Consulting Editors consist of a group of 38 noted scholars from major international academic institutions where various fields of Iranian Studies are taught and researched. These scholars advise the Editor on the choice of entries and authors, and on general policy relating to their area of expertise.
Hamid Algar - Islamic Heritage
Hamid Algar is Professor Emeritus of Persian and Islamic Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. He obtained both his B.A. and his Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge, and was awarded an honorary Ph.D. from the University of Tehran. His main research interests are the history of Shi’ism in Iran, with particular attention to the 19th and 20th centuries, and Sufism, especially the Naqshbandi order and its development in Central Asia, India, Kurdistan, Turkey and the Balkans. His work on these topics has been published in a wide variety of languages.
Abbas Amanat - Qajar History
Abbas Amanat received his B.A. from Tehran University in 1971 and D.Phil. from Oxford University in 1981. His principal publications include Apocalyptic Islam and Iranian Shi'ism(2009), Pivot of the Universe: Nasir al-Din Shah and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831-1896 (1997) and Resurrection and Renewal: the Making of the Babi Movement in Iran, 1844-1850 (1989). He is the editor of Cities and Trade: Consul Abbott on the Economy and Society of Iran (1983),Crowning Anguish: Memoirs of a Persian Princess from the Harem to Modernity (1995) and coeditor of Imagining the End: Visions of Apocalypse from Ancient Middle East to Modern America (2002); Shari’a: Islamic Law in the Contemporary Context (2007); and U.S.-Middle East Historical Encounters: A Critical Survey (2007). He also edited The United States and the Middle East: Diplomatic and Economic Relations in Historical Perspective (2000) and co-edited The United States and the Middle East: Cultural Encounters (2002) and Apocalypse and Violence (2004).
Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi - Shi'ism
Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi (b. 1958, Tehran), D.Phil (1991) in Oriental and Religious Studies, University of Sorbonne (Paris), is Professor of Classical Islamic Theology and History of Quranic Exegesis at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Sorbonne. He is member of several scientific institutions and reviews’ boards (Arabica, Journal Asiatique, Studia Iranica, Studia Islamica…). He has published mainly on Islamic theology and mystic and Shi’i Islam including The Divine Guide in Early Shi’ism (New York, 1994), La religion discrète: croyances et pratiques spirituelles dans l’islam shi’ite (Paris, 2006), Dictionnaire du Coran (Paris, 2007), Revelation and Falsification: the Kitâb al-Qirâ’ât of Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Sayyârî (with Etan Kohlberg, Leiden, 2009).
Steven C. Anderson - Fauna
Steven C. Anderson is Professor Emeritus of Biology and Environmental Science, Department of Biological Sciences, at the University of the Pacific in Stockton, California. He received his Ph.D. in Biology from Stanford University in 1966. His research interests include amphibians and reptiles of southwestern Asia as well as the fauna of Iran, Turkey, and Turkmenistan. He currently teaches courses on geographical ecology, natural history, environmental issues, and marine biology. His other interests include scuba diving, photography, martial arts, and Iranian history and culture.
Hassan Ansari - Classical Islam
Hassan Ansari (member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, 2013-2017), PhD, earned his doctorate at the École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE) of the Sorbonne, Paris. He also studied at the Ḥawza ʿIlmiyya, Tehran and Qum, where his work focused on the study of philosophy, theology, canon law, and legal theory. His publications include Accusations of unbelief in Islam: A diachronic perspective on takfīr (ed. with Camilla Adang, Maribel Fierro, Sabine Schmidtke, Leiden: Brill (Islamic History and Civilization, in press); Bar-rassī-hā-yī tārīkhī dar ḥawza-yi Islām wa tashayyuʿ: Majmūʿa-yi nawad maqāla wa yaddāsht (Tehran 1390/2012); L’imamat et l’Occultation selon l’imamisme: Étude bibliographique et histoire des textes (Leiden: Brill, forthcoming); and a critical edition of Ibn al-Malāḥimī’s Tuḥfat al-mutakallimīn fī l-radd ʿalā l-falāsifa (Tehran 2008, with Wilferd Madelung).
