Table of Contents

  • EAGLES

    Steven C. Anderson, William L. Hanaway, Jr.

    (Ar. and Pers. ʿoqāb; also obsolete Pers. dāl < Mid. Pers. dālman; also obsolete Pers. and Mid. Pers. āloh), large, diurnal, raptorial birds of the family Accipitridae in several genera (45-90 cm long, wingspan 110-250 cm).

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  • EARTH IN ZOROASTRIANISM

    Cross-Reference

    See ELEMENTS i.

  • EARTHQUAKES

    Daniel Balland, Habib Borjian, Xavier de Planhol, Manuel Berberian

    in Persia and Afghanistan. Both countries lie on the great alpine belt that extends from the Azores in the Atlantic Ocean through the Indonesian archipelago and forms the world’s longest collision boundary, between the Eurasian plate in the north and several former Gondwanan blocks in the south, including the so-called “Iranian plates” and “Afghan plates.”

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  • EAST AFRICA

    Mark Horton, Derek Nurse, Farouk Topan, Will. C. van den Hoonard

    Persian relations with the lands of the East African coast, particularly Somalia, Kenya, and Tanzania. From early times monsoon winds have permitted rapid maritime travel between East Africa and Western Asia. Although large-scale Persian settlement in East Africa is unlikely Persian cultural and religious influences nonetheless were felt.

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  • EAST AND WEST

    Antonio Panaino

    an English language quarterly published since 1950 by IsMEO (Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente [Italian Institute for Middle and Far East]) and now by the IsIAO (Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente [Italian Institute for Africa and the Orient]).

  • EAST INDIA COMPANY

    Anne Kroell

    a company established in 1664 to conduct all French commercial operations with the Orient. 

  • EAST INDIA COMPANY (BRITISH)

    R. W. Ferrier, John R. Perry

    a trading company incorporated on 31 December 1600 for fifteen years with the primary purpose of exporting the staple production of English woolen cloths and importing the products of the East Indies.

  • EAST INDIA COMPANY (DUTCH)

    Cross-Reference

    See DUTCH-PERSIAN RELATIONS.

  • EASTERN IRANIAN LANGUAGES

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    term used to refer to a group of Iranian languages most of which are or were spoken in lands to the east of the present state of Persia.

  • EASTWICK, EDWARD BACKHOUSE

    Parvin Loloi

    (1814–1883), orientalist and diplomat, best known for his translations from Persian and Indian languages.

  • ʿEBĀDĪ, AḤMAD

    Jean During

    (1906-1993), one of the outstanding modern masters of Persian music. He played a leading role in popularizing the setār; the appeal of his performance resulted partly from the development of a new style involving slight technical and acoustical modifications to the instrument.

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  • EBĀḤĪYA

    Hamid Algar

    or EBĀḤATĪYA; a polemical term denoting either antinomianism or groups and individuals accused thereof.

  • EBER-NĀRI

    Muhammad A. Dandamayev

    the Akkadian name used in Assyrian and Babylonian records of the 8th-5th centuries B.C.E. for the lands to the west of the Euphrates—i.e., Phoenicia, Syria, and Palestine.

  • EBERMAN, VASILIĬ ALEKSANDROVICH

    Anas B. Khalidov

    (b. St. Petersburg, 1899, d. Orel, 1937), scholar of early Persian poets writing in Arabic.

  • EBIR NĀRĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See EBER-NĀRI.

  • EBLĀḠ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    lit. “communication”; title of five Persian language newspapers.

  • EBLĪS

    Hamid Algar

    a Koranic designation for the devil in Persian Sufi Tradition, derived ultimately from the Greek diabolos.

  • EBN ʿABBĀD

    Cross-Reference

    See ṢĀḤEB B. ʿABBĀD.

  • EBN ʿABBĀD, Esmāʿil, al-Ṣāḥeb Kāfi al-Kofāt

    Maurice Pomerantz

    vizier and belletrist.

  • EBN ABHAR, MOḤAMMAD-TAQĪ

    Stephen Lambden

    (1854-1919), Bahai teacher and one of the “hands of the cause."

  • EBN ABĪ JOMHŪR AḤSĀʾĪ, Moḥammad

    Todd Lawson

    b. Zayn-al-Dīn Abi’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ḥosām-al-Dīn Ebrāhīm (b. ca. 1433-34; d. after 4 July 1499), Shiʿite thinker.

  • EBN ABĪ ṢĀDEQ, ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿABD-al-RAḤMĀN

    Lutz Richter-Bernburg

    b. ʿAlī b. Aḥmad NAYŠĀBŪRĪ (Nīšāpūr, 11th century), medical author known in the century after his death, at least in Khorasan, as “the second Hippocrates," and reportedly a student of Avicenna.

  • EBN ABĪ ṬĀHER ṬAYFŪR, ABU’L-FAŻL AḤMAD

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (819-93), littérateur (adīb) and historian of Baghdad, of a Khorasani family.

  • EBN ABI’L ḤADĪD

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. ABU’L ḤADĪD.

  • EBN AL-ʿAMĪD

    Ihsan Abbas

    cognomen of two famous viziers of the 4th/10th century: Abu’l-Fażl and his son Abu’l-Fatḥ.

  • EBN AL-ʿARABĪ, MOḤYĪ-al-DĪN Abū ʿAbd-Allāh Moḥammad Ṭāʾī Ḥātemī

    William C. Chittick

    (b. 28 July 1165; d. 10 November 1240), the most influential Sufi author of later Islamic history, known to his supporters as al-Šayḵ al-akbar, “the Greatest Master.”

  • EBN AL-AṮĪR, ʿEZZ-AL-DĪN ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ

    D. S. Richards

    b. Moḥammad Jazarī (b. Jazīrat Ebn ʿOmar [modern Cizre, in eastern Turkey] 13 May 1160; d. Mosul, June 1233), major Islamic historian and important source for the history of Persia and adjacent areas from the Samanids to the first Mongol invasion.

  • EBN AL-BALḴĪ

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    conventional name for an otherwise unknown author of Fārs-nāma, a local history and geography of the province of Fārs written in Persian during the Saljuq period.

