ESTAḴR, a newspaper published in Shiraz once a week from Asad 1297 Š./August 1918 until 1311 Š. /1932 (not 1306 Š. as mentioned in some sources) and again twice a week from 1321 Š./1942 until Esfand 1341 Š/1962. Its content dealt with the news of current events, particularly those of Fārs, and social and cultural issues. Its publisher and manager director was Moḥammad-Ḥosayn Bavānātī “Estaḵr” (b. Bavānāt 1306/1888-89, d. Shiraz 1348 Š./1969), an educator who for some time also served as a judge in the Ministry of justice. Later he served as the Majles deputy from Shiraz in its 18th and 19th sessions, during which time the paper was published in Tehran. Since publishing a newspaper constituted conflict of interest with his responsibilities as a judge, starting with the 10th issue of the 10th year (1307) Mīrzā Nāṣer Khan Sālār and after him Sayyed ʿAbd-al-Reżā Maʿdalat became the manager director of the paper. Estaḵr again became the director manager and principal columnist of the paper when it resumed publication in 1321 Š./1942. In later years his son Manūčehr Estaḵr was the editor in chief. At first Estaḵr was lithographed in eight three-column pages measuring 40 x 32 cm, but starting in 1321 Š./1942 it was typset in four eight-column pages measuring 48 x 35 cm and later in six-column pages measuring 42 x 27 cm. A sigle issue cost 10 šāhīs in its early years and 2 rials in later years. Annual subscription during its early years was 40 qerāns in Persia, which was later raised to 300 rials, and 50 qerāns abroad. Incomplete sets of Estaḵr are kept at the National Library (Ketāb-ḵāna-ye mellī) in Tehran, the Central Library of Tehran University (Ketāb-ḵāna-ye markazī-e Dānešgāh-e Tehrān), the library of Āstān-e qods in Mašhad, Sāzmān-e madārek-e farhangī-e enqelāb-e eslāmī, and the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
H.ṟ Abū-torābīān, Maṭbūʿāt-e Īrān az Šahrīvar 1320 tā 1326, Tehran, 1366 Š./1987, p. 37.
K. Bayāt and M. Kūhestānī-nežād, Asnād-e maṭbūʿāt, 2 vols. Tehran, 1372 Š./1993, I, pp. 69-102.
L. P. Elwell-Sutton, “The Iranian Press 1944-1947,” Iran 6, 1968, p. 77.
Ḥ. Emdād, Šīrāz dar goḏašta wa ḥāl, Shiraz, 1339 Š./1960, p. 88.
M.-ʿA. Jāvīd, “Rāhnemā-ye maṭbūʿāt-e Īrān” (translation of the report of the British embassy in Tehran, dated November 1922), Kāva (Munich), no. 45, 1352 Š./1973, p. 22.
Ḥ. Morselvand, Zendagī-nāma-ye rejāl wa mašāhīr-e Īrān I, Tehran, 1369 Š./1990, I, pp. 145-46.
K. Nūrī, Fehrest-e našrīyāt-e mawjūd dar Ketāb-ḵāna-ye markaz-e madārek-e farhangī-e enqelāb-e eslāmī, Tehran, 1362 Š./1983, p. 20.
I. Pourhadi, Persian and Afghan Newspapers in the Library of Congress 1871-1978, Washington, D.C., 1979, p. 27.
E. Pūrqūčānī, Fehrest-e rūz-nāmahā-ye mawjūd dar Ketāb-ḵāna-ye markazī-e Āstān-e qods-e rażawī, Mašhad, 1364 Š./1985, pp. 48-49.
“Registre analytique annoté de la presse persane (depuis la guerre),” RMM 60, 1925, p. 45.
W. Ṣādeqī-nasab, Fehrest-e rūz-nāmahā-ye fārsī (1320-1322), Tehran, 1360 Š./1981, p. 16.
Ṣadr Hāšemī, Jarāyed o majallāt I, pp. 155-57.
B. Sartīqzāda and K. Ḵodāparast, Fehrest-e rūz-nāmahā-ye mawjūd dar Ketāb-ḵāna-ye mellī-e Īrān, Tehran, 1356 Š./1977, pp. 32-33.
Originally Published: December 15, 1998
Last Updated: January 19, 2012
This article is available in print.
Vol. VIII, Fasc. 6, pp. 642-643