forty-three Avestan and Pahlavi codices acquired by Rasmus Kristian Rask (1787-1832) in Bombay, India, and Niels Ludvig Westergaard (1815-1878) in Persia, all originally de­posited in the library of the University of Copenhagen but later transferred to the Royal Library.


CODICES HAFNIENSES, forty-three Avestan and Pahlavi codices acquired by Rasmus Kristian Rask (1787-1832) in Bombay, India, and Niels Ludvig Westergaard (1815-1878) in Persia, all originally de­posited in the library of the University of Copenhagen but later transferred to the Royal Library. They include some of the oldest and most valuable such manuscripts in the world (Geldner, Grundriss II, p. 12 n. 3).

History of the collection. Rask traveled to the Orient in 1819 with the primary purpose of finding the “source” of the Icelandic language, but he had also been com­missioned by the Danish government to acquire Avestan and Pahlavi manuscripts. He went to Bombay via Astrakhan and Persia, and, though he considered this part of his strenuous journey unsuccessful, he did become well acquainted with Persian, which later proved helpful in his Avestan and Pahlavi studies in India. He also visited Persepolis, where he examined the cuneiform script, recognizing that it was written from left to right and remarking that he expected to be able to understand it once he had acquired the neces­sary knowledge of Indian languages and Avestan. Rask arrived in Bombay in 1820 and succeeded in acquiring several Avestan and Pahlavi manuscripts, though the funds allotted were insufficient to buy all that was available and desirable (Eyser). He returned to Copenhagen on the Danish ship Juliane Marie, arriving on 5 May 1823 with an invaluable collection of manuscripts (codices K 1-K 34 of the present collec­tion; Westergaard, 1846a, pp. 111-15). While in India he published the first version of his famous monograph On the Age and Genuineness of the Zend Language and the Zendavesta (Madras, 1821), a significant ad­vance in defining the position of the Iranian languages within the Indo-European language family. It later appeared in Danish (Om Zendsprogets og Zendavestas Ælde of Ægthed, Copenhagen, 1826) and in German translation (F. H. von der Hagen, Über das Alter und die Echtheit der Zend-Sprache und des Zend-Avesta, und Herstellung des Zend-Alphabets . . . , Berlin, 1926).

Westergaard went to India about twenty years after Rask, also with financial support from the Danish government. He reached Bombay on 15 November 1841 and remained until 1843. He then sailed to Persia, arriving at Būšehr on 20 February 1843 and proceeding to Kermān and Yazd, with the inten­tion of learning about the religion and customs of the native Zoroastrians, the fire-worshiping “Gabrs” (1846b). More specifically, he wanted to study their literary heritage and to acquire manuscripts (1845, pp. cxcvi, cclxxxiii ff.). In his diary (ms., Royal Library, Copenhagen, Ny Kgl. Samling 1320) Westergaard vividly described the Gabrs and gave an account of his difficulties in persuading them to sell manuscripts (Eyser, pp. 169-70; see also Westergaard, 1846b, pp. 349-50). He did, however, obtain a few valuable manuscripts (codices K 35-40, 42-43; Westergaard, 1846b, p. 350). Shortly after his return to Denmark he was appointed the first professor of Indian and Oriental studies at the University of Copenhagen (1845-78).

The manuscripts. In April 1912 the 16th Interna­tional Congress of Orientalists, assembled in Athens, resolved that complete facsimile editions of the Avestan and Pahlavi manuscripts in the library of the Univer­sity of Copenhagen should be published. Although World War I delayed realization of the plan, in 1931 the publisher Ejnar Munksgaard undertook publication of the twelve-volume Codices Avestici et Pahlavici Bibliothecae Universitatis Hafniensis, edited by Arthur Christensen, who wrote the introductions to volumes I-VI, and Kaj Barr, who wrote those to volumes VII-XII. The manuscripts were restored and prepared for reproduction by the German conservator Hugo Ibscher, who also restored and classified the Coptic Manichean manuscripts in the Chester Beatty Library (see S. Dahl, in XII, p. vii; Barr, in VII, p. 8; Ibscher). The contents of the volumes are: I (1931) K 20, K 20b; II (1932) K 26; III (1934) K 35 pt. 1; IV (1934) K 35 pt. 2; V (1936) K 43 pt. 1; VI (1936) K 43 pt. 2; VII (1937) K 5 pt. 1; VIII (1938) K 5 pt. 2; IX (1939) K 5 pt. 3; X (1941) K 3a, K 3b, and K 1 pt. 1; XI (1942) K 3a, K 3b, and K 1 pt. 2; XII (1944) selections from K 7 and K 25 and tracings of K 1. Of the remaining manuscripts only K 27 (Hampel) and K 43 (Andreas) have been published in their entirety.