  • EBN AL-BAYṬĀR, ŻĪĀʾ-AL-DĪN ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    b. Aḥmad (?-1248), Andalusian botanist and pharmacologist.

  • EBN AL-BAYYEʿ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH B. AL-BAYYEʿ.

  • EBN AL-ʿEBRĪ, ABU’L-FARAJ

    Herman G. B. Teule

    (b. Malaṭīa, 1225; d. Marāḡa, 1286), Syriac historian and polymath.

  • EBN AL-EḴŠĪD, ABŪ BAKR AḤMAD

    Daniel Gimaret

    b. ʿAlī b. Beḡčor (884-938), Muʿtazilite theologian.

  • EBN AL-FAQĪH, ABŪ BAKR AḤMAD

    Anas B. Khalidov

    b. Moḥammad b. Esḥāq b. Ebrāhīm HAMADĀNĪ Aḵbārī (fl. second half of the 9th century), man of letters, who wrote in Arabic Ketāb aḵbār al- boldān, a geographic work, in which primarily the Islamic world with its centers in Arabia, Persia, and Iraq are described.

  • EBN AL-FOWAṬĪ, KAMĀL-AL-DĪN ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ

    Charles Melville

    b. Aḥmad, librarian and historian (b. 1244; d. Baghdad, 1323).

  • EBN AL-JEʿĀBĪ, ABŪ BAKR MOḤAMMAD

    Wilferd Madelung

    b. ʿOmar Tamīmī Ḥāfeẓ (b. Baghdad 1 or 2 April 897, d. Baghdad 7 July 966), traditionist with Shiʿite leanings.

  • EBN AL-JONAYD, ABŪ ʿALĪ MOḤAMMAD

    Wilferd Madelung

    or al-Jonaydī; b. Aḥmad Kāteb Eskāfī, 10th century Imami jurist.

  • EBN AL-MOQAFFAʿ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH RŌZBEH

    J. Derek Latham

    b. Dādūya/Dādōē (b. Gōr, the present Fīrūzābād, Fārs, ca. 721, d. Baṣra ca. 757), chancery secretary (kāteb) and major Arabic prose writer.

  • EBN AL-MOṬAHHAR

    Cross-Reference

    See ḤELLĪ, ʿALLĀMA.

  • EBN AL-NADĪM

    Cross-Reference

    Shi'ite scholar and bibliographer of the 10th century, famous as the author of Ketāb al-fehrest. See under FEHREST.

  • EBN AL-QAṢṢĀB, ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR MOʾAYYAD-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    Richard W. Bulliet

    b. ʿAlī (b. ca. 1128), Shiʿite vizier of the caliph al-Nāṣer from 1194 to 1195 .

  • EBN AL-ṬEQṬAQĀ, ṢAFĪ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    Charles Melville

    b. ʿAlī b. Ṭabāṭabā (b. 1262 ?; d. after 1309 ?), historian and naqīb of the ʿAlids in Ḥella.

  • EBN AMĀJŪR

    Cross-Reference

    See BANŪ AMĀJŪR.

  • EBN ʿĀMER

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-ALLĀH B. ʿĀMER.

  • EBN ʿARABŠĀH, ŠEHĀB-AL-DĪN ABU’L-ʿABBĀS AḤMAD

    John E. Woods

    b. Moḥammad … Ḥanafī ʿAjamī (b. Damascus, 1389, d. Cairo, 1450), literary scholar and biographer of Tamerlane (Tīmūr).

  • EBN AṢDAQ, MĪRZĀ ʿALĪ-MOḤAMMAD

    Stephen Lambden

    (b. Mašhad 1850; d. Tehran, 1928), prominent Bahai missionary.

  • EBN AŠTAR

    D.M. Dunlop

    (d. at Maskin on the Tigris, in September-October 691), Arab chief and Shiʿite military leader.

  • EBN ʿAṬṬĀŠ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿAṬṬĀŠ.

  • EBN ʿAYYĀŠ, ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM

    Daniel Gimaret

    b. Moḥammad Baṣrī, Muʿtazilite theologian (d. late 10th century), member of the so-called “school of Baṣra” and a partisan of the ideas of Abū Hāšem Jobbāʾī.

  • EBN BĀBĀ KĀŠĀNĪ (Qāšānī), ABU’L-ʿABBĀS

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (d. Marv, 1116-17), Persian writer and boon-companion (nadīm), whose manual for courtiers preserves otherwise lost information on the later Ghaznavids.

  • EBN BĀBAWAYH (1)

    Sheila S. Blair

    (Bābūya), family of Persian builders, luster potters, and tile makers, descended from the Shiʿite scholar Ebn Bābūya al-Ṣadūq (d. 991) and active in the 12th-14th centuries.

  • EBN BĀBAWAYH (2)

    Martin McDermott

    (Bābūya), SHAIKH ṢADŪQ ABŪ JAʿFAR MOḤAMMAD b. Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī... Mūsā Qomī (b. Qom after 305, probably about 311/923; d. Ray, 381/991), author of one of the authoritative four books of Imami Shiʿite Hadith, Man lā yaḥżoroho’l-faqīh.

  • EBN BĀKŪYA

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀBĀ KŪHĪ.

  • EBN BAQIYA

    C. E. Bosworth

    called Naṣir-al-Dawla and Nāṣeḥ "Counselor,” vizier of the Buyids in Iraq, b. 314/926, d. 367/978.

  • EBN BAṬṬŪṬA

    Charles F. Beckingham

    (1304-1368/9), the most famous Muslim traveler.

  • EBN BAZZĀZ

    Roger Savory

    author of the Ṣafwat al-ṣafāʾ, a biography of Shaikh Ṣafī-al-Dīn Esḥāq Ardabīlī (d. 935/1334), founder of the Safavid order of Sufis and the eponym of the Safavid dynasty.

  • EBN BĪBĪ, NĀṢER-AL-DĪN ḤOSAYN

    Tahsin Yazici

    b. Moḥammad b. ʿAlī Jaʿfarī Roḡadī, Persian historian and man of letters.

