Table of Contents

  • KHALKHAL ii. Basic Population Data, 1956-2011

    Mohammad Hossein Nejatian

    Khalkhal has experienced a high rate of population growth, increasing more than sevenfold from a population of 5,422 in 1956 to 41,165 in 2011. 

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  • KHAN

    Gene R. Garthwaite

    (ḵān), a Turkish high title indicating nobility.

  • KHANLARI, PARVIZ

    ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Āḏarang and EIr

    scholar of Persian language and literature, poet, essayist, translator, literary critic, university professor, and founding editor of the periodical Soḵan.

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  • KHANLARI, ZAHRA

    Zahra Khanloo

    (1913-1990), author, translator, literary scholar, and university professor. She was among the first women in Iran to receive a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1939.

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  • KHANSARI, MOHAMMAD

    Alvand Bahari

    (1922-2010), Persian logician and scholar and a permanent member of the Academy of Persian Language and Literature; his works range from Manṭeq-e ṣuri to translations of Porphyry’s Isagoge and Aristotle’s Categories and a critical edition of Mollā Ṣadrā’s Iqāẓ-al-nāʾemin.

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  • KHARG ISLAND

    Multiple Authors

    an island and a district of Bušehr Province in the Persian Gulf.

  • KHARG ISLAND i. Geography

    Habib Borjian

    situated in Persian Gulf at about 30 miles northwest of the port of Bušehr and 20 miles west of the port of Ganāva, stretches about 5 miles longitudinally and half of that at its widest point.

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  • KHARG ISLAND ii. History and archeology

    D.T. Potts

    island in the Persian Gulf, situated at about 30 km northwest of Bandar-e Rig and 52 km northwest of Bušehr.

  • KHARG ISLAND iii. Developments since the 1950s

    G. Mirfendereski

    In the years following World War II, Kharg was sparsely populated and Ḵārgu was uninhabited. Its preeminence as Iran’s principal oil export terminal began in the early 1950s when the island was connected to the Gačsārān oilfield on the mainland by way of the coastal town of Ganāva.

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  • KHARGA OASIS

    Henry P. Colburn

    (Ar. Ḵārja), largest oasis in the Egyptian Western Desert, under Persian control during the Achaemenid Period.

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  • KHARIJITES IN PERSIA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    sect of early Islam which arose out of the conflict between ʿAli b. Abi Ṭāleb (r. 656-61) and Moʿāwiya b. Abi Sufyān (r. 661-80).

  • KHATLON

    Habib Borjian

    one of the three provinces of Tajikistan, located in the southwestern part of the country. It was created in 1988 and consolidates the former provinces of Kulāb and Kurgan Tepe.

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR

    Multiple Authors

    (ʿOMAR ḴAYYĀM, 1048-1131), celebrated polymath and poet, author of the Rubaiyat (Robāʿiāt).

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR vi. Illustrations Of English Translations Of The Rubaiyat

    William H. Martin and Sandra Mason

    The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam contain some of the best-known verses in the world. The book is also one of the most frequently and widely illustrated of all literary works. The stimulus to illustrate Khayyam’s Rubaiyat came initially from outside Persia, in response to translations in the West.

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  • KHAYYAM, OMAR ix. Translations into Italian

    Mario Casari

    The reception of Khayyam’s poetic work in Italy, as in the rest of Europe, was the result of the translation and rewriting of the English poet Edward FitzGerald (d. 1883) in the years 1859-79.  In Italy the more scholarly approach to Khayyam’s work by a few dedicated Iranists proceeded at a fitful pace over many decades.

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  • KHAYYAM, OMAR xiii. Musical Works Based On The Rubaiyat

    William H. Martin and Sandra Mason

    The enduring popularity of the verses in the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam is reflected in the large number of musical works they have inspired.

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR xiv. Impact On Literature And Society In The West

    Jos Biegstraaten

    The first scholar outside Persia to study Omar Khayyam was the English orientalist, Thomas Hyde (1636-1703).

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR xv. As Mathematician

    Bijan Vahabzadeh

    Three mathematical treatises of Omar Khayyam have come down to us: (1) a commentary on Euclid’s Elements; (2) an essay on the division of the quadrant of a circle; (3) a treatise on algebra; he also wrote (4) the treatise on the extraction of the nth root of the numbers, which is not extant.

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  • KHORASAN i. ETHNIC GROUPS

    Pierre Oberling

    The population of Khorasan is extremely varied, consisting principally of Persians, Arabs, Turks, Kurds, Mongols, Baluch, and smaller groups of Jews, Gypsies, and Lors.

  • KHORASANI

    Cross-Reference

    See AḴŪND MOLLĀ MOḤAMMAD-KĀẒEM ḴORĀSĀNĪ.