Table of Contents

  • ḴOSROW I i. LIFE AND TIMES

    Multiple Authors

    Sasanian king (r. 531-579). i. Life and Times (forthcoming).

  • ḴOSROW I ii. Reforms

    Zeev Rubin

    a series of reforms in Sasanian taxation and military organization, probably initiated already under Kawāḏ I.

  • ḴOSROW I iii. COINAGE

    Nikolaus Schindel

    The reign of Ḵosrow I (531-79) is generally regarded as the heyday of the Sasanian empire, but his coinage marks the nadir of Sasanian coin art. The most noteworthy features are innovations in reverse typology. In the first type, the assistant figures are shown frontally, a totally new depiction; and they hold what appears to be a spear, an attribute encountered previously under Wahrām II (276-93).

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  • ḴOSROW II

    James Howard-Johnston

    A wide range of non-Muslim texts, lives of saints as well as histories, dating from the seventh-tenth centuries, written in Greek, Armenian, Syriac, Latin and Arabic, provide more detailed information on military operations and diplomatic dealings, as well as helping to flesh out domestic history.

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  • ḴOSROW KHAN GORJI QĀJĀR

    Hirotake Maeda

    (1785/86-1857), an influential eunuch (Ḵᵛāja) of the Qajar era, who lived in the period spanning the reigns Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah (r. 1797-1834) to Nāṣer-al-Din Shah (r. 1848-96).

  • ḴOSROW MALEK

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    the last sultan of the Ghaznavid dynasty, in northwestern India, essentially in the Panjab, with his capital at Lahore. Various honorifics are attributed to him in the historical sources, in the verses of poets eulogizing him, and in the legends of his coins in the collections of the British Museum and Lahore

  • ḴOSROW O ŠIRIN

    Paola Orsatti

    the second poem of Neẓāmi’s Ḵamsa, recounting the amorous relationship between the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parviz (r. 590-628 CE), and the beautiful princess Širin.

  • ḴOSROWŠĀH B. BAHRĀMŠĀH

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    penultimate ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty, apparently still in Ghazna until the dynasty found its last home at Lahore in northwestern India at a date around or soon after the time of his death.

  • ḴOṬBA

    Tahera Qutbuddin

    (oration, speech, sermon), a formal public address performed in a broad range of contexts by Muslims across the globe, rooted in the extemporaneously composed discourses of pre-Islamic and early Islamic Arabia.

  • ḴOTTAL

    Clifford Edmund Bosworth

    a province of medieval Islamic times on the right bank of the upper Oxus river in modern Tajikistan. A region of lush pastures, Ḵottal was famed for horse-breeding.

  • KRÁMSKÝ, JIRÍ

    Jiri Bečka

    (1913-1991), Czech general linguist who specialized in Persian language studies. He then studied English and Persian (the latter under Professor J. Rypka) at the Charles University, Prague. 

  • Křikavová, Adéla

    Jiri Bečka

    (1938-2002), Czech scholar of Iranian and particularly Kurdish studies.

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  • KRYMSKIĬ, Agfangel Efimovich

    Natalia Chalisova

    (1871-1942) Ukrainian orientalist, author of over 1,000 works on the history and culture of Iran, Arab countries, Turkey, the Khanate of the Crimea, and Azerbaijan.

  • KUFTA

    Etrat Elahi

    popular Persian dish usually made of ground lamb or beef, and more recently, ground chicken or turkey in a mixture of herbs, spices, or other ingredients. There are two kinds of kufta: with rice and without.

  • KUHPĀYA

    Multiple Authors

    piedmont district east of Isfahan province, historically known as Vir.

  • KUHPĀYA i. The District

    Habib Borjian

    Kuhpāya is a large piedmont boluk (3,000 km2) separated from Ardestān on the north and Nāʾin on the east respectively by the Fešārk and Kuhestān chains, extensions of the Karkas range.

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  • KUHPĀYA ii. The Dialect

    Habib Borjian

    The dialects spoken in the Kuhpāya district belong to the Central Dialects, but in a narrower sense they are grouped together with the welāyati “provincial” idioms around the city of Isfahan.

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  • KUKADARU, JAMSHEDJI SORAB

    Michael Stausberg and Ramiyar P. Karanjia

    (1831-1900), Parsi Zoroastrian priest. He was renowned for his spiritual powers, in particular with respect to healing and divination.

  • KULĀB

    Habib Borjian

    or Kōlāb, city and former province (the greater part of medieval Ḵottal[ān]) of Tajikistan.

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  • KUNDA(G)

    Mahnaz Moazami

    a demon in Zoroastrian literature;  in the Avesta, Sraoša or Ātar is implored to cast it into hell; in Middle Persian books, it is the steed of the sorcerers.