  • EBN BOḴTĪŠŪʿ

    Lutz Richter-Bernburg

    prominent family of physicians of Gondēšāpūr at court during the early ʿAbbasid period.

  • EBN DĀʿĪ RĀZĪ, ABŪ TORĀB ṢAFĪ-AL-DĪN MORTAŻĀ

    Marco Salami

    b. Dāʿī b. Qāsem Rāzī Ḥosaynī (or Ḥasanī), known as ʿAlam-al-Hodā (d. after 1132), Imami traditionist and author of a heresiography in Persian.

  • EBN DĀROST, MAJD-AL-WOZARĀʾ MOḤAMMAD

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Manṣūr (d. Ahvā, 1074), vizier to the ʿAbbasid caliph al-Qāʾem from 9 May 1061 to 9 December 1062.

  • EBN DĀROST, TĀJ-AL-MOLK ABU’L-ḠANĀʾEM MARZBĀN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Ḵosrow-Fīrūz Šīrāzī (1046-93), last vizier of the Great Saljuq Sultan Malekšāh.

  • EBN DAYṢĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See BARDESANES.

  • EBN DOROSTAWAYH, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALL

    Seeger A. Bonebakker

    b. Jaʿfar b. Dorostawayh b. Marzbān (b. Fasā, 871; d. Baghdad, May 958), grammarian and lexicographer of Persian origin.

  • EBN ELYĀS, MANṢŪR

    Gul A. Russell

    (fl. late 14th-early 15th cent.), author of two extant Persian works: a medical compilation titled Kefāya-ye mojāhedīya and an illustrated anatomy text known as the Tašrīḥ-e manṣūrī. The five full-page drawings, corresponding to the five treatises in the Tašrīḥ, are unique in the history of Islamic medicine.

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  • EBN ESFANDĪĀR, BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    Charles Melville

    b. Ḥasan, historian, probably from Āmol, who flourished around the turn of the 13th century.

  • EBN FAHD ḤELLĪ, ABU’L-ʿABBĀS JAMĀL-AL-DĪN AḤMAD

    Marco Salami

    b. Šams-al-Dīn Moḥammad (1355-1437), Imami scholar and jurist.

  • EBN FARĪḠŪN

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E FARĪḠŪN.

  • EBN FAŻLĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See AḤMAD B. FAŻLĀN.

  • EBN FONDOQ

    Cross-Reference

    See BAYHAQĪ, ẒAHĪR-AL-DĪN.

  • EBN FŪLĀD

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (or Ebn Pūlād), military adventurer, probably of Daylamī origin, active in northern Persia during the Buyid period (early 11th century) and typical of the soldiers of fortune characterizing the “Daylamī intermezzo” of medieval Persian history.

  • EBN FŪRAK

    Forthcoming

    EBN FŪRAK. See Supplement.

  • EBN ḤAWQAL, ABU’L-QĀSEM MOḤAMMAD

    Anas B. Khalidov

    b. ʿAlī Naṣībī, traveler and geographer of the 10th century.

  • EBN ḤAWŠAB, ABU’L-QĀSEM ḤASAN

    Heinz Halm

    b. Faraj (or Faraḥ) b. Ḥawšab b. Zāḏān Najjār Kūfī, known also as Manṣūr al-Yaman (d. 914), Ismaʿili dāʿī and founder of the Ismaʿili community in northern Yemen.

  • EBN HENDŪ, ABU’L-FARAJ ʿALĪ

    Lutz Richter-Bernburg

    b. Ḥosayn, also known as Ostāḏ (b. in Ṭabarestān, no later than the early 960s; d. in or after 1031), author of, inter alia, propaedeutic epistles on philosophy and medicine and of a gnomology of Greek wisdom, and generally renowned as a litterateur.

  • EBN ḤOSĀM ḴᵛĀFĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā

    or Ḵūsfī, a poet of the 15th century.

  • EBN ḴAFĪF

    Forthcoming

    See Supplement.

  • EBN ḴĀLAWAYH, ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH ḤOSAYN

    Michael G. Carter

    b. Aḥmad b. Ḥamdān Hamaḏānī, philologist and Koran scholar.

  • EBN ḴALDŪN, ABŪ ZAYD ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN

    Franz Rosenthal

    b. Moḥammad (b. 27 May 1332; d. 17 March 1406), the historian famous for the general theory of history and civilization brilliantly expounded in his Moqaddema.

  • EBN ḴALLĀD, ABŪ ʿALĪ MOḤAMMAD BAṢRĪ

    Daniel Gimaret

    (d. 2nd half of 10th century), Muʿtazilite theologian of the so-called “school of Baṣra,” partisan of the ideas of Abū Hāšem Jobbāʾī.

  • EBN ḴAMMĀR, ABU’L-ḴAYR ḤASAN

    W. Montgomery Watt

    b. Savār (or Sovār), b. Bābā b. Bahrām (or Behnām) Ḵᵛārazmī, philosopher.

  • EBN ḴĀQĀN

    Forthcoming

    See Supplement.

  • EBN ḴĀQĀN, FATḤ

    Cross-Reference

    See FATḤ B. ḴĀQĀN.

  • EBN ḴARMĪL

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    early 13th century military commander of the Ghurids, and connected, according to Jūzjānī, with the district of Gorzevān on the headwaters of the Morḡāb in the province of Gūzgān in northern Afghanistan.

  • EBN ḴĀZEM

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABDALLĀH B. ḴĀZEM.

  • EBN ḴORDĀḎBEH, ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿOBAYD-ALLĀH

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. ʿAbd-Allāh (fl. 9th century), author of the earliest surviving Arabic book of administrative geography.

  • EBN MAFANA

    C. E. Bosworth

    vizier to the Buyid ruler of Fars and Khuzestan.

  • EBN MĀHĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿALĪ B. ʿĪSĀ B. MĀHĀN.

  • EBN MĀJŪR

    Cross-Reference

    See BANŪ AMĀJŪR.

  • EBN MĀKŪLA

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E MĀKŪLĀ.

