Table of Contents


    Ulrich Marzolph

    (1815-ca. 1856), the most prolific illustrator of Persian lithographed books in the Qajar period. Educated in Tabriz, he published an edition of the Ḵamsa‑ye Neẓāmi.

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    David Durand-Guédy

    a prominent family of Šāfeʿi ulema, who were settled in Isfahan by the Saljuq grand vizier Neẓām-al-Molk.  They turned into the most important family and political actor in that city during the Saljuq period and continued to play a significant role up to the Mongol invasion.

  • ḴOJESTĀNI, Aḥmad b. ʿAbd-Allāh

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (d. 882), commander of the Taherids in Khorasan, and after the Ṣaffarid occupation of Nishapur in 873, a contender for power.


    Multiple Authors

    historical district in the central Alborz, northwestern Māzandarān.  i. Historical geography.  ii. Language and culture.

  • KOJUR i. Historical Geography

    Habib Borjian

    The historical district of Kojur covers roughly a quadrangle bounded by the Caspian Sea on the north, the Čālus River on the west, Nur valley on the south, and Suledeh valley on the east. 

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  • KOJUR ii. Language

    Habib Borjian

    Two major languages of native Caspian and Kurdish dialects are spoken in Kojur. The Caspian dialect is structurally Mazandarani with some divergence. The Kurdish dialect is spoken by the Kurdish immigrants and remains unstudied.

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  • KOJUR iii. The Calendar

    Habib Borjian

    The Ṭabari or Deylami year observed in Kojur consists of twelve months, thirty days each, plus five intercalary days called petak, concluding the year.

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    Etan Kohlberg

    , Abu Jaʿfar Moḥammad b. Yaʿqub b. Esḥāq Rāzi (d. 941), prominent Imami traditionist.


    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe in the Ḵalḵāl region of eastern Azerbaijan.


    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (b. ca. 1024, d. 1064), vizier to Ṭoḡrel Beg (r. 1040-63), the first sultan of the Great Saljuqs, and, briefly, to Ṭoḡrel’s successor Alp Arslān (r. 1063-72).


    Fridrik Thordarson

    Konow was an all-around Indologist, whose extensive scholarly work covers most branches of Indian studies. His occupation with Grierson’s Linguistic Survey of India, where he edited half a dozen of volumes on various languages, resulted in a long series of studies of Tibeto-Burman, Munda and Dravidian languages.

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    Pierre Oberling

    a tribe in western Persian Azerbaijan.


    Vahid Rafati

    (d. 1874), teacher, defender and promulgator of the Babi-Bahai faiths.

  • KORK

    Rudi Matthee

    soft wool, also called Kermān wool, used for the manufacture of fine clothing and felt hats.


    Multiple Authors

    also Göroḡly, name of an early-17th-century folk hero and poet, whose stories are mainly known among the Turkic peoples; passed into the folk literature of the Armenians, Georgians, Kurds and Bulghars, and the Iranian provinces of Azerbaijan and Khorasan.


    Hasan Javadi

    There are at least 17 versions of the Köroǧlu/Göroḡly tradition about a heroic bandit minstrel, but the Turkic versions of the story among the Azerbaijanis, the Turks of Anatolia, and the Turkmen, are most similar to each other regarding language and plot.

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    Ameneh Youssefzadeh

    The traditional venues for the performance of the Köroǧlu/Goroḡli epic are life-cycle celebrations, private gatherings, and teahouses. In Azerbaijan and northern Khorasan, from the 17th century up to the Islamic Revolution of 1978, teahouses played a pivotal role in the diffusion and the preservation of the epic.

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    Multiple Authors

    the name of a tribe scattered across southwestern Iran, whose language is closely related to southern varieties of Balochi.

  • KOROSH i. The Korosh people

    Maryam Nourzaei, Erik Anonby, and Carina Jahani

    Korosh communities are found in villages near large towns and cities, and in the suburbs of these cities, across southwestern Iran. Their traditional livelihood is based on camel and goat husbandry.

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  • KOROSH ii. Linguistic Overview of Koroshi

    Maryam Nourzaei, Carina Jahani, and Erik Anonby

    Koroshi can be described as a distinct subgroup within the Balochi macro-language, although it shares many features with southern dialects of Balochi. The Koroshi spoken in Fars Province (the ‘northern’ dialect) differs to some extent from varieties of the southern dialect.

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