Gerhard Bowering - Sufism
Gerhard Bowering has been Professor of Islamic Studies at Yale University since 1984. Dr. Bowering obtained his baccalaureate degree from the Deutsches Gymansium Wurzburg in 1959; his Ph.L. in Philosophy from the Philosophische Hoschschule Pullach in 1964; his Th.L. from the Université de Montréal in 1971; and his Ph.D. in Islamic Studies from McGill University in 1975. From 1985 to 1984 he served as Assistant/Associate Professor at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Bowering is a member of the American Philosophical Society and the American Oriental Society; he is a recipient of a Guggenheim and a Mellon fellowship; and he is a Visiting Professor at Princeton University and Innsbruck University. His scholarly publications focus on Sufism and the literature of the Qur’anic commentary. He is Editor-in-chief of the Encyclopaedia of Islamic Political Thought (Princeton Press, 2012).
Yuri Bregel - Modern Central Asia
Yuri Bregel is Professor Emeritus at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana. Dr. Bregel earned a Ph.D. in History from the Institute of Oriental Studies in Moscow in 1961. In 1974, he emigrated from Russia to Israel, where he taught at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In 1981, he emigrated to the United States, where he served as Professor of Central Eurasian Studies at Indiana University, Bloomington until his retirement from teaching in 2000. Dr. Bregel has acted as Director of the Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies and as Director of the Inner Asian and Uralic National Resource Center. He is the author of numerous publications on the medieval and early modern history of Central Asia, the latest of which is An Historical Atlas of Central Asia (Brill, 2003).
Jean Calmard - Popular Religion
Jean Calmard is Directeur de Recherche honoraire, at CNRS, Paris. After completing his thesis ("Le Culte de l’Imam Husayn… ", University of Paris III, 1975), he worked as university lecturer (EPHE, INALCO, Paris) and researcher. From 1984, he directed a group of scholars researching the 16th-19th century Islamic world. He has directed many theses and organized the first Safavid International round table (Paris, 1989). He has published many articles, mainly on Shi’ism, history and historical geography of Iran etc., and contributed extensively to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd ed., and to the Encyclopædia Iranica. He collaborates with the editorial board of Studia Iranica and the studies published by the Société d’Histoire de l’Orient. His bibliography has been published in a volume of hommage, Liber amicorum. Etudes sur l’Iran médiéval et moderne offertes à Jean Calmard, textes réunis par Michele Bernardini, Mashashi Haneda, Maria Szuppe, Eurasian Studies, 2006, vol. 1-2.
Carlo Cereti - Sasanian History
Carlo Cereti is Professor of Iranian Studies at the “Sapienza” University of Rome and Cultural Counselor at the Italian Embassy in Iran. His main fields of research are Middle Iranian languages, history of the Parthian and Sasanian periods and Iran’s religious history. His major publications include An 18th Century Account of Parsi History - The Qesse-ye Zartoštiān-e Hendustān, IUO, Naples 1991; The Zand ī Wahman Yasn. A Sasanian Apocalypse, Serie Orientale Roma 75, IsIAO, Rome 1995; La Letteratura Pahlavi. Introduzione ai testi con riferimenti alla storia degli studi e alla tradizione manoscritta, Mimesis, Milan 2001; and (et al.) Glyptic Antiquities from the Museum of Khoy, Western Azerbaijan, Iran; Reports and Memoires, N.S. 8, IsIAO, Rome 2009.
Jamsheed K. Choksy - Modern Zoroastrianism
Jamsheed K. Choksy (B.A., Columbia University; Ph.D., Harvard University) is Professor of Iranian Studies in the departments of Central Eurasian Studies, History, India Studies, and Religious Studies, and is an Affiliated Faculty Member of the Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies Program and the International Studies Program at Indiana University. He also served as Chairman of the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures, and as Director of the Middle Eastern Studies Program there. Dr. Choksy was nominated by the President of the USA and confirmed by the US Senate as a member of the National Council on the Humanities overseeing the National Endowment for the Humanities (2008–2014).
