Table of Contents

  • Šeydā

    Margaret Caton

    the pen name of Mirzā ʿAli-Akbar Širāzi (b. Shiraz, 1259/1843; d. Tehran at the Ṣafi ʿAlišāh ḵānaqāh, 1324/1906), a Persian musician regarded as the most important composer of the lyrical popular song (taṣnif) in the late Qajar period.

  • SHADDADIDS

    Andrew Peacock

    Caucasian dynasty of Kurdish origin reigning from about 950 until 1200, first in Dvin and Ganja, later in Ani.

  • SHADMAN, Sayyed Fakhr-al-Din

    Ali Gheissari

    (1907-1967), cultural critic and writer of fiction, professor of history, civil servant, and cabinet minister.

  • SHAH ABBAS I

    Cross-Reference

    Safavid king of Iran (996-1038/1588-1629). Styled "Shah ʿAbbās the Great," he was the third son and successor of Solṭān Moḥammad Shah. See ʿABBĀS I.

  • SHAHBAZ, Hasan

    Ḡafur Mirzāʾi

    From 1942 to 1948 Shahbaz wrote articles for newspapers and magazines, translated his first books, and worked as a translator for foreign companies, and as a contractor for Allied Forces in Iran. In 1949 he became an editor at the News Desk of the Embassy of Pakistan and later joined the American Embassy in Tehran.

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  • SHAHID SALESS, Sohrab

    Pardis Minuchehr

    Iranian cinematographer and award-winning filmmaker.

  • SHAHRZAD

    Mohammad Tolouei

    (Reżā Kamāl, 1898-1937), dramatist and translator who played a key role in introducing European Romanticism to Iran through his loose adaptations of French drama.

  • SHAHSEVAN

    Richard Tapper

    (Šāhsevan), name of a number of tribal groups in various parts of northwestern Iran, notably in the Moḡān and Ardabil districts of eastern Azerbaijan and in the Ḵaraqān and Ḵamsa districts between Zanjān and Qazvin.

  • SHAMANISM

    Philippe Gignoux

    AND ITS CONNECTION TO IRAN. Archeological and ethnological sources in Iran do not lead to confirmation of the existence of shamanic practices there, whether ancient or modern. Yet some scholars have tried to find traces of them.

  • SHAPUR

    Multiple Authors

    Three Sasanian king of kings and a number of notables of the Sasanian and later periods were called “Shapur.”

  • SHAPUR I i. History

    Shapur Shahbazi

    second Sasanian king of kings (r. 239-70), and author of several rock-reliefs and the trilingual inscription on the walls of the so-called Kaʿba-ye Zardošt.

  • SHAPUR I ii. The Great Statue

    G. R. GAROSI

    With a height of about 6.70 meters and a width across the shoulders of more than 2 meters, the monumental statue of Shapur I can be considered the most impressive extant sculpture dating from the Sasanian period. It is carved out of a huge stalagmite formed in situ.

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  • SHAPUR II

    Touraj Daryaee

    (r. 309-79 CE), longest reigning monarch of the Sasanian dynasty.

  • SHATT AL-ARAB

    D. T. Potts

    (ŠAṬṬ AL-ʿARAB), combined effluent of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers.

  • SHEEP

    Cross-Reference

    See GUSFAND.

  • SHEYBANI, MANUCHEHR

    Saeid Rezvani

    poet, painter, filmmaker, and dramatist.

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  • SHIELD in Eastern Iran

    Boris A. Litvinsky

    In Lurestan, a round bronze shield was found, which has a skirting along the edge, an umbo in the center, and relief depictions of fantastic creatures.

  • SHIʿITE DOCTRINE

    Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi

    Shiʿite doctrine is usually considered to be based on five principles. However, to articulate matters of faith in such a manner seems reductionist and late.

  • SHIʿITE DOCTRINE ii. Hierarchy in the Imamiyya

    Rainer Brunner

    The distinction between believers and ulema (ʿolemāʾ “religious scholars”) is known to both Sunnites and Shiʿites, and forms the starting point for internal ranking systems among their ulema.

  • SHIʿITE DOCTRINE iii. Imamite-Sunnite Relations since the Late 19th Century

    Rainer Brunner

    Since the 20th century, sectarian relations have reflected a growing number of attempts to reach, at least to some degree, an understanding and a rapprochement of each other’s views (taqrib, rarely taqārob).