Table of Contents


    Arash Khazeni, Alessandro Monsutti, Charles M. Kieffer

    the third largest ethnic group of Afghanistan, after the Pashtuns and the Tājiks, who represent nearly a fifth of the total population. OVERVIEW of article: i. Historical geography of Hazārajāt, ii. History, iii. Ethnography and social organization, iv. Hazāragi dialect.

  • HAZĀRA i. Historical geography of Hazārajāt

    Arash Khazeni

    Hazārajāt, the homeland of the Hazāras, lies in the central highlands of Afghanistan, among the Kuh-e Bābā mountains and the western extremities of the Hindu Kush. Its boundaries have historically been inexact and shifting, and in some respects Hazārajāt denotes an ethnic and religious zone rather than a geographical one–that of Afghanistan’s Turko-Mongol Shiʿites.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    Alessandro Monsutti

    Among the Hazāras themselves, three main theories exist: they are of Mongolian or Turko-Mongolian descent; they are the pre-Indo-European autochthones of the area; or they are of mixed race as a result of several waves of migration.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • HAZĀRA iii. Ethnography and social organization

    Alessandro Monsutti

    It would be misleading to present a fixed and definitive image of the main Hazāra tribes, as the affiliations are changing over time and the designations reflect the political situation.

  • HAZĀRA iv. Hazāragi dialect

    Charles M. Kieffer

    The number of hazāragi speakers is approximately 1.8 million. The Afghan hazāragi varieties of Persian are essentially very close to modern tājiki, or rather of modern dari Persian, or even kāboli Persian, but their typology still has to be fully defined.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a local dynasty of Kurdish origin which ruled in the Zagros mountains region of southwestern Persia, essentially in Lorestān and the adjacent parts of Fārs, and which flourished in the later Saljuq, Il-khanid, Mozaffarid, and Timurid periods.


    M. Rahim Shayegan

    or Hazāruft; title of a high state official in Sasanian Iran.


    Gavin R. G. Hambly

    the palace-complex of Moḥammad b. Toḡloq (1325-1551) at Jahānpanāh (Delhi).


    H. Aʿlam

    (fandoq), the hard-shelled fruit of the shrub (or small tree) Corylus avellana L. (fam. Corylaceae), containing an edible kernel of high nutritious value.


    Jean During

    in Persian music, a small guša (melodic type) of the Persian classical model repertoire radif.