K. F. Geldner included the Copenhagen codices in his description of the manuscripts that he used in preparing his edition of the Avesta (1895, pp. ii-xiv); references to his list, which is arranged alphabetically, have been omitted here. The abbreviations used in the following list have been adopted from Geldner’s work: B = university library, Bombay; E = collection of E. D. R. Sanjana, Bombay; F = collection of F. F. Madan, Bombay; H = collection of H. Jamaspji, Poona; J = collection of J. M. Jamasp-Asana, Bombay; Jp = col­lection of J. P. Sanjana, Bulsar; L = collection of de Guise, India Office Library, London; M = collection of M. Haug, Munich; Mf = Mulla Firuze Library, Bombay; Ml = collection of M. L. Hatria, Tehran, now Bombay; P = collection of A. H. Anquetil-Duperron, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris; Pt = collection of P. B. Sanjana, Bombay.

The manuscripts contain a great variety of texts in Avestan, both with and without (sāda) Pahlavi and Sanskrit versions and sometimes also with New Per­sian versions; Pahlavi, Pazand (i.e., Middle Persian or New Persian in Avestan script); and Persian (see Table 54). Of special importance are K 7a (1268?), the oldest Avestan manuscript extant; K 5 (1323), with the slightly earlier J 2 representing the oldest known text of the Indian Pahlavi Yasna; K 1 (1324), with L 4 the oldest copy of the Pahlavi Vidēvdād; K 4 (1723), with Mf 2 and Jp 1 representing the oldest known version of the Iranian Vidēvdādsāda (i.e., the Avestan text without the Pahlavi version); and K 20 (after 1351), K 35 (1572), and K 43 (before 1600), among the oldest extant Pahlavi manuscripts and therefore of utmost importance for establishing the original texts.

K 1 is a manuscript, originally 340 folios, of which fols. 93r-303 are in Copenhagen and an unknown number in India (Christensen and Barr, X, pp. 9ff.; Unvala, pp. 123ff.; Tavadia, 1944, pp. 295ff., 312-13, 319; Mirza, pp. 330ff.; Katrak, pp. 229-30, 233-34); K 34 has been detached from it. K 1 contains the Vidēvdād with a Pahlavi version and was copied by Hērbad Mehrābān Kay-Ḵosrow (Mihiravan/Mihirapan Kaikhusru) from a manuscript written by his great-­uncle Rostam Mehrābān (Rustom Mihiravan, Pahl. Rōdstahm Mihrābān; see K 7); it was completed in Cambay on 17 May 1324 and is therefore one of the five oldest extant manuscript copies of Avestan texts. Mehrābān Kay-Ḵosrow was also the copyist of K 5 and K 20 and a year earlier (28 August 1323) had made the copy now known as L 4 from the same original; he also copied J 2 (Geldner; Dhabhar, 1949, pp. 2-3). Accord­ing to Geldner (p. xxiv), Rostam’s manuscript repre­sented the Sīstān recension of the Vidēvdād, rather than that of Yazd. For his edition of the Vidēvdād Hushang Jamasp collated folios 2-32 of this manuscript (Vd. 1.3-­3.14), then in the possession of Ervad Manekji Rustamji Unvala (Jamasp, pp. xxi-xxii, ms. MU). Many de­scendants of K 1 are known, including M1 3 (1594), from which B 1 and K 3b are in turn descended (Geldner, p. xvi); B 1 is the archetype of P 2 (1758), K 3a, and M 3 (Geldner, pp. xiv-xviii).

K 2 is a manuscript of 677 pages (pp. 644-47 miss­ing) from the early 19th century, containing the Vidēvdād with its Pahlavi version. It was copied by Dastur Dārāb (high priest of the Wadiaji Atashbahram and principal of the Sir J. J. Zarthosht Madrasa in Bombay; private communication of M. JamaspAsa) and has no critical value (Geldner).

K3 includes fragments of two different manuscripts of the Vidēvdād. K 3a, possibly from the 16th century (Christensen and Barr, V, pp. 8ff.), is a descendant of P2, copied from K 1 (Geldner, p. xvi). It consists of 39 pages from the beginning of the text (Vd. 1-2.32), with its Pahlavi version and a Persian interlinear translation; it breaks off in the middle of Vd. 2.32 and was probably never completed. K 3b, a direct descendant of K 1 (Geldner, p. xvi), includes only 17 folios and is of a somewhat later date (Christensen and Barr, V, pp. 8ff.). It also contains the beginning of the Vidēvdād (Vd. 1-2.18), with the Pahlavi version and a Persian interlinear translation.

K 4 was completed in Kermān on 26 July 1723 by Vehmard, son of Fereydūn (cf. Geldner, pp. vi, xxxvi). The first 94 of its 230 carefully written folios are missing. The text is a Vištāsp sāda (cf. Geldner, p. xxxv), containing the Yasna, Visprad (see also K 8), and Vištāsp yašt (collated by Westergaard, 1854, pp. 485-86). It is closely related to Mf 2 and Jp 1, all three being descended from a manuscript written about 1510 (Geldner, p. xxxv; Unvala, pp. 123ff.; Mirza, p. 233).