  • EBN MARDAWAYH, AHMAD

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Mūsā b. Mardawayh b. Fūrak Eṣfahānī (935-1019), scholar of Isfahan in the Buyid period, who wrote in the fields of tradition, tafsīr (Koranic exegsis), history, and geography.

  • EBN MARZOBĀN, ABŪ AḤMAD ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN

    D. M. Dunlop

    b. ʿAlī b. Marzbān Ṭabīb Marzbānī (d. Tostar, February-March 1006), administrative official under the Buyids.

  • EBN MATTAWAYH, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ḤASAN

    Martin McDermott

    b. Aḥmad b. Mattawayh, Muʿtazilite theologian of the Basran school, a student of Qāżī ʿAbd-al-Jabbār (d. 1025).

  • EBN MESKAVAYH

    Cross-Reference

    Persian chancery official and treasury clerk of the Buyid period, boon companion, litterateur and accomplished writer in Arabic on a variety of topics, including history, theology, philosophy and medicine (d. 421/1030). See MESKAVAYH, ABU ʿALI AḤMAD.

  • EBN MOʿĀVĪA

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABDALLAH B. MOʿĀVĪA.

  • EBN MOBĀRAK

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABDALLAH B. MOBĀRAK.

  • EBN MOHALHEL

    Cross-Reference

    See ABŪ DOLAF  AL-YANBŪʿĪ.

  • EBN MOLJAM

    Forthcoming

    Ebn Moljam will be discussed in a future online entry.

  • EBN MORSAL, LAYṮ

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Fażl, a client (mawlā) and governor of Sīstān 815-19.

  • EBN MOSTAWFĪ, ABU’L-BARAKĀT ŠARAF-AL-DĪN MOBĀRAK

    Ihsan Abbas

    b. Aḥmad b. Mobārak Erbelī (1168-1239), historian of Erbel.

  • EBN MOṬARREF

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-WAZĪR MARVAZĪ.

  • EBN NAWBAḴT, ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM

    Cross-Reference

    See NAWBAḴTĪ FAMILY.

  • EBN NAWBAḴT, ABŪ SAHL

    Cross-Reference

    See ABŪ SAHL NAWBAḴTĪ.

  • EBN NAWBAḴT, ḤASAN B. MŪSĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See NAWBAḴTĪ, ḤASAN B. MŪSĀ.

  • EBN NOṢRAT, AMIR BAHĀʾ-AL- DĪN BARANDAQ ḴOJANDĪ

    Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā

    (b. 1356; d. ca. 1433), Timurid poet.

  • EBN QEBA, ABŪ JAʿFAR MOḤAMMAD

    Martin McDermott

    b. ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Rāzī (d. Ray, before 931), one of the most prominent and active Imami theologians.

  • EBN QOTAYBA, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Franz Rosenthal

    b. Moslem DĪNAVARĪ, (828-889), important early philologist in the widest sense of the term and author of numerous works on what is known as the “Arab sciences,” including the religious sciences dealing with the Koran and Hadith.

  • EBN QŪLAWAYH, ABU’L- QĀSEM JAʿFAR

    Martin McDermott

    b. Moḥammad b. Jaʿfar b. Mūsāb. Qūlawayh Qomī Baḡdādī (d. Baghdad, 978 or 979), Imami traditionist and jurist, a disciple of Abū Jaʿfar Kolaynī and teacher of Shaikh Mofīd.

  • EBN RABĪṬ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABDĀN B. AL-RABĪṬ.

  • EBN RĀVANDĪ, ABU’l-ḤOSAYN AḤMAD

    Josef van Ess

    b. Yaḥyā (d. 910?), Muʿtazilite theologian and “heretic” of Ḵorāsānī origin.

  • EBN RĒVANDĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See EBN RĀVANDĪ.

  • EBN ROSTA, ABŪ ʿALĪ AḤMAD

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. ʿOmar (d. after 903), Persian author of a geographical compendium.

  • EBN RŪḤ, ABU’L-QĀSEM ḤOSAYN

    Cross-Reference

    See ḤOSAYN B. RŪḤ.

  • EBN SAʿD, ʿOMAR

    Jean Calmard

    (k. Kūfa 686), commander of the Omayyad troops at Karbalāʾ.

  • EBN ŠĀḎĀN

    Wilferd Madelung

    family name of two Imami traditionists: Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥasan (or Ḥosayn) Fāmī Qomī (10th century) and his son.

  • EBN ŠĀḎĀN, ABŪ ʿALĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABŪ ʿALĪ AḤMAD.

  • EBN ŠĀHAWAYH

    Wilferd Madelung

    a leader and envoy of the Carmatians.

  • EBN SAHLĀN SĀVAJĪ, Qāżī ZAYN-AL-DĪN ʿOMAR

    Hossein Ziai

    (b. Sāva, fl. early 12th century), Persian philosopher and logician.

  • EBN ŠAHRĀŠŪB, ABŪ JAʿFAR ZAYN-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi

    b. ʿALī b. Šahrāšūb b. Abī Naṣr b. Abi’l-Jayš (b. Sārī, Māzandarān; d. Aleppo, 2 September 1192), the most illustrious Imami scholar of the 12th century.

  • EBN SĪNA

    Cross-Reference

    See AVICENNA.

  • EBN SORAYJ

    Cross-Reference

    See AḤMAD B. ʿOMAR B. SORAYJ.

  • EBN ṬABĀṬABĀ, ABU’L-ḤASAN MOḤAMMAD

    Ihsan Abbas

    b. Aḥmad b. Moḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Ebrāhīm Eṣfahānī (d. 933), poet and critic.

  • EBN ṬĀWŪS, JAMĀL-AL-DĪN ABU’L- FAŻĀʾEL AḤMAD

    Wilferd Madelung

    b. Mūsā b. Jaʿfar b. Moḥammad Ḥasanī, 12th century Imami scholar.

  • EBN ṬĀWŪS, RAŻĪ-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ

    Etan Kohlberg

    b. Mūsā b. Jaʿfar (b. Ḥella, 21 January 1193; d. Baghdad, 8 August 1266), Imami author, scholar, and bibliophile, called Ḏu’l-ḥasabayn “possessing two distinctions” because he was descended from both Ḥasan and Ḥosayn.