Farhad Daftary - Ismailism
Farhad Daftary received his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley. He has held various academic posts and since 1988 has been affiliated with The Institute of Ismaili Studies in London, where he is currently Co-Director and Head of the Department of Academic Research and Publications. Dr. Daftary is a consulting editor of the Encyclopaedia Iranica, co-editor (with W. Madelung) of the Encyclopaedia Islamica, as well as the general editor of the Ismaili Heritage Series and the Ismaili Texts and Translations Series. An authority on Ismaili studies, he has written and edited a dozen books in this field, including The Ismā'īlīs: Their History and Doctrines (1990; 2nd ed., 2007); The Assassin Legends (1994); A Short History of the Ismailis (1998); Ismaili Literature: A Bibliography of Sources and Studies (2004), and (with Z. Hirji) The Ismailis: An Illustrated History (2008). He has also written more than 50 articles and book chapters and some 150 encyclopaedia entries. Dr. Daftary’s books have been translated into Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu, Gujarati and numerous European languages.
Muhammad Dandamayev - Median and Achaemenid History
Muhammad Dandamayev was born on September 2, 1928 in the village Unchukatl of Daghestan. In 1952, he graduated from the State Pedagogical Institute of Leningrad, Historical Faculty. During 1952-1954, he worked as a school teacher in Daghestan; in 1954-1958 he was a post-graduate student at the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Moscow. Since 1959 he has worked at the Oriental Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1997 he was elected a corresponding member of the Russian Academy. His main research interests include the ancient Persian empire, history, social institutions and culture of Babylonia during the first millennium BCE.
J.T.P. de Bruijn - Classical Persian Literature
Johannes Thomas Pieter (Hans) de Bruijn was born at Leiden on July 12, 1931. He has studied Arabic, Persian and Turkish and is Professor Emeritus of Persian at the University of Leiden. His publications include: Of Piety and Poetry (1983, on the life and works of Sanâ’i), Persian Sufi Poetry (1997), articles on classical Persian literature and the history of Persian studies, contributions to the Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Encyclopaedia Iranica, translations into Dutch of Sa’di's Gulistân, Omar Khayyâm and an anthology of classical Persian poetry. He is also an Editor of A History of Persian Literature, Volume I: General Introduction (2009). He currently lives in Leiderdorp, The Netherlands.
Richard M. Eaton - Indo-Persian Studies
After graduating from the College of Wooster in 1962, Richard M. Eaton lived in Tabriz for two years with the first group of American Peace Corps Volunteers to Iran. While there, he made a trip through India and Pakistan and acquired a deep fascination with the many historical connections between South Asia and the Iranian plateau. His research interests focus on the social and cultural history of medieval and early modern India (1000-1800), and especially on the range of interactions between Islamic and Indian cultures that took place at that time. These include Sufism, architecture, the rise of Islam in Bengal, Indo-Islamic traditions, and slavery.
Willem Floor - Material Culture
Willem Floor studied development economics and non-western sociology in addition to Persian, Arabic and Islamology from 1963-67 at the University of Utrecht. In 1971 he received his doctoral degree from the University of Leyden. From 1968-83 he worked in a variety of functions for the Dutch Ministry of Development Cooperation. From 1983-2002 he was employed by the World Bank as an energy specialist. He is currently an independent scholar. Dr. Floor has written more than 260 articles and books on a large variety of subjects concerning the social-economic history of Iran.
Bahram Grami - Flora
Bahram Grami was born in 1942 in Tehran. He received his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. in plant science from Tehran University, American University of Beirut, and University of Manitoba, Canada. He was a researcher at the Agricultural Research Organization of Iran and a member of the faculty of Isfahan University of Technology, until he left Iran for the U.S. in 1985. He worked as a researcher at the University of California, Davis until 1995. He has since served as scientific editor in American Association of Cereal Chemists and American Phytopathological Society. The second edition of his latest book, Flowers and Plants in a Thousand Years of Persian Poetry, was published in 2010.
