Table of Contents

  • SIĀH-QALAM

    Bernard O'Kane

    “black pen” (1) the genre of paintings or drawings done in pen and ink; (2) the painters of such drawings.

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  • SIĀHKAL

    Marcel Bazin and Christian Bromberger

    small town and sub-provincial district (šahrestān) in the southeastern part of Gilān province.

  • SIBERIAN ELM

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀZĀD.

  • SĪH-RŌZAG

    Enrico G. Raffaelli

    a text of the Xorda Avesta comprising invocations to Zoroastrian divinities.

  • SILK

    Cross-Reference

    Originally from China, silk has been known in Iran since ancient times. See ABRĪŠAM.

  • SIMJURIDS

    Luke Treadwell

    a family of Turkish mamluks who over four generations, from the late 9th century to the Qarakhanid conquest (389/999), played a leading role in the Samanid state.

  • SIMORḠ

    Hanns-Peter Schmidt

    (Persian), Sēnmurw (Pahlavi), Sīna-Mrū (Pāzand), a fabulous, mythical bird. The name derives from Avestan mərəγō saēnō ‘the bird Saēna’, originally a raptor, either eagle or falcon, as can be deduced from the etymologically identical Sanskrit śyená.

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  • SINDHI

    Christopher Shackle

    A language of the Indo-Aryan family. Many of its numerous distinctive features may be attributed to the isolated position in the lower Indus valley of Sindh.

  • SINEMĀ WA NEMĀYEŠĀT

    Nassereddin Parvin

    the first Persian magazine entirely devoted to cinematography (1930).

  • SIRĀFI, ABU SAʿID ḤASAN

    David Pingree

    10th-century polymath known best for his work as a grammarian.

  • ŠIRĀZI, Nur-al-Din Moḥammad ʿAbd-Allāh

    Fabrizio Speziale

    Indo-Muslim physician and one of the main Persian authors of works on medical subjects in India in the 17th century.

  • SISTĀN ii. In the Islamic period

    C. E. Bosworth

    It was during the governorship in Khorasan of ʿAbdallāh b. ʿĀmer for the caliph ʿOṯmān that the Arabs first appeared in Sistān, when in 31/652 Zarang surrendered peacefully, although Bost resisted fiercely.

  • SLAVES and SLAVERY

    Cross-Reference

    See BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI.

  • SMBAT BAGRATUNI

    N. Garsoian

    distinguished Armenian prince and head of the Bagratid house at the turn of the 6th to the 7th century.

  • SMOKING IN IRAN

    Esfandyar Batmanghelidj

    Iran began producing finished cigarettes in order to meet growing domestic demand.  Russian investors established a series of manufacturing facilities in Rasht by 1890.  According to the accounts of the British consul in Gilan, the these produced cigarettes “too hot and coarse for European tastes,” but “well made and cheap enough.”

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  • SOAP

    Willem Floor

    (Ar. and Pers. ṣābun) was manufactured in Persia from antiquity. In the 10th century, various Persian towns produced soap, among them Bost, Balkh, and Arrajān.

  • SOCIETAS IRANOLOGICA EUROPAEA

    Gherardo Gnoli

    (SIE), important international association in the field of Iranian studies.

  • SODIQI MUNŠI, Mirzo

    Keith Hitchins

    Tajik poet (d. 1819). Little is known of his life and career.

  • SOFRA

    Mahmoud Omidslalar

    a piece of cloth that is spread on the floor, and on which dishes of food are placed at meal times.

  • SOGDIAN LANGUAGE i. Loanwords in Persian

    B. Gharib

    Loanwords from Sogdian into Persian were adopted through the cultural relations and commercial interactions which existed between Iran proper and Transoxiana, the birth place of Sogdian language.