  • EBN TORK

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. VĀSEʿ.

  • EBN TORKA

    Cross-Reference

    See ṢĀʾN-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ EṢFAHĀNĪ.

  • EBN YAMĪN, AMĪR FAḴR-AL-DĪN MAḤMŪD

    Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak

    b. Amir Yamīn-al-Dīn Ṭoḡrāʾī, a poet of the 14th century.

  • EBN ZĪĀD, ʿOBAYD-ALLĀH

    Jean Calmard

    (b. ca. 648), Omayyad governor responsible for the death of the Imam Ḥosayn b. ʿAlī.

  • EBRĀHĪM

    Amnon Netzer

    Abraham, the name of the first patriarch of the Hebrew people.

  • EBRĀHĪM ʿAKKĀS-BĀŠĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿAKKĀS-BĀŠĪ.

  • EBRĀHĪM AMĪN-AL-SOLṬĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See AMĪN-AL-SOLṬĀN, ĀQĀ EBRĀHĪM.

  • EBRĀHĪM B. ADHAM

    EIr

    b. Manṣūr b. Yazīd b. Jāber ʿEjlī (d. 777-78), prominent Sufi and ascetic of 8th century.

  • EBRĀHĪM B. ALPTIGIN, ABŪ ESḤĀQ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM.

  • EBRĀHĪM B. ESMĀʿĪL

    Sheila S. Blair

    Safavid architect mentioned on two tiles: one in the dome of the tomb of Shaikh ʿAbd-al-Ṣamad at Naṭanz and another, dated 1661-62, in the south wall of the south ayvān of the congregational mosque at Isfahan.

  • EBRĀHĪM B. ḤOSAYN

    Cross-Reference

    See TAHERIDS.

  • EBRĀHĪM B. JARĪR

    Munibur Rahman

    author of a general history called Tārīḵ-e ebrāhīmī or Tārīḵ-e homāyūnī.

  • EBRĀHĪM B. MASʿŪD

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Maḥmūd b. Sebüktegīn, Abu’l-Moẓaffar, Ẓahīr-al-Dawla, Rażī-al-Dīn, etc., Ghaznavid sultan (r. 1059-99). 

  • EBRĀHĪM B. NAṢR

    Cross-Reference

    See BÖRĪ.

  • EBRĀHĪM B. ʿOṮMĀN

    Sheila S. Blair

    Persian metalworker named in the inscription in Kufic script on the copper door knockers removed from a city gate in medieval Ganja (Soviet Kirovabad, Republic of Azerbaijan) and taken to the convent of Gelatʿi in Imeretiya, just east of Kutaisi in Georgia.

  • EBRĀHĪM BEG

    Cross-Reference

    See ZAYN-AL-ʿĀBEDĪN MARĀḠAʾĪ.

  • EBRĀHĪM DEDE ŠĀHEDĪ

    Tahsin Yazici

    Turkish poet and lexicographer.

  • EBRĀHĪM FĀRŪQĪ

    Cross-Reference

    15th century poet and author of Farhang-e Ebrāhīmi. See under FARHANG-E EBRĀHIMI.

  • EBRĀHĪM ĪNĀL

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    or Yenāl (d. 1059), early Saljuq leader.

  • EBRĀHĪM KALĀNTAR ŠĪRĀZĪ

    Abbas Amanat

    (b. 1745, d. 1800/1801), lord mayor (kalāntar) of Shiraz during the late Zand era, the first grand vizier (ṣadr-e aʿẓam), and a major political figure of the Qajar period.

  • EBRĀHĪM ḴALĪL KHAN JAVĀNŠĪR

    GEORGE A. BOURNOUTIAN

    Khan of Qarābāḡ in late 18th century.

  • EBRĀHĪM KHAN AFŠĀR

    Cross-Reference

    See AFSHARIDS.

  • EBRĀHĪM KHAN ḠAFFĀRĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ḠAFFĀRĪ, MOḤAMMAD-EBRĀHĪM Khan.

  • EBRĀHĪM KHAN QĀJĀR

    Cross-Reference

    See ẒAHIR-AL-DAWLA, EBRĀHIM KHAN.

  • EBRĀHĪM LODĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See LODĪ DYNASTY.

  • EBRĀHĪM MAWṢELĪ, ABŪ ESḤĀQ

    Everett Rowson

    the most celebrated musician at the court of Hārūn al-Rašīd and a central figure in the development of the Iraqi school of music under the early ʿAbbasids.

  • EBRĀHĪM MĪRZĀ

    Marianna S. Simpson

    (b. April 1540; d. 23 February 1577), Safavid prince, patron, artist, and poet generally referred to as Solṭān Ebrāhīm Mīrzā.

  • EBRĀHĪM NAẒẒĀM

    Cross-Reference

    See ABŪ ESḤĀQ NAẒẒĀM.

  • EBRĀHĪM ṢAḤḤĀF-BĀŠĪ

    Cross-reference

    See ṢAḤḤĀF-BĀŠĪ.

  • EBRĀHĪM ŠARQĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ŠARQĪ.

  • EBRĀHĪM SHAH AFŠĀR

    John R. Perry

    nephew of Nāder Shah, claiming the Afsharid throne briefly (1748-49)

  • EBRĀHĪM ŠĪRĀZĪ

    Carl W. Ernst

    historian of the ʿĀdelšāhī dynasty of Bījāpūr (b. 1540-41).

  • EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN

    Priscilla P. Soucek

    (1394-35), b. Šāhroḵ, Timurid prince, ruler of Shiraz, military commander, and renowned calligrapher.

  • EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN, ABU’L-QĀSEM

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-QĀSEM EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN.

  • EBRĀHĪM ṬEHRĀNĪ

    Priscilla P. Soucek

    also known as Mīrzā ʿAmū, a 19th century calligrapher specializing in the nastaʿlīq script.

  • EBRĀHĪMĀBĀDĪ DIALECT

    Cross-Reference

    See RĀMANDĪ.

  • EBRĀHĪMĪ, ʿABD-AL-REŻĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-REŻĀ KHAN EBRĀHĪMĪ.

