Table of Contents

  • ḤAYRAT, MOḤAMMAD ṢEDDIQ

    Habib Borjian

    (1878-1902) Tajik poet from Bukhar, literary scholars praise him as one of the best Persian poets of the late 19th century

  • HAYTON

    Peter Jackson

    an Armenian prince, lord of the city of Gorighos in Cilicia, and nephew of King Hetʿum I; he was exiled by his cousin King Hetʿum II and lived as a monk in Cyprus before moving to Poitiers in France, where in 1307 he composed a treatise commissioned by Pope Clement V outlining the conduct of a crusade.

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  • ḤAYYA ʿALĀ ḴAYR AL-ʿAMAL

    Meir M. Bar-Asher

    a religious formula, meaning “Come to the best of actions,” included in the call to prayer (aḏān) by all three major branches of Shiʿism, Twelvers, Zaydis and Ismaʿilis.

  • HAŽĀR

    Keith Hitchins

    pen name of ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Šarafkandi (b. Mahābād, 1921; d. Tehran, 1991), Kurdish poet, philologist, and translator. A master of traditional Kurdish poetry, he infused the content of his poems with a new, uncompromising militancy. His language is simple and direct, close to the spoken form.

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  • HAZĀR AFSĀN

    Cross-Reference

    The Persian title of The Arabian Nights, the world-famous collection of tales. See ALF LAYLA WA LAYLA.

  • HAZĀR O YAK ŠAB

    cross-reference

    See ALF LAYLA WA LAYLA.

  • HAZĀRA

    Arash Khazeni, Alessandro Monsutti, Charles M. Kieffer

    the third largest ethnic group of Afghanistan, after the Pashtuns and the Tājiks, who represent nearly a fifth of the total population. OVERVIEW of article: i. Historical geography of Hazārajāt, ii. History, iii. Ethnography and social organization, iv. Hazāragi dialect.

  • HAZĀRA i. Historical geography of Hazārajāt

    Arash Khazeni

    Hazārajāt, the homeland of the Hazāras, lies in the central highlands of Afghanistan.  In some respects Hazārajāt denotes an ethnic and religious zone rather than a geographical one–that of Afghanistan’s Turko-Mongol Shiʿites.

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  • HAZĀRA ii. HISTORY

    Alessandro Monsutti

    Among the Hazāras themselves, three main theories exist: they are of Mongolian or Turko-Mongolian descent; they are the pre-Indo-European autochthones of the area; or they are of mixed race as a result of several waves of migration.

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  • HAZĀRA iii. Ethnography and social organization

    Alessandro Monsutti

    It would be misleading to present a fixed and definitive image of the main Hazāra tribes, as the affiliations are changing over time and the designations reflect the political situation.