K 5 was completed in Cambay on 17 November 1323 by Mehrābān Kay-Ḵosrow from a manuscript in the hand of Rostam Mehrābān. Folios 1 and 70-77 of a total of 327 are now missing, though a copy of the badly damaged folios 70-77 (K 5b) was made by Westergaard (Geldner). The manuscript contains the Yasna, with its Pahlavi version; together with J 2 (another copy of Rostam’s manuscript by Mehrābān, completed on 26 January 1323), it is the principal representative of the Indian branch of this manuscript tradition. (For an analytical index compared with Geldner’s edition, see Christensen and Barr, VII, p. 14, VIII, IX; cf. VII, pp. 7-13, X, p. 11; Unvala, pp. 128ff.; Mirza, p. 321; Katrak, pp. 225ff.; Tavadia, 1944, pp. 318ff.; Dhabhar, 1949, pp. 2ff.). B 3, L 17 (1551), and M 1 (1734) are descendants of K 5 (Geldner, p. xxxi).

K 6 is a careful copy of J 3, written in India. Its 437 folios contain part of the Yasna (Y. 1-57.29), with the Sanskrit version made by Neryosang Dhaval (end 11th or early 12th century; see Boyce, Zoroastrians, pp. 168-­69; cf. K 15). The manuscript was collated by Friedrich Spiegel (pp. 14-15) for his edition of the Sanskrit Yasna but not by S. D. Bharucha. The modern manuscript 14 is descended from K 6.

K 7 consists of three different manuscripts. The first is in two parts labeled by Westergaard and Geldner K 7b (fols. 23-108, 71 and 80 missing) and K 7a (fols. 108v-159, 110 and 131 missing); it was copied, by Hērbad Rostam Mehrābān and dated 28 December in 637 Y., the exact equivalent of which is uncertain: either 1268 (Christensen and Barr, XII, pp. xiii ff.; Katrak, p. 221), 1278 (Geldner, pp. vi-vii, xxxix; Unvala, p. 132; Tavadia, 1944, p. 317; Mirza, pp. 327, 334), or 1288 or later (Christensen and Barr, XII, pp. xi ff.). K 7a contains the short Visprad, with its Pahlavi version (fols. 23-104), and is the archetype of all other Pahlavi Visprad manuscripts (Geldner, pp. xxxviii-xxxix); its most direct descendant is M 51a, b (M 51a from 1397; Haug and West, p. 4; West, Pahlavi Texts I, p. xxix; Bartholomae, pp. 38-72), from which M 49 (colophons dated 1737, 1787, 1810; Bartholomae, pp. 15-31), J 15, and P 14 are in turn descended. Folios 104v-106v contain the Nīrang ī ātaš (Westergaard, 1846a, p. 317), folio 106v an Avesta fragment (p. 331 fr. I); the colophon is on folios 107-08). K 7b (fols. 1­-104) contains the Visprad sāda with nīrang. The sec­ond manuscript, K 7c (30 fols.) contains Ḵorda Avesta, with a Gujarati translation, including Ḵᵛoršīd nīāyeš, Māh nīāyeš, Ātaš nīāyeš, Ohrmazd yašt, Hōm yašt, Patīt, Āfrīnagān dahmān (fragmentary), Āfrīnagān ardā-­fravaš, and Āfrīnagān gāhānbār (fragmentary; Geldner). The third manuscript of K 7 is a Persian Rivāyat on the baršnūm dated 1009 Y./1640, with an Avesta fragment (Westergaard, p. 333, fr. VI “in a treatise about the Barshnúm, composed in” 885 Y./1516). It resembles M 55 (Bartholomae, pp. 151ff.).

K 8 is a beautifully written manuscript of the late 18th century, in 128 folios, containing extracts from a Visprad sāda, apparently copied from K 4 (Westergaard, 1846a, p. 112; Geldner, p. vii and n. 2; Unvala, p. 133).

K 9 is a careful copy of Mf 2 (see K 4) in 703 pages, dated 1746. It contains the Vidēvdādsāda, including the Yasna, Visprad, and Vidēvdād (Westergaard, 1846a, p. 112; Geldner, p. xxiii; Unvala, pp. 133ff).

K 10 is a badly worn manuscript of 294 folios (fols. 3-6 missing) written after 1743; it is a Vidēvdādsāda, including the Yasna, Visprad, and Vidēvdād (Geldner, xxi; Unvala, p. 135). According to Geldner, it belongs to the superior of two categories of Indian Vidēvdādsāda manuscripts.

K 11 is a manuscript of 317 folios, dated 1647. It contains the Yasna sāda, Sīrōza, and Visprad sāda, with frequent corrections by a later hand, and appears closely related to a Yasna manuscript in Emmanuel College, Cambridge, donated by the British merchant Moody (Eyser, p. 154; Geldner, p. xxxvii; Unvala, p. 135; Mirza, p. 329). It also contains three Avestan frag­ments (Westergaard, 1846a, pp. 331-32, frags. I, III, IV).