  • EBRĀHĪMĪ, ABU’L-QĀSEM KHAN

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-QĀSEM KHAN EBRĀHĪMĪ.

  • ʿEBRAT

    EIr

    a monthly magazine first published on 4 February 1956 as the organ of Tūda party prisoners under the auspices and with the facilities of the Office of Tehran’s Military Governor, General Teymūr Baḵtīār.

  • ʿEBRAT, Sayyed MOḤAMMAD-QĀSEM

    Munibur Rahman

    author of ʿEbrat-nāma, a history of the reigns of Awrangzēb’s successors to 1723.

  • ʿEBRĪ

    Cross-Reference

    "hebrew." See under JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES.

  • EBTEHAJ, ABOLHASSAN

    Geoffrey Jones

    (1899-1999), prominent banker, economic planner, and one of the most important and powerful figures in the economic history of Iran during the middle decades of the 20th century.

  • ECBATANA

    Stuart C. Brown

    present-day Hamadān, capital of the Median empire, summer capital of the Achaemenids, and satrapal seat of the province of Media from Achaemenid to Sasanian times.

  • ECKMANN, János

    ANDRÁS BODROGLIGETI

    (1905-1971), a Hungarian Professor of Chaghatay.

  • ECOLOGY

    Eckart Ehlers

    the study of organisms, both flora and fauna, in relation to their environments. Five primary ecological regions may be distinguished in Persia, each with a characteristic combination of features: the Caspian lowlands, the Alborz system and mountain ranges in Khorasan, the Persian plateau, the Zagros system with the Makrān mountain ranges, and the lowlands along the Persian Gulf.

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  • ECONOMY

    Multiple Authors

    i. Economic geography, ii. In the Pre-Achaemenid period, iii. In the Achaemenid period, iv. In the Sasanian period, v. From the Arab conquest to the end of the Il-khanids, vi. In the Timurid period, vii. From the Safavids through the Zands, viii. In the Qajar period, ix. In the Pahlavi period, x. Under the Islamic Republic, xi. In modern Afghanistan, xii. In Tajikistan.

  • ECONOMY i. ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

    Xavier de Planhol

    The high plateau and its external relations. The heartland of the Iranian world, encompassing both Persia and Afghanistan, is an arid high plateau, from which communication with the outside world is extraordinarily difficult.

  • ECONOMY ii. IN THE PRE-ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Robert C. Henrickson

    Pre-Median Persia was a crucial economic component of ancient southwest Asia from the earliest times.

  • ECONOMY iii. IN THE ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Muhammad A. Dandamayev

    The Achaemenid empire, extending from the Indus river to the Aegean sea, comprised such economically developed countries as Egypt, Syria, Phoenicia, Babylonia, Elam, and Asia Minor, lands which had their long traditions of social institutions, as well as Sakai, Massagetai, Lycians, Libyans, Nubians and other tribes undergoing the disintegration of the primitive-communal phase.

  • ECONOMY iv. IN THE SASANIAN PERIOD

    Ryka Gyselen

    The Sasanians, who inherited the economic conditions left by the Parthians, were quick to forge an economic state so powerful and distinctive that its fame spread well beyond their political frontiers and their period.

  • ECONOMY v. FROM THE ARAB CONQUEST TO THE END OF THE IL-KHANIDS (part 1)

    Ann K. S. Lambton

    The economic order in Islamic Persia was in theory, if not always in practice, derived from Islamic norms.

  • ECONOMY v. FROM THE ARAB CONQUEST TO THE END OF THE IL-KHANIDS (part 2)

    Ann K. S. Lambton

    The political breakdown of the caliphate in the 3rd/9th and 4th/10th centuries, although disastrous for the finances of the state and for agriculture in ʿErāq-e ʿArab and, perhaps, also in Ḵūzestān and parts of western Persia, did not have ill effects immediately on the economic life of Persia as a whole.

  • ECONOMY v. FROM THE ARAB CONQUEST TO THE END OF THE IL-KHANIDS (part 3)

    Ann K. S. Lambton

    As the needs of the state grew, there was a constant shortage of specie to meet its expenses. As a result of the devastation and demographic decline brought about by the invasions, there was less land under cultivation and fewer people engaged in agriculture.

  • ECONOMY vi. IN THE TIMURID PERIOD

    Maria E. Subtelny

    The Timurid invasions against the Kartid rulers of Khorasan, which began in 783/1381, caused socioeconomic dislocation and unprecedented wholesale destruction and pillaging of towns, as well as brutal massacres of their populations.

  • ECONOMY vii. FROM THE SAFAVIDS THROUGH THE ZANDS

    Bert Fragner

    The first Safavid king, Esmāʿīl I (907-30/1501-24), initiated a process of political and religious change in Persia that profoundly affected the economic structure.

  • ECONOMY viii. IN THE QAJAR PERIOD

    Hassan Hakimian

    At the outset of the Qajar dynasty, the Persian economy displayed the characteristics of a traditional economy disintegrating under the stress of political anarchy.

  • ECONOMY ix. IN THE PAHLAVI PERIOD

    M. Hashem Pesaran

    Overall, under the Pahlavis the Persian economy made significant advances which compared favorably with the experience of countries such as Turkey and Egypt, which were in a better state of development after the First World War.

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  • ECONOMY x. UNDER THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

    Vahid F. Nowshirvani

    Since 1979 there have been marked changes in the economic policies, institutions, and structure of the country, and major economic dislocation and disruption of production. Not all the changes have resulted directly from the revolution; many other factors, such as the war with Iraq, trade and financial sanctions, and fluctuations in the world oil market have also shaped developments.

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  • ECONOMY xi. IN MODERN AFGHANISTAN

    M. Siddieq Noorzoy

    From 1970 until the coup d’état in April 1978, followed by the Soviet invasion in December 1979, the Afghan economy experienced sustained high economic growth. Gross domestic product rose at a rate of 4.5 percent annually in constant prices. Major structural changes also occurred.

