Table of Contents


    William W. Malandra

    “The Little Avesta,” the name given to a collection of texts used primarily by the laity for everyday devotions.


    Etrat Elahi

    (ḵoreš or ḵorešt), common dish consisting of pieces of meat fried with chopped onion, herbs or vegetables, and other ingredients.


    Multiple Authors

    sub-province and capital city of Lorestan Province.

  • KHORRAMABAD ii. Population, 1956-2011

    Mohammad Hossein Nejatian

    This article deals with the following population characteristics of Khorramabad: population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

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  • KHORRAMSHAHR ii. Population, 1956-2011

    Mohammad Hossein Nejatian

    This article deals with the population growth of Khorramshahr from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

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    Multiple Authors

    town (lat 37°06′ N, long 79°56′ E) and major oasis of the southern Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China, historically an important kingdom with an Iranian-speaking population. 


    Hiroshi Kumamoto

    ancient Buddhist oasis/kingdom on the branch of the Silk Road along the southern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim basin, in present-day Xinjiang, China.


    Mauro Maggi

    the body of writings contained in a large number of manuscripts and manuscript folios and fragments written from the 5th to the 10th century in the Khotanese language, the Eastern Middle Iranian language of the Buddhist Saka kingdom of Khotan on the southern branch of the Silk Route (in the present-day Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China).


    Keith Hitchins

    (Ḵojand), city in northwestern Tajikistan on the middle course of the Syr Daryā River, about 150 km south of Tashkent and near the entrance to the Farḡāna valley.

  • KHUZESTAN viii. Dialects

    Colin MacKinnon

    The dialects spoken by the Iranian folk of the province appear to be of two basic types: Dezfuli-Šuštari, spoken in those two cities, and Baḵtiāri.

  • KHWARAZMSHAHS i. Descendants of the line of Anuštigin

    Clifford Edmund Bosworth

    After the Saljuq takeover in Khwarazm in the early 1040s, the Saljuq Sultans appointed various governors in the province, including several Turkish ḡolām commanders.


    Habib Borjian

    Kiā’s primary achievement was promotion and publicizing of a Persian national identity that embraced the pre-Islamic heritage—not atypical of his contemporaries who had received their formal education during the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi.  He taught and published, winning him reputation in society and eventually an appointment as the language academy’s president.

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    S. J. Badakhchani

    (d. 1970), 20th century Ismaʿili poet and writer of Afghanistan, born in Kulāb, southwestern Tajikistan. 


    Frantz Grenet

    a dynasty which ruled Tukharistan and later Gandhāra, probably also part of Sogdiana; the initial date is disputed (ca 390 CE for some modern authors, ca. 420-430 for others).


    Antonio Invernizzi

    capital of the Assyrian province of the same name, near the mound Qaṣr Šemāmok in northern Mesopotamia, where a Parthian necropolis was brought to light.


    Pierre Lory

    “Alchemy.” Externally, the purpose of alchemy was the conversion of base metals like lead into silver or gold by means of long and complicated operations leading to the production of a mysterious substance, the ‘philosopher’s stone,’ able to operate the transmutation. 



    As Milani describes in his afterword to the English translation, Golshiri incrementally sent handwritten pages of the manuscript to Milani in California in the guise of personal letters, “to avoid the ever-watchful gaze of the Islamic censors.” Golshiri requested that the text be translated into English under anonymous authorship.

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  • ḴIRI

    Ahmad Aryavand and Bahram Grami

    wallflower, a widely cultivated, sweet-smelling, ornamental plant of the mustard family, which often grows on old walls, rocks, and quarries, particularly limestone.

  • KIRSTE, Johann Ferdinand Otto

    Michaela Zinko

    Johann Kirste received his primary and secondary education in Graz, and after graduating from high school (Gymnasium) in 1870, he enrolled at the University of Graz to study Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit with Karl Schenkl. From 1872 until 1874, in the traditional manner of the time, Kirste studied at several German universities to broaden his training.

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    D. T. Potts

    (Ar. Qeys), small island in the lower Persian Gulf, noted for its palm gardens.