Keith Hitchins - Caucasian Studies and Kurdish Studies
Keith Hitchins is Professor of History at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign and holds a Ph.D. from Harvard University. He offers courses and conducts research on Southeastern Europe between the 14th century and the present, the Kurds of Turkey and Iraq, the Caucasus (especially Azerbaijan and Georgia), and Central Asia (in particular the Tajiks and Uzbeks). His special interest is intellectual and cultural history, and his publications include Rumania, 1866-1947 (Oxford History of Modern Europe) (1994), The Identity of Romania (2009), and numerous articles on the above-mentioned subjects. He is editor of the Journal of Kurdish Studies.
C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky - Central Asian Art and Archeology
Professor C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1937. He earned a B.A. from Dartmouth College in 1959, served as a Benjamin Franklin fellow at Yale University from 1961-1962 and obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1965. His first teaching position was at Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. In 1966 he joined the Department of Anthropology at Harvard University becoming a Professor in 1971. From 1977 to 1990 he served as the Director of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University where he is presently the Stephen Phillips Professor of Archaeology. Professor Lamberg-Karlovsky has directed archaeological excavations in Jordan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, the Central Asian Republics of the former U.S.S.R., the Sultanate of Oman, Iran and most recently in Pakistan.
Maria Macuch - Sasanian Law and Society
Maria Macuch is Professor of Iranian Studies and head of the Institut fuer Iranistik (Institute of Iranian Studies) of the Freie Universitaet Berlin since 1995. Her PhD was completed in 1977; her habilitation in 1990. She received a call to the chair of Iranian Studies at the University of Göttingen in 1994 and was President of the Societas Iranologica Europaea from 2003-2007 and member of the SIE-Board since 1999. She is editor of the Series Iranica since 1993 and member of the Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum since 2007. Her main area of research focusses on pre-Islamic Iran, especially the Zoroastrian-Sasanian legal system and its impact on other legal cultures, especially Christian, Jewish and Islamic law. Click here a full list of publications.
William Malandra - Zoroastrianism
William Malandra was born in 1942 in Philadelphia and received a B.A. in Philosophy from Haverford College 1964. He then obtained an M.A. in Religious Studies at Brown University 1966 and completed a PhD degree at the University of Pennsylvania in Indo-Iranian philology 1971. His dissertation was on the Fravaši Yašt under the direction of Professor Mark Dresden. He taught courses on ancient India and Iran at the University of Minnesota for 30 years. After retiring in 2003 he was an adjunct in Asian Studies at the University of Texas until 2007, teaching courses on Zoroastrianism and ancient Iran. He now resides in Durango, CO.
Rudi Matthee - Safavid History
Rudi Matthee is Munroe Professor of History at the University of Delaware, where he has taught since 1993. He received his Ph.D. from UCLA in 1991. His research focus is on the political and socioeconomic history of early modern Iran and the Persian Gulf. He is the author of The Politics of Trade in Safavid Iran: Silk for Silver, 16001730 (1999); The Pursuit of Pleasure: Drugs and Stimulants in Iranian History, 1500-1900 (2005); Persia in Crisis: Safavid Decline and the Fall of Isfahan (2012), and co-author of The Monetary History of Iran, From the Safavids to the Qajars (2013), and some 50 articles on aspects of Iranian and Egyptian history and culture. He also coedited Iran and Beyond: Essays in Honor of Nikki R. Keddie (2000); Iran and the Surrounding World, 15012001: Interactions in Culture and Cultural Politics (2002), and Portugal, the Persian Gulf, and Safavid Persia (2011). He is coeditor of Der Islam, and served as President of the Association for the Study of Persianate Societies, 2003-05, and 2009-11.
Mahmoud Omidsalar - Folklore
Mahmoud Omidsalar obtained his Ph.D. in Persian Literature from the Department of Near Eastern Studies, University of California, Berkeley, where he also studied Folklore under Alan Dundes. In addition to publishing many essays on Persian literature and folklore, he has also edited the 6th volume of the new critical edition of the Shāh-nāma, under the general editorship of Professors Khaleghi-Motlagh and Ehsan Yarshater. He has served on the editorial board of the Encyclopeadia Iranica since 1990, and was appointed to the Supreme Council of the Center for the Great Islamic Encyclopaedia (Tehran) in 2006. Together with Iraj Afshar, he edits the series Folia Medica Iranica and Persian Manuscripts in Facsimile. In 2004, the first volume of his collected English and Persian papers received the book of the year award of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance in Iran. His current project is a critical edition of the poem Garšāsp-nāma, which was composed in 1066 CE. Dr. Omidsalar is currently employed by the John F. Kennedy Memorial Library at California State University, Los Angeles.
