Table of Contents

  • GORĀZ

    Cross-Reference

    See BOAR.

  • GORBA

    Cross-Reference

    See CAT I; CAT II.

  • ḠŌRBAND

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    or ḠURBAND; a major valley of Kōhestān/Kuhestān and a sub-province (woloswāli) of Parvān province in the southern foothills of the Hindu Kush massif, located approximately 50 miles north of Kabul.

  • ḠORBATI

    Cross-Reference

    See GYPSY.

  • GORDĀFARID

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    daughter of Gaždaham, the castellan of Dež-e Sapid, the Iranian fortress on the frontier with Turān.

  • GORDIA

    Cross-Reference

    a female character in the Shah-nama. See BAHRĀM (2) vii. Bahrām VI Čōbīn.

  • GORDIANUS III

    Cross-Reference

    Roman emperor. See SHAPUR I.

  • GORDON, THOMAS EDWARD

    Rose L. Greaves

    , General Sir (1832–1914), British intelligence officer, director of the Imperial Bank of Persia (Bānk-e šāhi-e Irān) from 1893 to 1914, author, and apparently the first person to use the term Middle East, which meant particularly Persia and Afghanistan.

  • GORDUENE

    Cross-Reference

    See KORDUK.

  • GORG

    Cross-Reference

    See WOLF.

  • GORGĀN

    Multiple Authors

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Geography, ii. Dašt-e Gorgān, iii. Population, iv. Archeology, v. Pre-Islamic history, vi. History from the rise of Islam to the beginning of the Safavid Period, vii. To the end of the Pahlavi era.

  • GORGĀN BAY

    Cross-Reference

    See ASTARĀBĀD BAY.

  • GORGĀN i. Geography

    Ḥabib-Allāh Zanjāni

    the ancient Hyrcania, an important Persian province at the southeast corner of the Caspian sea.

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  • GORGĀN ii. Dašt-e Gorgān

    Eckart Ehlers

    the designation of a steppe-region of approximately 10,000 km2 near the southeastern edge of the Caspian Sea, stretching for almost 200 km east-west between Morāva Tappa and the coast of the Caspian Sea near Gomišān.

  • GORGĀN iii. Population

    Ḥabib-Allāh Zanjāni

    Over the past four decades, the population of Golestān Province as a whole has increased 4.5 times, 8.5 times in the urban and 3.3 times in the rural areas. In the same period, the number of its cities has increased from 5 to 16.

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  • GORGĀN iv. Archeology

    Muhammad Yusof Kiani

    The Greek historian Arrian, recording Alexander’s expedition to the East, speaks of Alexander’s march to the city of Zadracarta, the largest town in the region and the capital of Hyrcania, where the royal palace was situated. It has been suggested that the present city of Gōrgān, formerly Astarābād/Estrābād, could possibly be the ancient Zadracarta.

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  • GORGĀN v. Pre-Islamic history

    A. D. H. Bivar

    The area comprises two distinct climatic zones: the rainforest of the Alborz northern slopes and the Gorgān plain, well-watered and fertile close to the mountains but passing into increasingly desert steppe as the distance from the foothills increases.

  • GORGĀN vi. History From The Rise Of Islam To The Beginning Of The Safavid Period

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    formed in Sasanian and pre-modern Islamic times a transitional zone, a corridor, between the subtropical habitat and climate of Māzandarān to its west, and the arid steppes of Dehestān (q.v.) and, beyond them, the Qara Qum Desert to its northwest.

  • GORGĀN vii. History from the Safavids to the end of the Pahlavi era

    Jawād Neyestāni and EIr

    Two characteristics dominated the history of Gorgān in the period between the 16th and early 19th centuries: incessant tribal unrest and power politics. These features reflected the rather particular tribal structure and the geopolitical situation of this region and its neighboring areas in the north and east.

  • GORGANAJ

    Cross-Reference

    See CHORASMIA.