K 12 is a Ḵorda Avesta, including all the yašts. It is dated 1801 and is very poorly written (Westergaard, 1846a, p. 113; Geldner, pp. vii, xlv; Unvala, pp. 136-­37). It also contains the Āfrīn ī payḡāmbar Zardušt (see Westergaard, 1846a, pp. 300-01).

K 13 consists of the Farvardīn yašt, an Iranian manuscript of 55 folios, dated 1721 (Westergaard, 1846a, p. 113; Geldner, pp. vii, xlvi; Unvala, pp. 137ff.). H 5 is a careless copy of this manuscript.

K 14 is a late, carelessly written manuscript copy of the Farvardīn yašt and the Āfrīn ī payḡāmbar Zardušt (cf. Westergaard, 1846a, pp. 300-01; see also K 19, K 25, below).

K 15 is an undated modern codex containing five different works: Yasna with Neryosang’s Sanskrit version (fols. 1-39), a copy of P 11, which is itself a copy of J 3 (Geldner, p. xxxi n. 2; cf. K 6); Āfrīnagān dahmān, with a Sanskrit version (incomplete; fols. 40­47); Patīt Pešmano, Ḵᵛoršīd nīāyeš, Māh nīāyeš, and Ātaš nīāyeš, with Sanskrit versions (fols. 48-92); Namaskāras and nīrangs, as well as some Avestan fragments (Westergaard, 1846a, pp. 331-34, frs. I, II, IV, VIII; fols. 95-181); and Tīr and Mehr yašts (fols. 182-277; Geldner, pp. vii-viii) copied from E 1 (Geldner, p. xlii).

K 16 is a modern manuscript of 63 folios, containing Bahrām, Ḵordād, Dēn, Aštād, and Rām yašts (Westergaard, 1846a, p. 113; Geldner, p. viii), copied from E 1 (Geldner, p. xliii).

K 17, a Ḵorda Avesta from Surat, is dated 1681. Its 208 folios contain several bājes (q.v.), the smaller and larger Sīrōzas, and similar texts (Geldner, p. viii; Unvala, pp. 143-44), as well as an Avestan fragment (Westergaard, 1846a, p. 333, fr. V).

K 18 is a codex containing texts copied from three different manuscripts of the Ḵorda Avesta: K 18a, containing prayers, Nīāyeš 1-3, Ohrmazd yašt, the two Sīrōzas, Āfrīnagān gāhānbār, Āfrīnagān dahmān, and Yašts 11 and 3, all with Pahlavi versions; K 18b, containing Ātaš nīāyeš, Ābān nīāyeš, and Mehr nīāyeš, with Pahlavi versions; and K 18c, containing prayers and Niyāyišn 1-3, with Persian versions (Geldner, p. viii; Unvala, pp. 144-45). Geldner (p. xlvi) classified it in the second, inferior group of Persian Ḵorda Avesta manuscripts.

K 19 is less than half a complete codex of the Ḵorda Avesta. It is a modern manuscript of 318 folios, containing prayers; Nīāyeš 1-5; Gāh 1, 2-5; Yt. 1-5.50; bājes, patīt, nīrangs, and all the āfrīnagāns, āfrīns, gāhs, and namaskāras (Westergaard, 1846a, p. 114; Geldner, p. viii; Unvala, p. 145). The yašt fragment is de­scended from Pt 1, which was copied in 1625 from F 1, the archetype of all existing yašt manuscripts (Geldner, p. xliv; Hintze, passim). It also contains the Āfrīn ī payḡāmbar Zardušt (Westergaard, 1846a, pp. 300-01) and four Avestan fragments (pp. 331-32, frs. I-IV).

