Table of Contents

  • EŠRĀQ ḴĀVARĪ, ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD

    Vahid Rafati

    (b. Mašhad, 1902; d. Tehran, 1972), Bahai scholar, teacher, and author.

  • EŠRĀQĪ SCHOOL

    Cross-Reference

    See ILLUMINATIONISM.

  • ʿEŠRĪNĪYA

    Cross-Reference

    See BĪSTGĀNĪ.

  • ESTAHBĀN

    Mīnū Yūsof-nežād

    town and district in Fārs, bordered in the north by the Baḵtagān lake, in the northeast and the east by Neyrīz/Nīrīz, in the south by Dārāb, in the southwest by Fasā, and in the west by Shiraz.

  • EṢṬAḴR

    A. D. H. Bivar, Mary Boyce

    (ESTAḴR, STAḴR), city and district in ancient Persia (Fārs). It was presumably a suburb of the urban settlement once surrounding the Achaemenid royal residences, but of which few traces now survive. After the death of Seleucus I (280 B.C.), when the province began to re-assert its independence, its center seems to have developed at Eṣṭaḵr, better protected than the old capital by the surrounding hills.

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  • ESTAḴR NEWSPAPER

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a newspaper published in Shiraz from 1918-1932 and 1942-1962.

  • EṢṬAḴRĪ, ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM

    O. G. Bolshakov

    b. Moḥammad Fāresī Karḵī, 10th-century Muslim traveler and geographer and founder of the genre of masālek (lit. “itineraries”) literature.

  • EṢṬAḴRĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD ḤASAN

    Jeanette Wakin

    b. Aḥmad b. Yazīd (858-939), Shafiʿite jurisconsult and author.

  • ESTĀLEF

    Daniel Balland

    large Persian-speaking village of the Kōhdāman, 55 km north of Kabul, built on a foothill of the Paḡmān range of the Hindu Kush between 1,875 and 1,950 m above sea-level.

  • ESTEʿĀRA

    Julie S. Meisami

    lit. "to borrow"; the general term for metaphor.