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  • ECONOMY xii. IN TAJIKISTAN

    Habib Borjian

    During the seventy years of centralized Soviet administration, the economy of Tajikistan was modernized and integrated into the Soviet economy. As a participant in the general dynamics of Soviet economic development, the Tajik Soviet Republic exhibited comparatively remarkable growth in the agricultural and industrial sectors

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  • ʿEDĀLAT, ḤEZB-E

    Fakhreddin Azimi

    (Ar. ʿAdālat “justice”), Persian political party founded by ʿAlī Daštī in December 1941.

  • ʿEDĀLAT-ḴĀNA

    Cross-Reference

    See CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION.

  • EDEB

    Amir Hassanpour

    b. Armanī Bolāḡī (1860-1918), pen name of the Kurdish poet ʿAbd-Allāh Beg b. Aḥmad Beg Bābāmīrī Miṣbāḥ-al-Dīwān.

  • EDESSA

    Samuel Lieu

    now Urfa in southeastern Turkey, former capital of ancient Osrhoene.

  • EDITING

    Karim Emami

    the techniques of preparing a text for publication, now widely practiced at the major publishing houses in Persia.

  • EDMONDS, C. J

    Yann RICHARD

    The son of a British missionary, Edmonds was born in Japan, where he stayed up to the age of eight. He was educated in England at Bedford and Christ’s Hospital public schools and finally studied oriental languages at Cambridge under the supervision of E. G. Browne for two years.

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  • EDUCATION

    Multiple Authors

    (Pers. āmūzeš o parvareš; earlier Ar. Per. taʿlīm o tarbīat) in Iranian-speaking areas.

  • EDUCATION i. IN THE ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Muhammad A. Dandamayev

    In two Elamite documents from Persepolis drafted in the 23rd regnal year of Darius I (499 B.C.E.) “Persian boys (who) are copying texts” are mentioned; the texts in question are records of the issue of grain to twenty-nine individuals and wine to sixteen.

  • EDUCATION ii. IN THE PARTHIAN AND SASANIAN PERIODS

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    No concrete evidence on education in Parthian times has survived. It may be postulated, however, that it was similar to education in the Sasanian period.

  • EDUCATION iii. THE TRADITIONAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Jalīl Dūstḵᵛāh and Eqbāl Yaḡmāʾī

    Before the establishment of a modern educational system in Persia in the early 20th century children received their early and intermediate education in the maktab (or maktab-ḵāna, lit., “place of writing”) under the tutelage of an āḵūnd, mulla (clerical teacher), or moʿallem (teacher), who worked alone or occasionally with one or two assistants.

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  • EDUCATION iv. THE MEDIEVAL MADRASA

    Christopher Melchert

    lit., “place to study” Ar. darasa “to study”. It was a college for the professional study of the Islamic sciences, particularly jurisprudence (feqh) but also the Koran, Hadith, and such ancillary fields as Arabic grammar and philology, knowledge of which helped in understanding sacred and legal texts.

  • EDUCATION v. THE MADRASA IN SHIʿITE PERSIA

    ʿAbbās Zaryāb

    After the introduction of the institutionalized madrasa by Neẓām-al-Molk in the late 11th century, above) Shiʿite madrasas were also founded in Persia and Iraq. These schools were local efforts, however, and did not constitute a unitary system of education.

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  • EDUCATION vi. THE MADRASA IN SUNNI KURDISTAN

    ʿAbd-Allāh Mardūḵ

    Every mosque also contained a chamber called a ḥojra, where the mulla offered lessons in religion and theology free of charge to Muslim boys. Boys, though very seldom girls, began their studies at the age of seven years.

  • EDUCATION vii. GENERAL SURVEY OF MODERN EDUCATION

    Ahmad Ashraf

    A modern system of national education emerged in Persia in the 1920s and 1930s, after the Pahlavi state had been founded; during this period the influence of the religious establishment was minimized, and the government gained control over schools, expanding enrollment at all levels.

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  • EDUCATION viii. NURSERY SCHOOLS AND KINDERGARTENS

    Tūrān Mīrhādī

    The beginnings of formalized preschool education in Persia can be traced back to ca. 1891, when Armenians in Jolfā, near Isfahan, founded a kindergarten, which continues to function today. By 1919 there were a few kindergartens in Tehran and other cities, primarily founded by missionaries and minority groups.

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  • EDUCATION ix. PRIMARY SCHOOLS

    Sayyed ʿAlī Āl-e Dāwūd

    At first primary and secondary schools were not distinct, and the primary levels sometimes consisted of only four grades. There were no general instructional materials and no uniform curriculum, each school being under the direction of its founder or principal.

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  • EDUCATION x. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS

    Aḥmad Bīrašk

    Modern secondary education in Persia was originally based on the 19th-century European humanistic system, focused on general knowledge and building character rather than on professional or vocational training. This philosophy dominated the Persian system until the 1960s, when reforms were introduced by American advisers.

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  • EDUCATION xi. PRIVATE SCHOOLS AND EDUCATIONAL GROUPS

    Aḥmad Bīrašk

    After the Constitutional Revolution some of these schools were closed, and the others were brought under state management. During the next fifteen years several more private schools were founded, including Enteṣārīya, Tadayyon, Taraqqī, Tawfīq, Dorrī, and Mosāwāt. All were elementary schools, though some also offered two years of secondary schooling.

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  • EDUCATION xii. VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL SCHOOLS

    Šahlā Kāẓemīpūr

    In 1958 the General Department of Vocational Training (Edāra-ye kollī-e taʿlīmāt-e fannī) was established in the Ministry of Education. It was responsible for establishing a number of agricultural, industrial, commercial, and secretarial schools in both the capital and the provinces. By 1963 their number had reached ninety-six; by 1973 it had passed 500.

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  • EDUCATION xiii. RURAL AND TRIBAL SCHOOLS

    Moḥammad Bahmanbeygī, Nāṣer Mīr, Moḥammad Pūrsartīp, and EIr

    Compulsory-education laws enacted in 1911 and 1943 provided the legal framework for the extension of modern education into rural and tribal areas. Until the 1950s, however, the Persian government did not possess the resources  to implement these laws; in addition, landowners and tribal khans resisted such efforts.

