Table of Contents


    Lolita Nehru

    in Surxondaryo prov., southern Uzbekistan, site of a settlement and palace of the nomad Yuezhi, with paintings and sculptures of the mid-1st century BCE. The Yuezhi, and perhaps other nomad groups, overthrew the Hellenistic Greek dynasty which had ruled there since the mid-3rd century as successor to the post-Achaemenid governments of Alexander and the Seleucids.

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    Omid Ghaemmaghami, and Mina Yazdani

    (1860-1925), a leading, outspoken, Kāẓemayn-based Shiʿite jurist from Iraq, whose close involvement in anti-British politics and opposition to British occupation in Iraq resulted in his exile to Iran.

  • KHALILI, Abbas


    (1895-1971), political activist, journalist, translator, poet and novelist. See ḴALILI, ʿABBĀS.


    Multiple Authors

    southeasternmost district of Azerbaijan. 

  • KHALKHAL i. The Town and District

    Marcel Bazin

    Mentions of Khalkhal and of some of its subdistricts and localities appeared relatively late in medieval geographical and historical chronicles. 

  • KHALKHAL ii. Basic Population Data, 1956-2011

    Mohammad Hossein Nejatian

    Khalkhal has experienced a high rate of population growth, increasing more than sevenfold from a population of 5,422 in 1956 to 41,165 in 2011. 

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  • KHAN

    Gene R. Garthwaite

    (ḵān), a Turkish high title indicating nobility.


    ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Āḏarang and EIr

    scholar of Persian language and literature, poet, essayist, translator, literary critic, university professor, and founding editor of the periodical Soḵan.

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    Zahra Khanloo

    (1913-1990), author, translator, literary scholar, and university professor. She was among the first women in Iran to receive a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1939.

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    Alvand Bahari

    (1922-2010), Persian logician and scholar and a permanent member of the Academy of Persian Language and Literature; his works range from Manṭeq-e ṣuri to translations of Porphyry’s Isagoge and Aristotle’s Categories and a critical edition of Mollā Ṣadrā’s Iqāẓ-al-nāʾemin.

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    Multiple Authors

    an island and a district of Bušehr Province in the Persian Gulf.

  • KHARG ISLAND i. Geography

    Habib Borjian

    situated in Persian Gulf at about 30 miles northwest of the port of Bušehr and 20 miles west of the port of Ganāva, stretches about 5 miles longitudinally and half of that at its widest point.

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  • KHARG ISLAND ii. History and archeology

    D.T. Potts

    island in the Persian Gulf, situated at about 30 km northwest of Bandar-e Rig and 52 km northwest of Bušehr.

  • KHARG ISLAND iii. Developments since the 1950s

    G. Mirfendereski

    In the years following World War II, Kharg was sparsely populated and Ḵārgu was uninhabited. Its preeminence as Iran’s principal oil export terminal began in the early 1950s when the island was connected to the Gačsārān oilfield on the mainland by way of the coastal town of Ganāva.

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    Henry P. Colburn

    (Ar. Ḵārja), largest oasis in the Egyptian Western Desert, under Persian control during the Achaemenid Period.

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    C. Edmund Bosworth

    sect of early Islam which arose out of the conflict between ʿAli b. Abi Ṭāleb (r. 656-61) and Moʿāwiya b. Abi Sufyān (r. 661-80).


    Habib Borjian

    one of the three provinces of Tajikistan, located in the southwestern part of the country. It was created in 1988 and consolidates the former provinces of Kulāb and Kurgan Tepe.


    Multiple Authors

    (ʿOMAR ḴAYYĀM, 1048-1131), celebrated polymath and poet, author of the Rubaiyat (Robāʿiāt).

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR vi. Illustrations Of English Translations Of The Rubaiyat

    William H. Martin and Sandra Mason

    The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam contain some of the best-known verses in the world. The book is also one of the most frequently and widely illustrated of all literary works. The stimulus to illustrate Khayyam’s Rubaiyat came initially from outside Persia, in response to translations in the West.

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  • KHAYYAM, OMAR ix. Translations into Italian

    Mario Casari

    The reception of Khayyam’s poetic work in Italy, as in the rest of Europe, was the result of the translation and rewriting of the English poet Edward FitzGerald (d. 1883) in the years 1859-79.  In Italy the more scholarly approach to Khayyam’s work by a few dedicated Iranists proceeded at a fitful pace over many decades.

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