Table of Contents

  • MĀR MĀRI

    Florence Jullien

    the Christian apostle, considered as the first missionary in the Arsacid Empire.

  • MARĀ BEBUS

    Morteza Hosayni Dehkordi and EIr.

    (Kiss me), the title of one of the most popular songs (taṣnif) of mid-twentieth century Iran.

  • MARATHI LANGUAGE, PERSIAN ELEMENTS IN

    S. H. Qasemi and EIr

    the southernmost Indo-Aryan language, is spoken by more than 40 million speakers, including inhabitants of Bombay and the state of Maharashtra (Mahāraštrā) in west-central India.

  • MARD-E ĀZĀD

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a daily newspaper published in Tehran  to support Reżā Khan (the future Reza Shah) in his bid for power, 1923.

  • MARD-e EMRUZ

    Ḥasan Mirʿābedini

    a controversial and highly popular newspaper published weekly in Tehran, with frequent interruptions, from 19 August 1942 to 14 February 1947, by Mohammad Mas’ud.

  • MARDONIUS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Name of several Persians in Achaemenid times, as OPers. M-r-du-u-n-i-y- /Mr̥duniya-/ (DB 4.84) is rendered in Greek (Mardónios) and Latin (Mardonius).

  • MARICQ, André

    Philippe Gignoux

    From 1953 to the summer of 1954, Maricq conducted extensive field research in the Near East. His aimed to collect casts of all seal collections in the Near East, to obtain impressions of the ŠKZ, and to survey a site in Commagene that Ernest Honigmann identified as the convent of the Nestorian bishop Barṣauma.

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  • MARIE ALEXANDRA VICTORIA

    Della L. Marcus

    (1875-1938), queen consort of Ferdinand I, king of Romania; she developed an understanding and sympathy for the Bahai faith.

  • MARITIME TRADE i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Daniel T. Potts

    In comparison with Mesopotamia, Persia has far less proof that maritime trade was an important factor in her ancient economy.

  • MARKAZ-E TAḤQIQĀT-E FĀRSI-E IRĀN WA PĀKESTĀN

    Arif Naushahi

    (Iran-Pakistan Institute of Persian Studies), an institute established as per an agreement signed between the Ministry of Culture and Art (Wezārat-e farhang wa honar) of Iran and Ministry of Education and Scientific Research of Pakistan.

  • MARKWART, JOSEF

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (1864-1930), German historian and orientalist, specialist in historical geography. His monumental Ērānšahr (1901) is still an authoritative work and probably his most important. His books are full of profound and nearly inexhaustible erudition, revealing that their author was a learned historian, philologist, geographer, and ethnologist.

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  • MĀRLIK

    Kamyar Abdi

    an elite burial ground of the late 2nd-early 1st millennium BCE in the western Caspian basin. In total, fifty-three tombs were discovered. The grave goods, numbering over 25,000 individual items, constitute the largest collection discovered from any cemetery of the Early Iron Age anywhere in the Near East.

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  • MARR, NIKOLAĭ YAKOVLEVICH

    I. Yakubovich

    The most significant part of Marr’s scholarly legacy is his editions of Georgian, Armenian, and Arab manuscripts, some of which he discovered during expeditions to the monastery of Aphon (Mt. Athos) in 1898, and to Sinai and Jerusalem in 1902.

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  • MARRIAGE i. THE MARRIAGE CONTRACT IN THE PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Ilya Yakubovich

    a formal, written agreement as part of the process of establishing a marriage bond between two families is documented in both eastern and western Iranian practice.

  • MARRIAGE ii. NEXT OF KIN MARRIAGE IN ZOROASTRIANISM

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    xwēdōdah, said to refer to marital unions of father and daughter, mother and son, or brother and sister (next-of-kin or close-kin marriage, nuclear family incest).

  • MARTYRS, BABI

    Peter Smith and Moojan Momen

    adherents of the Babi religion who were killed for their faith during the period up to about 1866, when the Bahai faith emerged.

  • MARTYRS, CHRISTIAN

    Christelle Jullien

    in the Iranian lands. The passion accounts are known from two sets of literary corpus: one in Syriac, and the other in Greek. Some of the Syriac Acts of the Persian Martyrs were first published with a Latin translation in 1748 by Stefano Evodio Assemani (1711-1782), on the basis of the ancient Vatican manuscript 160.

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  • MAʿRUFI, Jawād

    Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi and EIr

    Persian composer and pianist (1915-1993).

  • MARYAM KHANOM

    Dominic Parviz Brookshaw

    thirty-ninth wife of Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah Qajar (r. 1797-1834), mother of Żiāʾ-al-Salṭana and Maḥmud Mirzā.

  • MARZBĀN-NĀMA

    K. Crewe Williams

    an early 13th-century prose work in Persian consisting of various didactic stories and fables used as illustrations of morality and right conduct. The work is comprised of nine chapters (bāb) with main-framed stories, embedded minor tales, as well as Persian and Arabic poems, parables, sayings, and Qorʾanic expressions. 

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