Table of Contents

  • MĀKŪLĀ DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E MĀKŪLĀ.

  • MALABĀRI, BEHRĀMJI MERWĀNJI

    Firoze M. Kotwal and Jamsheed K. Choksy

    Malabari began his journalistic and editorial career after Sir Cowasji Jehangir, an eminent Parsi businessman, introduced him to Martin Woods, then the editor of the Times of India. Malabari also began writing a serial column for the Indian Spectator, an English language weekly magazine.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MALAKUT

    Saeed Honarmand

    the highly acclaimed and the only published novella by the noted modernist fiction writer Bahram Sadeqi.

  • MALARIA

    Mohammad Hossein Azizi

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2013, Iran, after several decades of fighting against the disease, has now entered the pre-eliminated stage of malaria control; it is anticipated that, by 2025, malaria will be completely eradicated in Iran.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MALEKŠĀH

    David Durand-Guédy

    the Great Saljuq sultan, during whose reign the Saljuq empire attained its maximum extension.

  • MALIĀN

    Kamyar Abdi

    an important archeological site in the Kor River basin in central Fārs, identified as ancient Anshan, the highland capital of Elam. At nearly 200 ha, Maliān is the largest pre-Achaemenid settlement in Fārs and one of largest archeological sites in Iran.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MĀLIK, DĀWĪD GĪWARGĪS

    David G. Malick

    (1861-1931), Assyrian poet and historian, born in the village of Sipūrḡān in the Urmia plain; served as secretary of the Patriarchal Church Committee.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MĀLIK, GĪWARGĪS DĀWĪD

    David G. Malick

    (1836-1909), Assyrian writer, educator, and missionary, born in the village of Sipūrḡān in the Urmia plain, Azerbaijan; his work with Americans and Europeans enabled him to travel widely in the Middle East and Europe.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MĀLIK, NISṬŌRĪS GĪWARGĪS

    David G. Malick

    (1864-1927), Assyrian priest, educator, and writer was born in the village of Sipūrḡān in the Urmia plain, Azerbaijan; he succeeded in persuading Norwegian Lutherans to sponsor missionary work aimed at supporting, rather than converting, the Church of the East.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MALKŪS

    Kianoosh Rezania

    a malignant demon in Zoroastrian Pahlavi literature, of pestilential nature and a descendant of the Turanian Brādarōrēš, who killed Zarathustra.

  • MAMIKONEAN FAMILY

    Nina Garsoian

    the most distinguished family in Early Christian Armenia after the ruling Arsacid house. Their power survived the fall of the dynasty in 428 and began to wane only from the end of the 6th century.

  • MAMMALS

    Multiple Authors

    "warm-blooded" vertebrate animals that have hair and produce milk to nourish their young.

  • MAMMALS i. Mammals of Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia

    Steven C. Anderson

    an account of mammals in history, literature, biodiversity, and biogeography.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MAMMALS ii. Species List: Mammals of Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia

    Steven C. Anderson

    taxonomy of the mammals of the area, with their common names and range. 

  • MAMMALS iii. The Classification of Mammals and the Other Animal Classes according to Zoroastrian Tradition

    Mahnaz Moazami

    The first written information about certain animals in Iran comes from the Zoroastrian literature, according to which the entire animal kingdom is divided into two classes: “beneficent animals” and “evil animals.”

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MAMSIRATI, DÄBE

    F. Thordarson

    (Russian: Dabe Mamsurov), Ossetic author (1909-1966).

  • MAʾMUN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    , Abu’l-ʿAbbās ʿAbd-Allāh, the seventh Abbasid caliph (r. 813-833), son of Hārun-al-Rašid (d. 809) by a Persian concubine.

  • MANDAEANS i. HISTORY

    Edmondo F. Lupieri

    an ethnic group (also called Nasoreans or Ar. Ṣābeʾin) belonging to one of the less represented religions of the Near East.

  • MANDAEANS ii. THE MANDAEAN RELIGION

    Kurt Rudolph

    A major characteristic of the Mandaeans is the frequent ritual use of (running) water (for baptisms and ritual purifications); another is the possession of a rich literature in their own eastern Aramaic language and script, “Mandaic”.

  • MANDAEANS iii. INTERACTION WITH IRANIAN RELIGION

    Kurt Rudolph

    assimilation and corresponding processing of Iranian (Persian) components within the Mandaean religion can be demonstrated on different levels: in the vocabulary, in the mythology or theology, in the cultic-ritual realm, and in the calendar.