Table of Contents

  • EDUCATION xii. VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL SCHOOLS

    Šahlā Kāẓemīpūr

    In 1958 the General Department of Vocational Training (Edāra-ye kollī-e taʿlīmāt-e fannī) was established in the Ministry of Education. It was responsible for establishing a number of agricultural, industrial, commercial, and secretarial schools in both the capital and the provinces. By 1963 their number had reached ninety-six; by 1973 it had passed 500.

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  • EDUCATION xiii. RURAL AND TRIBAL SCHOOLS

    Moḥammad Bahmanbeygī, Nāṣer Mīr, Moḥammad Pūrsartīp, and EIr

    Compulsory-education laws enacted in 1911 and 1943 provided the legal framework for the extension of modern education into rural and tribal areas. Until the 1950s, however, the Persian government did not possess the resources  to implement these laws; in addition, landowners and tribal khans resisted such efforts.

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  • EDUCATION xiv. SPECIAL SCHOOLS

    Samineh Baghchehban-Pirnazar

    Until 1968 responsibility for children with special educational needs had fallen on the individual schools. In that year the National Organization for Special Education (Sāzmān-e āmūzeš o parvareš-e esteṯnāʾī-e kešvar, or SĀPEK) was established as a general directorate (modīrīyat-e koll) under a deputy minister of education.

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  • EDUCATION xv. FOREIGN AND MINORITY SCHOOLS IN PERSIA

    EIr

    Modern education was introduced to Persia in the 19th century by European and American religious institutions and military advisers.

  • EDUCATION xvi. SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS

    Aḥmad Bīrašk and EIr

    No standardized schoolbooks existed in Persia before the advent of the modern educational system. The first were written by European teachers at the Dār al-fonūn in the mid-19th century.

  • EDUCATION xvii. HIGHER EDUCATION

    David Menashri

    Initially Reżā Shah’s government, like the Qajar government before it, encouraged aspiring professionals to study abroad, but, while urging them to absorb practical elements of Western culture, he also warned them to reject “harmful” influences and preserve their own national identity.

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  • EDUCATION xviii. TEACHERS’-TRAINING SCHOOLS

    Eqbāl Yaḡmāʾ ī

    In March 1934 an act establishing lower and advanced schools for teachers’ training under the Ministry of Education (Wezārat-e maʿāref) was adopted by the Majles, and an operating charter for such schools was ratified in July of the same year.

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  • EDUCATION xix. TEACHERS’-TRAINING COLLEGES

    Majd-al-Dīn Keyvānī

    When Tehran University was founded in February 1935 the literature and science sections of Dānešsarā-ye ʿālī were merged with the new faculties of letters and sciences respectively. Dānešsarā-ye ʿālī thus virtually lost its independence. Thenceforth prospective teachers took the entrance examination for one of these faculties.

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  • EDUCATION xx. ADULT EDUCATION

    Šahlā Kāẓemīpūr

    The Ministry of Education (Wezārat-e maʿāref) established adult-literacy classes in state schools considered suitable. They were to last two years and to consist of ninety-six two-hour classes each year, free of charge. Reading and writing Persian, arithmetic, and elementary history, geography, and civics were to be taught.

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  • EDUCATION xxi. EDUCATION ABROAD

    Afshin Matin-Asgari

    A survey of 350 students abroad between 1811 and 1920 indicates that more than 50 percent of the total studied in France, about 15 percent in Russia, and 5-10 percent in Germany, England, Switzerland, Istanbul, and Beirut. A small number studied in Egypt, India, and the United States.

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  • EDUCATION xxii. PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    Cross-Reference

    See PHYSICAL EDUCATION.

  • EDUCATION xxiii. MILITARY EDUCATION

    Cross-reference

    See MILITARY EDUCATION.

  • EDUCATION xxiv. EDUCATION IN POSTREVOLUTIONARY PERSIA, 1979-95

    Golnar Mehran

    The history of education in the Islamic Republic falls into two phases: from the revolution to the cease-fire between Persia and Iraq in 1367 Š./1988 (the revolutionary period), when Islamic ideology predominated, and the subsequent period of reconstruction and privatization.

  • EDUCATION xxv. WOMEN’S EDUCATION IN THE QAJAR PERIOD

    Afsaneh Najmabadi

    The premodern conception of women’s education was varied. In some medieval books of ethical instruction and counsel teaching women to read was recommended, whereas other authors warned against it.

  • EDUCATION xxvi. WOMEN’S EDUCATION IN THE PAHLAVI PERIOD AND AFTER

    EIr

    In the 1920s and 1930s women’s public education in Persia was established and grew rapidly.  In 1926-27 the enrollment of females in primary schools was about 17,000, 21 percent of total enrollment at that level, and in secondary schools about 700, 6 percent of the total enrollment at that level.

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  • EDUCATION xxvii. IN AFGHANISTAN

    M. Mobin Shorish

    By the end of the 19th century, mosque schools (maktabs) and madrasas had lost their vitality, rigor, and scope. As modern Afghanistan emerged, internecine struggles among the ruling Abdālī  and subsequently among the Moḥammadzai clan ensured that no trace of regular and systematic education remained in the country.

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  • EDUCATION xxviii. IN TAJIKISTAN

    Habib Borjian

    Modern education in Tajikistan developed as the country emerged as a Soviet socialist republic, under the Soviet policy of standardization, with language as virtually the only variable. In Tajikistan, as in other Central Asian republics, this policy brought about nearly universal literacy.

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  • EFTEḴĀR DAWLATĀBĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-WAHHĀB BOḴĀRĪ

    S. Moinul Haq

    (b. Ahmadnagar; d. Dawlatābād, 1776), Deccani biographer and poet in Urdu and Persian.

  • EFTEḴĀRĪĀN

    François de Blois

    a family of officials and poets from Qazvīn, reputed descendants of the caliph Abū Bakr, who flourished under the early Il-khans in the 13th century.

  • EGGPLANT

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀDENJĀN.