Table of Contents

  • MANDAEANS i. HISTORY

    Edmondo F. Lupieri

    an ethnic group (also called Nasoreans or Ar. Ṣābeʾin) belonging to one of the less represented religions of the Near East.

  • MANDAEANS ii. THE MANDAEAN RELIGION

    Kurt Rudolph

    A major characteristic of the Mandaeans is the frequent ritual use of (running) water (for baptisms and ritual purifications); another is the possession of a rich literature

  • MANDAEANS iii. INTERACTION WITH IRANIAN RELIGION

    Kurt Rudolph

    assimilation and corresponding processing of Iranian (Persian) components within the Mandaean religion can be demonstrated on different levels: in the vocabulary, in the mythology or theology, in the cultic-ritual realm, and in the calendar.

  • MANDAEANS iv. COMMUNITY IN IRAN

    Jorunn Jacobsen Buckley

    According to the 15 September 2004 United States Department of State International Religious Freedom Report for Iran, Section 1, the current Mandaean population in Persia comprises between 5,000 and 10,000 persons.

  • MANDAEANS v. MANDAIC LANGUAGE

    Christa Müller-Kessler

    Mandaic is the term for the Aramaic dialect of the last remaining non-Christian Gnostics from Late Antiquity, the Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran (Ḵuzestān). It belongs to the Southeastern Aramaic dialect group with Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic (Babylonian Jewish Aramaic) and Koiné Babylonian Aramaic.

  • MANDAEANS vi. NEO-MANDAIC LANGUAGE

    Charles Häberl

    or modern Mandaic, the contemporary form of Mandaic, the language of the Mandaean religious community of Iraq and Iran. As such, it is the only known form of any of the classical literary dialects of Aramaic to survive to the present date, but it is severely endangered today.

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  • MANDANE

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    name of a daughter of the Median king Astyages.

  • MANGHITS

    ANKE VON KÜGELGEN

    self-denomination of Mongol and Turkic tribes which played an eminent role in the Golden Horde.

  • MANI

    Werner Sundermann

    the founder of the religion of Manicheism in the 3rd century CE.

  • MANICHEAN ART

    Zsuzsanna Gulacsi

    term referring to objects with aesthetic appeal that were made for, and/or used in association with,  the Manichean religion. With the exception of a rock-crystal seal in the collection of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris,  no other item of Manichean art is known from Sasanian Mesopotamia, where the religion had originated.

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  • MANICHEAN SCRIPT

    Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst

    a right-to-left Semitic script, used by adherents of Manicheism to write texts in Middle Persian, Parthian, Sogdian, Early New Persian, Bactrian, and Uighur (Old Turkish). It is closely related to the Palmyrene script of Aramaic and the Estrangelo script of Syriac; some of its orthographical conventions are also to be found in the Mandaean script.

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  • MANICHEISM i. GENERAL SURVEY

    Werner Sundermann

    Manicheism is the only world religion that has become completely extinct. Its founder, Mani, lived in the third century CE. His religion spread over the continents from the Atlantic to the Chinese Sea.

  • MANICHEISM ii. THE MANICHEAN PANTHEON

    Werner Sundermann

    In this article, the gods of the Manicheans are considered collectively with regards to their names and functions.

  • MANICHEISM iii. BUDDHIST ELEMENTS IN

    P. Bryder

    Mani, who came to be considered himself to be the seal of the prophets, named Buddha, Zarathustra, and Jesus as his forerunners.

  • MANICHEISM iv. MISSIONARY ACTIVITY AND TECHNIQUE

    Werner Sundermann

    The main primary sources on the beginning of Manichean missionary work are the Cologne Mani Codex and the Kephalaia.

  • MANICHEISM v. IN CHINA

    Sammuel L.C. Lieu

    Manicheism arrived in China in the sixth century, but its history in there was little known until the first decade of the 20th century, when a genuine Manichean text in Chinese was discovered in the Cave of Thousand Buddhas in Tun-huang.

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  • MANJIL

    Marcel Bazin

    town in the Rudbār district, Gilān province. Located at lat 36°44′ N, long 49°24′ E, where the Qezel-owzan (Kızıl-uzun) and Šāhrud rivers unite into the Safidrud.

  • MANNEA

    Ran Zadok

    (Neo-Assyrian Mannāyu), name refering to a region southeast of Lake Urmia centered around modern Saqqez.

  • MANṢUR B. NUḤ

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    the name of two of the later Amirs of the Samanids (q.v.), the first ruling in both Transoxiana and Khorasan, and the second in Transoxiana only.

  • MĀR ABĀ

    Manfred Hutter

    Zoroastrian convert to Christianity, catholicos for the Church of the East, 540-52 CE.