Osman G. Özgüdenlı - Perso-Turkish Studies
Osman G. Özgüdenlı was born in Kayseri in 1973. He graduated with a History degree from the Atatürk Education Faculty of Marmara University in 1992 and obtained his Master’s degree in Medieval history at the Institute of Turkic Studies at Marmara University in 1994. His research focuses primarily on the medieval history and culture of Iran (from the 11th to the 15th centuries,) cultural relations between Iranians and Turks in the Middle Ages, the Mongols in Iran, Islamic manuscripts and Seljuk numismatics. His doctoral research was published as Ghazan Khan and His Reforms (694-703/1295-1304) (Istanbul, 2000). In order to study resources related to the medieval history of Iran, he conducted research in a number of Iranian cities, in particular Tehran, Mashhad, Qom, Isfahan, Tabriz and Ardabil in the years 1995-1997, 1998, 2001, 2003, 2004 and 2005. He spent the years 2005-2007 studying in Berlin. He is currently in charge of the Institute of Middle East Studies, Department of Middle Eastern Political History and International Relations and the Institute of Turkic Studies, Department of Medieval History at Marmara University
Prods Oktor Skjaervo - Old and Middle Iranian Languages
Prods Oktor Skjaervo is the Aga Khan Professor of Iranian Studies at the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilization of Harvard University. He is a Norwegian national and a student of Old Iranian languages (Avestan, Pahlavi, etc.), literatures, and religions (Zoroastrianism, Manicheism), in addition to Iranian dialects. He was Assistant Editor and Senior Assistant Editor of the Encyclopædia Iranica from 1985 until 1991, when he was appointed to Harvard University. Among his numerous publications are several articles for the Encyclopædia Iranica, including, “Aždahā,” “Iranian words in Chinese texts,” “Iranian Languages and Scripts,” and, more recently, “Jamšīd” and “Kayanids.”
Brian Spooner - Anthropology
After obtaining a B.A. at Oxford in Persian and Pahlavi, Brian Spooner served as Assistant Director of the British Institute of Persian Studies in Tehran before completing an Oxford D.Phil. on the Baloch in Social Anthropology. He then began his teaching career at the University of Pennsylvania, punctuated by spells of ethnographic research in eastern Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Tajikistan. His publications include "Weavers and Dealers: The authenticity of an Oriental Carpet, "in The Social Life of Things, Cambridge University Press, 1986, and Reading Nasta'liq: Persian and Urdu Hands 1500 to the Present, Mazda Publications, 1995, 2007, with William L. Hanaway.
Maria Szuppe - Tajikistan
Maria Szuppe (Ph.D. Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris, 1991) is Research Fellow at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, first in Strasbourg, then in Paris with the “Mondes iranien et indien” research group. In 1997-1998, she acted as Scientific Secretary at the Institut Français d’Études sur l’Asie Centrale, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). She was a Visiting Scholar at the Oriental Faculty, University of Cambridge (1992-1993), and at the Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies (2009). Her main field of research is late mediaeval and early modern history and culture of Iranian societies, especially during the Timurid, Safavid, and Uzbek periods. She is co-founder and Scientific Director of Series Catalogorum published by CNRS “Mondes iranien et indien” and Istituto per l’Oriente (Rome), and Editorial Secretary of Studia Iranica, international bi-annual research journal.
Stephen Blum - Music
Bert Fragner - Economic History
Houman Sarshar - Judeo-Persian Studies
Robert H. Dyson Jr. - Archeology
Josef van Ess - Islamic Theology
Edmund Herzig - Armenia
R. D. McChesney - Post-Mongol Central Asia
Eden Naby - Assyrians of Modern Iran
John Perry - Zand and Afsharid Periods
Lutz Richter-Bernburg - History of Medicine
Priscilla Soucek - Art History
Ameneh Youssefzadeh - Music (Co-Consulting Editor)