Table of Contents

  • SOGDIAN LANGUAGE i. Loanwords in Persian

    B. Gharib

    Loanwords from Sogdian into Persian were adopted through the cultural relations and commercial interactions which existed between Iran proper and Transoxiana, the birth place of Sogdian language.

  • SOGDIAN TRADE

    Etienne de la Vaissiere

    The people of Sogdiana were the main caravan merchants of Central Asia from the 5th to the 8th century.

  • SOGDIANA iii. HISTORY AND ARCHEOLOGY

    É. de La Vaissière

    an Iranian-speaking region in Central Asia that stretches from the rivers Āmu Daryā in the south to the Syr Daryā in the north, with its heart in the valleys of the Zarafšān and the Kaška Daryā.

  • SOGDIANA vi. SOGDIAN ART

    Markus Mode

    The development and apogee of Sogdian art was limited to four or five centuries before and during the Muslim conquest of Transoxania. Sogdian art of the heartlands flourished in the settled areas of the Zeravshan and Kashkadarya valleys, as well as in Ustrushana (Osrušana), north of the Turkestan mountain range.

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  • ŠOKUROV, MOḤAMMADJĀN

    Habib Borjian and Evelin Grassi

    (1925-2012), Tajik scholar and literary critic. From the late 1980s, in the milieu of glasnost, he cultivated an interest in the theory of modern Tajik culture, and he published copiously on the issues of the history and contemporary conditions of Tajik language, literature, and culture during the independence period after 1991.

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  • SOLAYMĀNI, Ātajān Peyrow

    Keith Hitchins

    (1899-1933), Tajik poet who blended the classical traditions of Tajik-Persian verse with the social themes of the new Soviet Central Asia of the 1920s and early 1930s.

  • SOLṬĀN WALAD

    Cross-Reference

    13th-14th-century Sufi shaikh and poet, son and eventual successor of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi(Mawlawi). See BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN SOLṬĀN WALAD.

  • SORḴA

    Habib Borjian

    (locally: Sur), township and sub-province in Semnān Province.

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  • SORUSHIAN, Jamshid

    Carlo G. Cereti

    (1914-1999), a Zoroastrian community leader and author.

  • SOUR CHERRY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀLBĀLŪ.

  • SOUR GRAPE jUICE

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀB-ḠŪRA.

  • SOUTH PERSIA RIFLES

    Floreeda Safiri

    (SPR), a locally recruited militia, commanded by British officers, and operating in the provinces of Fārs and Kermān from 1916 to 1921.

  • SOUTHEAST ASIA i. PERSIAN PRESENCE IN

    M. Ismail Marcinkowski

    Attention will be given to some of the most striking features of the Persian influences on Southeast Asian Islamic culture.

  • SOUTHEAST ASIA ii. SHIʿITES IN

    M. Ismail Marchinkowski

    Along with Sufism, Shiʿite elements too entered Malay-Indonesian Islam, certainly by way of southern India, where it was well represented.

  • SPĀHBED

    Rika Gyselen

     Sasanian title that denoted a high military rank and meant  ‘chief of an army, general.’

  • SPEAR

    Boris A. Litvinsky

    (Av. aršti- ‘spear,’ OPers. aršti ‘throwing weapon’ or ‘javelin’) is mentioned in the Avesta several times.

  • SPIEGEL, FRIEDRICH (VON)

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (1820 -1905), German orientalist and scholar of Iranian studies.

  • SPULER, Bertold

    Werner Ende, Bert Fragner, Dagmar Riedel

    As a teenager Spuler lived through the economic and political turmoils of the 1920s following German defeat in World War I. He received a humanist education, with a focus on Latin and Greek, at the Bismarck Gymnasium in Karlsruhe. Spuler easily picked up languages, learning Russian, Polish, Hebrew, French, English, Italian, and Spanish.

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  • SRAOŠA

    William W. Malandra

    a major deity (yazata) in Zoroastrianism, whose great popularity reserved a place for him in Iranian Islam as the angel Surōš. In Avestan, the word occurs both as a noun and as a name. Its basic common meaning is “to hear and obey.”

  • STAMPS

    Cross-Reference

    see PHILATELY