K 20 is a codex consisting of Old Avestan and Pahlavi texts, somewhat carelessly written, originally in 178 folios in fifteen fascicles (K20a; fols. 1, 121, 145, 154, 155 missing, fol. 178 blank) plus a later fascicle (K 20b; Geldner, p. viii). It contains three colophons copied from older manuscripts (cf. Unvala, p. 145), dated 690/1321, 720/1351, and 700/1331. E. W. West has argued for a date not much later than 720/1351 for K 20 itself, which was the prototype for both K 21 and a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale (suppl. pers. P 7; West, Pahlavi Texts I, pp. xxvii-xxviii; Haug and West, pp. v-viii; Geldner, p. viii; Christensen and Barr, I, pp. 10ff.; cf. Kotwal, p. 6). It is closely related to M 51 (Bartholomae, p. 9; see West, I, p. xxx). The contents of K 20a include Ardā Wirāz-nāmag (fols. 2-29; Haug and West; Gignoux; Vahman, with facsimile); Mādayān i Yōišt i Friyān (fols. 29-38); an excerpt from Šāyest nē šāyest (fols. 38-39) on the length of a man’s shadow at noon and in the afternoon (tr. West, Pahlavi Texts I, pp. 397ff.; Kotwal, pp. 86ff.); a fragment of Hādōxt nask, with its Pahlavi version (fols. 39-51); an excerpt from Šāyest nē šāyest on Ahriman’s directions to the demon Xēšm (see aēšma; fol. 51; Kotwal, pp. 76-77); Šāyest nē šāyest (fols. 51-­74; Tavadia, 1930, pp. 2-4); Frahang ī ōīm (fols. 74-­88; Klingenschmitt); Indian Bundahišn (fols. 88-129; facs. ed., Westergaard, 1851; Justi, esp. pp. xii-xviii; see also bundahišn); Bahman yašt (fols. 129-43; cf. B. T. Anklesaria, 1957; Hedāyat); Andarz ī Ōšnar ī dānāg (fols. 143-48; cf. Dhabhar, 1930, pp. xiii-xiv); Mādayān ī Gujastag Abāliš (fols. 148-52; cf. Barthélemy, who was forced to rely for his edition on two copies of K 20, rather than the original); Ādurbād ī Mahraspandān’s answers to the questions of the Persian king (fol. 152, ll. 8-19), in Pahlavi (ed. with transcription and translation, Asmussen, 1971); a Yašt fragment, in Avestan and Pahlavi (fols. 152-53); Srōš yašt hādōxt (Yt. 11; fols. 156-59), Avestan text with a Pahlavi version; extracts of the Yasna in Avestan and Pahlavi (Y. 11.17-18, 12, 13, and the beginning of 29.6; fols. 159-65); various texts from Šāyest nē šāyest (fols. 165v-175r), including the recital of the Yaθā-ahū­vairiiō prayer (Kotwal, pp. 76ff.; this text is also in K 27, pp. 11-12), a miscellany of Zoroastrian teachings (Kotwal, pp. 22-39), Čim ī gāhān, on the meaning of the Gathas (Kotwal, pp. 40ff.), and a work on the Drōn sacrifice (Kotwal, pp. 54ff.); and Patīt ī xwad (fols. 175-­77; Asmussen, 1965, pp. 90-98). K 20b consists of 20 folios in one hand (16th or 17th century) and one folio in another (first half 14th century) containing the Indian Bundahišn; the first two are lost. It belongs to the same manuscript tradition as K 20a and M 51 but represents an earlier stage of the text (Christensen and Barr, I, pp. 15-16; West, Pahlavi Texts I, pp. xxviii-­xxix; Tavadia, 1944, pp. 314 and 317ff.; Mirza, p. 345-46; Katrak, p. 222; cf. Barthélemy, p. 4).

K 21 is a careless modern copy of K 20, in 173 folios, the last 14 of which contain repetitions of parts of the text (Geldner, p. viii; Haug and West, pp. vii-viii). According to Rask, it was copied by Dastur Dārāb (cf. Barthélemy, p. 4).

K 22 is an undated manuscript of 53 folios (West, Pahlavi Texts III, pp. xix-xx), containing a rather cor­rupt text of the Pahlavi Mēnōg ī xrad, with Neryosang’s Sanskrit translation, and Srōš yašt hādōxt (Yt. 11), with a Pahlavi translation (Kreyenbroek, pp. 58-70, 96­-105).

K 23, in 168 folios, is a Pazand Mēnōg ī xrad with Gujarati translation, dated 1662 (Westergaard, 1854, p. 11 n. 4; Unvala, pp. 145-46; Mirza, p. 353).

K 24 is an Indian manuscript of Ṣefat-e Sīrōza in 40 folios, copied about 1820 (Rask, handwritten note; Westergaard, 1846a, p. 114).

K 25 is an undated Pahlavi codex of 135 folios, containing various texts, primarily from Ḵorda Avesta but also excerpts in Pazand; according to Barr, it was probably copied after 1600. It has not yet been published in its entirety. The texts include Ṣefat-e Sīrōza; Frahang ī pahlawīg (fols. 49r-73v), with in­terlinear Pazand transcription, used by H. F. J. Junker only at the proof stage of his edition, which thus includes only a selection of its readings, but fully collated by H. S. Nyberg (pp. xi-xii); the Avestan and Pahlavi alphabets (fol. 74r) in the order of the Arabic alphabet (Nyberg, p. 33); Izeshne rafitwan; Āfrīnagān rapiθwin; Āfrīn ī payḡāmbar Zardušt (Westergaard, 1846a, pp. 300-01); Sīrōza and Ḵorda Avesta; and Avestan fragments (Westergaard, 1846a, p. 333, frs. V, VII).

K 26 consists of 53 carefully written folios (numbered fols. 8-40, 49-50, 55-72), according to Haug probably written before 1670. It is closely related to K 20 but not a copy of it and is probably also related to the Pazand manuscript H 18 (cf. Bartholomae, p. 223, M 63). It contains the greater part of Ardā Wirāz-nāmag and Mādayān ī Yōišt ī Friyān (Haug and West, pp. viii-ix).

