Table of Contents

  • MARKAZ-E TAḤQIQĀT-E FĀRSI-E IRĀN WA PĀKESTĀN

    Arif Naushahi

    (Iran-Pakistan Institute of Persian Studies), an institute established as per an agreement signed between the Ministry of Culture and Art (Wezārat-e farhang wa honar) of Iran and Ministry of Education and Scientific Research of Pakistan.

  • MARKWART, JOSEF

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (1864-1930), German historian and orientalist, specialist in historical geography. His monumental Ērānšahr (1901) is still an authoritative work and probably his most important. His books are full of profound and nearly inexhaustible erudition, revealing that their author was a learned historian, philologist, geographer, and ethnologist.

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  • MĀRLIK

    Kamyar Abdi

    an elite burial ground of the late 2nd-early 1st millennium BCE in the western Caspian basin. In total, fifty-three tombs were discovered. The grave goods, numbering over 25,000 individual items, constitute the largest collection discovered from any cemetery of the Early Iron Age anywhere in the Near East.

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  • MARR, NIKOLAĭ YAKOVLEVICH

    I. Yakubovich

    The early part of Marr’s career was dedicated to Armenian and Kartvelian [Georgian] studies. The most significant part of Marr’s scholarly legacy is his editions of Georgian, Armenian, and Arab manuscripts, some of which he discovered during expeditions to the monastery of Aphon (Mt. Athos) in 1898, and to Sinai and Jerusalem in 1902.

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  • MARRIAGE i. THE MARRIAGE CONTRACT IN THE PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Ilya Yakubovich

    a formal, written agreement as part of the process of establishing a marriage bond between two families is documented in both eastern and western Iranian practice.

  • MARRIAGE ii. NEXT OF KIN MARRIAGE IN ZOROASTRIANISM

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    xwēdōdah, said to refer to marital unions of father and daughter, mother and son, or brother and sister (next-of-kin or close-kin marriage, nuclear family incest).

  • MARTYRS, BABI

    Peter Smith and Moojan Momen

    adherents of the Babi religion who were killed for their faith during the period up to about 1866, when the Bahai faith emerged.

  • MARTYRS, CHRISTIAN

    Christelle Jullien

    in the Iranian lands. The passion accounts are known from two sets of literary corpus: one in Syriac, and the other in Greek. Some of the Syriac Acts of the Persian Martyrs were first published with a Latin translation in 1748 by Stefano Evodio Assemani (1711-1782), on the basis of the ancient Vatican manuscript 160.

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  • MAʿRUFI, Jawād

    Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi and EIr

    Persian composer and pianist (1915-1993).

  • MARYAM KHANOM

    Dominic Parviz Brookshaw

    thirty-ninth wife of Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah Qajar (r. 1797-1834), mother of Żiāʾ-al-Salṭana and Maḥmud Mirzā.

  • MARZBĀN-NĀMA

    K. Crewe Williams

    an early 13th-century prose work in Persian consisting of various didactic stories and fables used as illustrations of morality and right conduct. The work is comprised of nine chapters (bāb) with main-framed stories, embedded minor tales, as well as Persian and Arabic poems, parables, sayings, and Qorʾanic expressions. 

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  • MĀSĀL

    Marcel Bazin

    small town and sub-provincial district (šahrestān) in the western part of Gilān Province.  The town is located at lat 37°22′ N, long 49°02′ E.

  • MASHAYEKHI, MEHRDAD

    Mehrzad Boroujerdi

    (1953-2011), scholar, public intellectual, political activist, whose research was focused primarily on the theoretical shortcomings of the traditional Iranian left and what seemed to him as their inadequate regard for democratic politics.

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  • MASISTES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Greek rendering (Masístēs) of an Old Iranian name *Masišta- (reflected also in Bab. Ma-si-iš-tu4) based on the superlative YAv. masišta-, OPers. maθišta- “greatest, supreme”.

  • MASJED-E SANGI

    Dietrich Huff

    a rock-cut mosque near the ancient site of Dārābgerd.

  • MAŠREQ AL-AḎKĀR

    Moojan Momen

    With regard to the building and design of the Mašreq al-Aḏkārs, Bahāʾ-Allāh states: “Make them as perfect as is possible in the world of being.”  Writing in 1955 to the German Bahais, Shoghi Effendi considered that the Mašreq al-Aḏkār should not be built in ultra-modern style, but be “graceful in outline,” with a “delicate architectural beauty.” 

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  • MASRUR, Hosayn

    Ḥasan Mirʿābedini

    (1890-1968), novelist, poet, and literary scholar.

  • MASSON, Charles

    Elizabeth Errington

    alias of James Lewis (1800-53), traveler, pioneering archeologist and numismatist, who in 1832-38 produced the first comprehensive archeological records of eastern Afghanistan.

  • MASʿUD (III) B. EBRĀHIM

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    recorded on his coins with various other honorifics. He seems to have had generally peaceful relations with his western neighbors, the Great Saljuqs.

  • MAS’UD, MOHAMMAD

    Ḥasan Mirʿābedini

    novelist and editor of the controversial and highly popular newspaper Mard-e emruz.