Table of Contents


    Abbas Amanat

    (1822-1880), first minister of sciences (ʿolūm, meaning education) of the Qajar period and a scholar.


    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    Initially Ethe worked as an assistant librarian at the Bodleian, on leave of absence from the University of Munich. In 1874 he abandoned his lectureship in Germany and settled down in Great Britain permanently. The motivation for this move may have been political, at least in part, because Ethé is described as “a German radical, . . . a persona ingrata with absolutist governments”

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    C.-H. de Fouchıcour

    a body of practical moral doctrine was elaborated as part of the earliest development of Persian literature, at which time considerable reflection was devoted to topics ranging from morals to ethics, from the exhortation not to harm one’s fellow creature to the search for the meaning of life.


    E. van Donzel

    Ethiopia (OPers. Kuša-) was located on the western fringe of the Achaemenid empire. The Ethiopians (OPers. Kušiyā; Gr. Aithí-opes “with [sun]burnt faces”) are named among the peoples of the Persian Empire and are included at the end of Herodotus’s satrapy list. 

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    Brian Spooner

    , the basic field research method in anthropology. Apart from ancient and medieval travelers such as Herodotus (mid-5th century BCE), Marco Polo (late 13th century) and Clavijo (early 15th century), the record of close, firsthand observation by foreigners in the Iranian region begins with the reports of travelers to the Safavid Court in the sixteenth century.

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  • ETHNOGRAPHY (Bibliography)

    Brian Spooner

    For cited works not given in detail, see “Short References.” Priority has been given to coverage of ethnographic data based on long-term participant observation, but other  ethnographically significant sources are also listed, including some based on shorter works, some by travelers from before the emergence of professional ethnography, and some from scholars trained in related fields such as folklore, linguistics and cultural geography.


    Nancy H. Dupree

    (Pers. nazākat, ādāb-e moʿāšarat), defined as the observance of conventional decorum particularly among the elite, is itself part of the wider topic of adab.



    See SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; SHIʿITE DOCTRINE ii. Hierarchy in the Imamiyya.

  • ʿEṬR


    See ʿAṬR.


    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of five Persian newspapers.