K 27 includes a miscellany of prayers, magical for­mulas, and calendrical texts in Pahlavi and Pazand (ed. Hampel). It is undated but contains numerous modern Persian grammatical forms and words, both in the Pahlavi and Pazand (mostly unrecognized by Hampel, e.g., ms. p. 10 l. 2: Pazand fāiṯa = Pers.-Ar. fāʾeda “profit,” read by Hampel, p. 20, as pāiṯa and equated with Mid. Pers. paydāg).

K 28 contains the incomplete text, in 66 folios, of Škand-gumānīg wizār in Pahlavi, Pazand, and Neryosang’s Sanskrit version, written about 1750 (West, Pahlavi Texts III, p. xxx; ed. Menasce).

K 29 is an incomplete version, in 16 folios, of the Pahlavi Pand-nāmag ī Zardušt (or Čīdag-handarz ī pōryōtkēšān) with an interlinear translation in New Persian (Plate CLXVII).

K 30 is a large codex of 244 folios, containing a collection of Persian rivāyats, a Pahlavi nīrangī dēn, parts of Vidēvdād, a Pahlavi glossary, a nīrangī āfrīn, and other short texts in Pahlavi and Persian (Westergaard, 1846a, p. 115).

K 31 contains a Pahlavi glossary (36 fols.) and Y. 43­-45, with a Pahlavi translation (15 fols.).

K 32 is a manuscript, in 37 folios, of Frahang ī pahlawīg (Unvala, p. 146).

K 33, in 138 folios, consists of Pahlavi glossaries, among them a list of words compiled and copied by Mulla Kāʾūs b. Rostam while he was studying with Dastur Dārāb (27 fols.; Unvala, pp. 146-47).

K 34 is a set of 36 folios plus some unwritten pages detached from K 1, according to the card index of the University of Copenhagen library (not listed in Westergaard, 1846a).


K 35 was copied in 1572, but only folios 72-256 are extant; folios 255-56 were discovered by P. K. Anklesaria in a manuscript in Bombay and reproduced in facsimile by him (pp. 191-94). The Copenhagen codex contains Pahlavi Rivayat accompanying Dādistān ī denīg (Pahlavi Rivayat I; fols. 72-99r); Dādistān ī denīg (fols. 99r-201v); Pahlavi Rivayat II (fols. 202v-206r); Epistles of Mānuščihr (fols. 206r-­233v); and the Wizīdagīhā ī Zādspram (Selections of Zādspram; fols. 233v-254v). The last text was used by B. T. Anklesaria in his edition (1964). The manuscript was purchased by Westergaard in Kerman in 1843 and donated to the university library with his own signa­ture a few hours before his death on 9 September 1878 (for a detailed description, see P. K. Anklesaria, pp. 13ff; see also Sohn, pp. 49, 57; Unvala, pp. 147ff.; Mirza, p. 346; Nyberg, Manual I, p. xx).

K 36 is a Persian manuscript of the greater part of Ḵorda Avesta in 167 folios (fols. 1 and 101-15 miss­ing), dated 1704 (Geldner, p. viii): prayers, Nīāyeš 1­3, Āfrīnagān dahmān, Āfrīnagān gāhānbār, Āfrīnagān Gāhhā, Ātaš nīāyeš, Ohrmazd yašt, Ard yašt, Srōš yašt, Srōš yast hādōxt, Bahrām yašt, Gāh 2-5, Yasna 16, both Sīrōzas, Ābān yašt, Ātaš nīāyeš, and Avestan frag­ments (Westergaard, 1846a, p. 333, frs. VI, VII, ms. “M1”).

K 37 is a modern manuscript of Ḵorda Avesta in Avestan, Pazand, and Persian, consisting of 108 folios. It includes Yašts 1, 3, 11, and 14 in Persian script, Yašt 13 in Avestan script, and parts of the Yasna (Y. 28-34, 23.26, 65) and Ātaš nīāyeš in Avestan script (Geldner, p. viii).

K 38, in 108 folios, was copied in Persia in 1814 (cf. Geldner, p. viii). It contains Bahrām yašt; the begin­ning of Druwāsp yašt; Darūn yašt; Farvardīn yašt; Sīrōza; Hāvan gāh; Haft Amahraspand yašt; fragments of other yašts (cf. Unvala, pp. 150-51), and Avestan fragments (Westergaard, 1846a, pp. 331-34, frags. I, IV, VIII, ms. “M3”).

K 39 contains Yašt 18 (fols. 1-9), copied in 1818 (Unvala, p. 151), and a Pazand Patīt ī īrānīg.

K 40, in 348 folios, contains Yašts 3, 6, 7, 10, 14, and 15 and was copied for Westergaard in 1842.

K 41 is a copy, in 104 folios, of Nīrangistān in Avestan and Pahlavi, dated 10 February 1836, without indepen­dent critical value (West, in Grundriss, pp. 85-86; Unvala, p. 151; Mirza, p. 337; Sanjana, pp. 2-3).

