN ii.

Plate xvii. Marble head of a Parthian queen, late 1st century B.C.E., from Susa, Iran Bastan Museum, Tehran. Af­ter Ghirshman, 1962, p. 96 fig. 107B.

CROWN ii.

Plate xviii. Detail of the investiture of Ardašīr I, rock relief, Naqš-e Rostam. Photograph E. H. Peck.

CROWN ii.

Plate xix. Detail of the investiture of Bahrām I, rock relief, Bīšāpūr. Photograph E. H. Peck.

CROWN ii.

Plate xx. Silver coin of Šāpūr I, obverse, Hermitage, St. Peters­burg. After Survey of Persian Art IV, pl. 253H.

CROWN ii.

Plate xxi. Detail of queen’s head, rock Relief of Bahrām II, Sar-­Mašhad. After Ghirshman, 1962, p. 175 fig. 217.

CROWN ii.

Plate xxii. Silver bowl, with five medallions enclosing busts of females, late 3rd-early 4th centuries, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, acc. no. 1970.5. Photograph courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

CROWN iii. On monuments from the Islamic conquest to the Mongol invasion

Plate xxiii. Detail, “The Enthroned King of Syria,” from a manuscript of Varga wa Golšāh, late 12th century, Topkapı Saray Library, Istanbul. After Melikian-Chirvani, fig. 42.

CROWN iii.

Plate xxiv. Frontispiece from a manuscript of Ketāb al-aḡānī (Book of songs), probably Mosul, 615/1218, Millet Kütüphanesi, Istanbul.

CROWN iii.

Plate xxv. Underglaze-painted bowl, Persia, late 12th or early 13th century, diam. 20.3 cm. Courtesy of the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 67.24.

CROWN iv. Of Persian rulers from the Arab conquerors

Plate xxvi. Detail, Sogdian parcel-gilt silver bowl, 8th century, Hermitage, St. Petersburg. After Survey of Persian Art, pl. 218.

CROWN iv.

Plate xxvii. Obverse, silver coin struck in Ḵᵛārazm, ca. 179/795, in the name of Fażl [b. Yaḥyā the Barmekid]. After Miles, Camb. Hist. Iran, pl. 26/1.

CROWN iv.

Plate xxviii. Reverse, silver “dinar” of the Buyid Rokn-al-Dawla, struck at Moḥammadīya in 351/962. After Miles, 1964.

CROWN iv. 

Plate xxix. Cast, medallion of al-Ṭāʾeʿ and ʿEzz-al-Dawla Baḵtīār, issued in Baghdad, 364/975. Photograph courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum, London, no. 365.

CROWN iv.

Plate xxx. Detail, Persian ceramic bowl, early 13th century, over­glaze-painted with polychrome enamels, diam. 47.8 cm, ht. 47.8 cm. Courtesy of the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., no. 43.3.

CROWN iv.

Plate xxxi. Detail, “The Accession of Lohrāsb,” from a manu­script of Rašīd-al-Dīn, Jāmeʿ al-tawārīḵ, Tabrīz, 707/1307, University of Edinburgh Library. After Survey of Persian Art, pl. 872A.

CROWN iv.

Plate xxxii. Govandas, portrait of Shah ʿAbbās I. Photograph courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum, Lon­don, no. 1920.9.17.044.

CROWN v. In the Qajar and Pahlavi periods

Plate xxxiii. The Kayānī crown of the Qajar dynasty, Bānk-e markazī-e Īrān, Tehran.

CROWN v.

Plate xxxiv. The Pahlavi crown, 1304 Š./1925, Bānk-e markazī-e Īrān, Tehran.

CUNEIFORM SCRIPT

Figure 23. Attested cuneiform signs in Old Persian. After R. Schmitt, ed., Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum, Wiesbaden, 1989, p. 63.

CUT PAPER

Plate XXXV. Calligraphy by Mīr ʿAlī, cut out by Sangī-ʿAlī Badaḵšī. Persia, second quarter of the 16th century. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Louise V. Bell Fund and Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1967, no. 67.266.7.6. All rights reserved, The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

CYLINDER SEALS

Plate XXXVI. Drawings of Early, Middle, and Late Chalcolithic stamp seals from Persia.

CYLINDER SEALS

Plate XXXVII. Drawings of Late Chalcolithic seal designs.

CYLINDER SEALS

Plate XXXVIII. Drawings of ancient seal impressions from the Susa II period (1-6, 8) and modern impressions of Proto-Elamite cylinders (9, 10).

CYLINDER SEALS

Plate XXXIX. Susa II seal impressions.

CYLINDER SEALS

Plate XL. Ancient and modern (1, 4) cylinder-seal impressions, Proto-Elamite period to Early Dynastic III.

CYLINDER SEALS

Plate XLI. Modern impressions of late 3rd millennium b.c.e. cylinder seals and 3rd to early 2nd millennium stamps, most probably from eastern Persia.

CYLINDER SEALS

Plate XLII. Impression of a southeast Persian shell cylinder seal contemporary with the Akkad period in Mesopotamia.

CYLINDER SEALS

Plate XLIII. Ancient (1-3) and modern impressions of Old Elamite cylinder seals.

CYLINDER SEALS

Plate XLIV. Drawings of ancient seal impressions in Middle Elamite style (1-4) and modem impressions of contemporary cylinders.

CYLINDER SEALS

Plate XLV. Impression of Middle Elamite carnelian cylinder seal in Mittanian style.

CYLINDER SEALS

Plate XLVI. Modern impressions of cylinder seals of the late 2nd and early 1st millennia b.c.e.

CYLINDER SEALS

Plate XLVII. Modern cylinder-seal impressions of the 1st millennium b.c.e., the ancient Neo-Elamite (7) and the pre-Achaemenid (9) periods.

CYLINDER SEALS

Plate XLVIII. Impression of a Neo-Elamite cylinder seal.

CYLINDER SEALS

Plate XLIX. Impression of the cylinder seal of Hupan-kitin, Neo-Elamite period.

CYLINDER SEALS

Plate L. Impression of a Neo-Elamite cylinder seal.

CYLINDER SEALS

Plate LI. Impression of Achaemenid cylinder seal.

CYLINDER SEALS

Plate LII. Impression of Achaemenid cylinder seal.

CYPRESS

Figure 24. Drawing of the precinct of the tomb of the poet Ḥāfeẓ in Shiraz. After Herbert, p. 369.

CYRIACUS

Figure 1. P. Bedjan, Acta Martyrum et Sanctorum III, Paris and Leipzig, 1892, cover and p. 254.

CYRUS v. The Tomb of Cyrus

Plate LIII. Tomb of Cyrus in the Morḡāb plain, viewed from the west. (Photograph courtesy of D. Stronach)

(Cross-Reference)

Last Updated: June 30, 2015