Table of Contents

  • SHIʿITES IN ARABIA

    Werner Ende

    survey of the Arabian peninsula including Persian Gulf regions.

  • SHIʿITES IN LEBANON

    Sabrina Mervin

    Shiʿites, that is, Muslims adhering to the Twelver (eṯnāʿašari) or Imamite persuasion of Shiʿism, form the single largest denominational community of Lebanon. Their number is estimated at 1.5 million.

  • SHIR-E SHIAN

    Christopher P. Thornton

    Given the lack of architectural remains and the shallowness of the deposit, Schmidt argued that Shir-e Shian was a temporary campsite occupied for only one period. It is also plausible, given that burials were often placed below the floors of houses in prehistory, that the mounds of Shir-e Shian had simply been heavily eroded over time.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • SHIRAZ i. HISTORY TO 1940

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    The city of Shiraz has been the capital of the province of Fārs since the Islamic conquest, succeeding Eṣṭaḵr of the Sasanian period and Persepolis of the Achaemenid days.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • SHIRVANLU, FIRUZ

    EIr

    (1938-1989), art critic, scholar, and artist, who played an instrumental role in the creation and management of several museums and cultural centers in the 1960s and 1970s.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • SHOGHI EFFENDI

    Moojan Momen

    Šawqi Rabbāni (1897-1957), eldest grandson and successor of ʿAbd-al-Bahāʾ as leader of the Bahai Faith (1921-57). Iranian Bahais usually refer to him as Ḥażrat-e Waliy-e Amrallāh, the title given to him by ʿAbd-al-Bahāʾ, usually translated as “the Guardian of the Cause of God, or simply “the Guardian.”

  • SIĀH-QALAM

    Bernard O'Kane

    “black pen” (1) the genre of paintings or drawings done in pen and ink; (2) the painters of such drawings.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • SIĀHKAL

    Marcel Bazin and Christian Bromberger

    small town and sub-provincial district (šahrestān) in the southeastern part of Gilān province.

  • SIBERIAN ELM

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀZĀD.

  • SĪH-RŌZAG

    Enrico G. Raffaelli

    a text of the Xorda Avesta comprising invocations to Zoroastrian divinities.

  • SILK

    Cross-Reference

    Originally from China, silk has been known in Iran since ancient times. See ABRĪŠAM.

  • SIMJURIDS

    Luke Treadwell

    a family of Turkish mamluks who over four generations, from the late 9th century to the Qarakhanid conquest (389/999), played a leading role in the Samanid state.

  • SIMORḠ

    Hanns-Peter Schmidt

    (Persian), Sēnmurw (Pahlavi), Sīna-Mrū (Pāzand), a fabulous, mythical bird. The name derives from Avestan mərəγō saēnō ‘the bird Saēna’, originally a raptor, either eagle or falcon, as can be deduced from the etymologically identical Sanskrit śyená.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • SINDHI

    Christopher Shackle

    A language of the Indo-Aryan family. Many of its numerous distinctive features may be attributed to the isolated position in the lower Indus valley of Sindh.

  • SINEMĀ WA NEMĀYEŠĀT

    Nassereddin Parvin

    the first Persian magazine entirely devoted to cinematography (1930).

  • SIRĀFI, ABU SAʿID ḤASAN

    David Pingree

    10th-century polymath known best for his work as a grammarian.

  • ŠIRĀZI, Nur-al-Din Moḥammad ʿAbd-Allāh

    Fabrizio Speziale

    Indo-Muslim physician and one of the main Persian authors of works on medical subjects in India in the 17th century.

  • SISTĀN ii. In the Islamic period

    C. E. Bosworth

    It was during the governorship in Khorasan of ʿAbdallāh b. ʿĀmer for the caliph ʿOṯmān that the Arabs first appeared in Sistān, when in 31/652 Zarang surrendered peacefully, although Bost resisted fiercely.

  • SLAVES and SLAVERY

    Cross-Reference

    See BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI.

  • SMBAT BAGRATUNI

    N. Garsoian

    distinguished Armenian prince and head of the Bagratid house at the turn of the 6th to the 7th century.