K 42, in 27 folios, contains Aogəmadaēcā (q.v.) in Pazand, Sanskrit, and incomplete Gujarati versions. It is related to M 66, and M 67 is descended from it (facs. in JamaspAsa, pp. 11-17; Bartholomae, pp. 260-61, 265-66).

K 43 is Pahlavi codex in four parts copied just before 1600, with copies of colophons dated 369/1020, 936/1587 (by Mihrābān), 938/1589, and 943/1594; the first 129 folios and the end are missing. K 43a (fols. 130­-275) contains a fragment of the Iranian (Great) Bundahišn (fol. 130; Andreas); a Pahlavi Mēnōg ī xrad (fols. 131-76; Andreas; cf. T. D. Anklesaria, pp. 6-7); Dēnkard, book 6 (fols. 177r-259r), said to be closely related to the more nearly complete Bombay manuscript of the Dēnkard (ed. Dresden; Shaked, pp. xliv-xlv; for concordances see Dēnkard, ed. Dresden, pp. 30-34); Bahman yašt (fols. 262r-275v; B. T. Anklesaria, 1957, pp. i-ii; tr. Hedāyat, pp. 29-125); and the beginning of a Pazand Jāmāsp-nāmag (fol. 275v). K 43b (fols. 1-­42) consists of fragments of Dēnkard (fols. 1-3v: bk. 3, fols. 3v-21r: bk. 5, fols. 21r-42v: bk. 9). K 43c consists of two folios numbered 186 and 191, containing a text on the paragra ceremony (a preliminary to the yasna ceremony), and K 43d is a single folio with fragments of Srōš yašt (Unvala, p. 152; Mirza, pp. 341, 352; Christensen and Barr, V, pp. 7-12, VI, pp. 7-8; cf. West, Pahlavi Texts V, pp. xxxix-xl, xxxiv, xviii-xix; Nyberg, Manual I, pp. xix-xxi).

Bibliography : F. C. Andreas, The Book of the Mainyo-i-Khard, also an Old Fragment of the Bundahesh, Kiel, 1882. B. T. Anklesaria, Zandî Vohûman Yasn and Two Pahlavi Fragments with Text, Transliteration, and Translation in English, Bombay, 1957. Idem, Vichitakiha-i Zatsparam with Text and Introduction I, Bombay, 1964. P. K. Anklesaria, A Critical Edition of the Unedited Por­tion of the Dādestān-i dīnīk, Ph.d. diss., School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 1958. T. D. Anklesaria, ed., Dânâk-u Mainyô-i Khard. Pahlavi, Pazand, and Sanskrit Texts, Bombay, 1913. J. P. Asmussen, Xuāstvānīft. Studies in Manichaeism, Acta Theologica Danica 7, Copenhagen, 1965, p. 90-­98. Idem, “Zarathustrismen II,” in J. P. Asmussen and J. Læssøe, eds., Illustreret Religionshistorie II, Copenhagen, 1968, pp. 279-96. Idem, “Einige Bemerkungen zur sasanidischen Handarz-Literatur,” Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Quaderni 160, 1971, pp. 269-76. A. Barthélemy, Gujastak Abalish. Re­lation d’une conférence théologique présidiée par le Calife Mâmoun, Paris, 1887. C. Bartholomae, Die Zendhandschriften der K. Hof- and Staatsbibliothek in München, Munich, 1915. S. D. Bharucha, ed., Collected Sanskrit Writings of the Parsis II. Ijisni (Yasna), Bombay, 1910. A. Christensen and K. Barr, eds., Codices Avestici et Pahlavici Bibliothecae Universitatis Hafniensis, 12 vols., Copenhagen, 1931-­44. B. N. Dhabhar, Andarj-i Aōshnar-i dānāk, Pahlavi Text Series 4, Bombay, 1930. Idem, Pahlavi Yasna and Visperad, Pahlavi Text Series 8, Bombay, 1949. M. N. Dhalla, ed. and tr., The Nyaishes or Zoroas­trian Litanies. Avestan Text with the Pahlavi, San­skrit, Persian and Gujarati Versions, New York, 1965. J. Eyser, “Vore verdensberømte gammel­-iranske Haandskrifter,” in C. Dumreicher, ed., Ex Bibliotheca Universitatis Hafniensis, Copenhagen, 1920, pp. 145ff. K. F. Geldner, “Awestalitteratur,” in Grundriss II, pp. 1-53. Idem, “Prolegomena,” in Avesta. Die heiligen Bücher der Parsen I, Stuttgart, 1895. P. Gignoux, Le livre d’Ardā Vīrāz, Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations 14, Paris, 1984. J. Hampel, Die kopenhagener Handschrift Cod. 27. Eine Sammlung von zoroastrischen Gebeten, Beschwörungsformeln, Vorschriften und wissenschaftlichen Überlieferungen, Göttinger Orientforschungen III/2, Wiesbaden, 1974. M. Haug and E. W. West, The Book of Arda Viraf, Bombay and London, 1872; repr. Amsterdam, 1971. Ṣ. Hedāyat, Zand-e Vohūman yasn wa “Kār-nāma-ye Ardašīr Pāpakān,” Tehran, 1323 Š./1944. A. Hintze, “F1, E1 and drei neue Yašt-Handschriften,” Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 50, 1989, pp. 31-50. H. Ibscher, “Über die Wiederherstellung und Konservierung der Vendidad Handschrift K 1,” in A. Christensen and K. Barr, eds., Codices Avestici et Pahlavici Bibliothecae Universitatis Hafniensis X, Copenhagen, 1941, pp. 13-17. H. Jamasp, ed., Vendidâd. Avesta Text with Pahlavi Translation and Commentary, and Glossarial Index, 2 vols., Bombay, 1907. K. M. JamaspAsa, ed. and tr., Aogəmadaēcā. A Zoroastrian Liturgy, Sb. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, philosophisch-historische Klasse 397, Vienna, 1982. H. F. J. Junket, The Frahang i Pahlavīk, Heidelberg, 1912. F. Justi, ed. and tr., Der Bundehesh zum ersten Male herausgegebeṇ . . . , Leipzig, 1868; repr. Hildesheim and New York, 1976. J. C. Katrak, “Mitro-Awan Kaikhusrov. His Avesta and Pahlavi Manuscripts and Their Colo­phons with Date-Equations,” Journal of the K. R. Cama Oriental Institute 48, Bombay, 1980, pp. 220-32. G. Klingenschmitt, Farhang-i ōīm. Edition und Kommentar, Erlangen and Nürnberg, 1968. F. M. P. Kotwal, “The Supplementary Texts to the Šāyest nē šāyest,” Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Historisk-filosofiske Meddelelser 44/2, Copenhagen, 1969. G. Kreyenbroek, Sraoša in the Zoroastrian Tradition, Leiden, 1985. J. de Menasce, Škand-gumānīk vičār, Fribourg, 1945. H. D. K. Mirza, Outlines of Parsi History, Bombay, 1974. H. S. Nyberg, Frahang i pahlavīk, ed. B. Utas and C. Toll, Wiesbaden, 1988. D. P. Sanjana, Nirangistan. A Photozincographed Facsimile . . . , Bombay, 1894. S. Shaked, tr., The Wisdom of the Sasanian Sages (Dēnkard VI) by Aturpāt-i Ēmētān, Boulder, Colo., 1979. F. W. Sohn, Die Medizin des Zādsparam. Anatomie, Physiologie und Psychologie in den Wizīdahīhā ī Zādsparam, einer zoroastrisch-­mittelpersischen Anthologie aus dem frühislamischen Iran des 9. Jahrhunderts, Berlin, 1980. F. Spiegel, ed., Neriosengh’s Sanskrit-Uebersetzung des Yačna, Leipzig, 1861. J. C. Tavadia, ed. and tr., Šāyast-nē-­šāyast. A Pahlavi Text on Religious Customs, Ham­burg, 1930. Idem, “Zur Pflege des iranischen Schrifttums im Mittelalter,” ZDMG 98, 1944, pp. 294-339. J. M. Unvala, Collection of Colophons of Manuscripts Bearing on Zoroastrianism in Some Libraries of Europe, Bombay, 1940. F. Vahman, Ardā Wirāz Nāmag. The Iranian “Divina Commedia,” Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies Monograph Series 53, London and Malmö, 1986. E. W. West, “Pahlavi Literature,” in Grundriss II, pp. 75-129. Idem, tr., Pahlavi Texts I-V, SBE 5, 18, 24, 37, 47, Oxford, 1880-97. N. L. Westergaard, in Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes. Philosophiske og historiske Afhandlinger 7, 1845, p. cxcvi. Idem, Codices Indici Bibliothecœ Regiœ Havniensis. Subjungitur Index Codicum Indicorum et Iranicorum Bibliothecœ Universitatis Havniensis, Copenhagen, 1846a. Idem, “Extract from a Letter Addressed by Prof. Westergaard to the Rev. Dr. Wilson, Relative to the Gabrs in Persia,” JRAS 8, 1846b, pp. 349-54. Idem, Bundehesh. Liber Pehlevicus. E vetustissimo codice Havniensi descripsit, Copenhagen, 1851. Idem, Zendavesta or the Religious Books of the Zoroastrians I. The Zend Texts, Copenhagen, 1854.


Table 54. Conspectus of Codices Hafnienses.

Plate CLXVII. Folio 4, codex K 29, written in Pahlavi with an interlinear translation in Persian. Photograph after Asmussen, 1968, p. 293.

(Jes P. Asmussen)

Originally Published: December 15, 1992

Last Updated: October 26, 2011

This article is available in print.
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