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  • EDUCATION xiv. SPECIAL SCHOOLS

    Samineh Baghchehban-Pirnazar

    Until 1968 responsibility for children with special educational needs had fallen on the individual schools. In that year the National Organization for Special Education (Sāzmān-e āmūzeš o parvareš-e esteṯnāʾī-e kešvar, or SĀPEK) was established as a general directorate (modīrīyat-e koll) under a deputy minister of education.

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  • EDUCATION xv. FOREIGN AND MINORITY SCHOOLS IN PERSIA

    EIr

    Modern education was introduced to Persia in the 19th century by European and American religious institutions and military advisers.

  • EDUCATION xvi. SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS

    Aḥmad Bīrašk and EIr

    No standardized schoolbooks existed in Persia before the advent of the modern educational system. The first were written by European teachers at the Dār al-fonūn in the mid-19th century.

  • EDUCATION xvii. HIGHER EDUCATION

    David Menashri

    Initially Reżā Shah’s government, like the Qajar government before it, encouraged aspiring professionals to study abroad, but, while urging them to absorb practical elements of Western culture, he also warned them to reject “harmful” influences and preserve their own national identity.

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  • EDUCATION xviii. TEACHERS’-TRAINING SCHOOLS

    Eqbāl Yaḡmāʾ ī

    In March 1934 an act establishing lower and advanced schools for teachers’ training under the Ministry of Education (Wezārat-e maʿāref) was adopted by the Majles, and an operating charter for such schools was ratified in July of the same year.

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  • EDUCATION xix. TEACHERS’-TRAINING COLLEGES

    Majd-al-Dīn Keyvānī

    When Tehran University was founded in February 1935 the literature and science sections of Dānešsarā-ye ʿālī were merged with the new faculties of letters and sciences respectively. Dānešsarā-ye ʿālī thus virtually lost its independence. Thenceforth prospective teachers took the entrance examination for one of these faculties.

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  • EDUCATION xx. ADULT EDUCATION

    Šahlā Kāẓemīpūr

    The Ministry of Education (Wezārat-e maʿāref) established adult-literacy classes in state schools considered suitable. They were to last two years and to consist of ninety-six two-hour classes each year, free of charge. Reading and writing Persian, arithmetic, and elementary history, geography, and civics were to be taught.

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  • EDUCATION xxi. EDUCATION ABROAD

    Afshin Matin-Asgari

    A survey of 350 students abroad between 1811 and 1920 indicates that more than 50 percent of the total studied in France, about 15 percent in Russia, and 5-10 percent in Germany, England, Switzerland, Istanbul, and Beirut. A small number studied in Egypt, India, and the United States.

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  • EDUCATION xxii. PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    Cross-Reference

    See PHYSICAL EDUCATION.

  • EDUCATION xxiii. MILITARY EDUCATION

    Cross-reference

    See MILITARY EDUCATION.

  • EDUCATION xxiv. EDUCATION IN POSTREVOLUTIONARY PERSIA, 1979-95

    Golnar Mehran

    The history of education in the Islamic Republic falls into two phases: from the revolution to the cease-fire between Persia and Iraq in 1367 Š./1988 (the revolutionary period), when Islamic ideology predominated, and the subsequent period of reconstruction and privatization.

  • EDUCATION xxv. WOMEN’S EDUCATION IN THE QAJAR PERIOD

    Afsaneh Najmabadi

    The premodern conception of women’s education was varied. In some medieval books of ethical instruction and counsel teaching women to read was recommended, whereas other authors warned against it.

  • EDUCATION xxvi. WOMEN’S EDUCATION IN THE PAHLAVI PERIOD AND AFTER

    EIr

    In the 1920s and 1930s women’s public education in Persia was established and grew rapidly.  In 1926-27 the enrollment of females in primary schools was about 17,000, 21 percent of total enrollment at that level, and in secondary schools about 700, 6 percent of the total enrollment at that level.

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  • EDUCATION xxvii. IN AFGHANISTAN

    M. Mobin Shorish

    By the end of the 19th century, mosque schools (maktabs) and madrasas had lost their vitality, rigor, and scope. As modern Afghanistan emerged, internecine struggles among the ruling Abdālī  and subsequently among the Moḥammadzai clan ensured that no trace of regular and systematic education remained in the country.

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  • EDUCATION xxviii. IN TAJIKISTAN

    Habib Borjian

    Modern education in Tajikistan developed as the country emerged as a Soviet socialist republic, under the Soviet policy of standardization, with language as virtually the only variable. In Tajikistan, as in other Central Asian republics, this policy brought about nearly universal literacy.

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  • EFTEḴĀR DAWLATĀBĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-WAHHĀB BOḴĀRĪ

    S. Moinul Haq

    (b. Ahmadnagar; d. Dawlatābād, 1776), Deccani biographer and poet in Urdu and Persian.

  • EFTEḴĀRĪĀN

    François de Blois

    a family of officials and poets from Qazvīn, reputed descendants of the caliph Abū Bakr, who flourished under the early Il-khans in the 13th century.

  • EGGPLANT

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀDENJĀN.

  • EḠLAMEŠ

    Cross-Reference

    See SAYF-AL-DĪN ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN EḠLAMEŠ.

  • EGLANTINE

    Cross-Reference

    See NASTARAN.

  • EGYPT

    Multiple Authors

    : relations with Persia and Afghanistan.

  • EGYPT i. Persians in Egypt in the Achaemenid period

    Edda Bresciani

    The last pharaoh of the Twenty-Sixth dynasty, Psamtik (Psammetichus) III, was defeated by Cambyses II in the battle of Pelusium in the eastern Nile delta in 525 B.C.E.; Egypt was then joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia in the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid empire.

  • EGYPT ii. Egyptian influence on Persia in the Pre-Islamic period

    Philip Huyse

    In the fields of artistic work, architecture and sculpture, the Persians do not seem to have had any lasting impact on Egyptian tradition, during either both Achaemenid occupations of Egypt, or the short-lived presence of the later Sasanians.

  • EGYPT iii. Relations in the Seleucid and Parthian periods

    Heinz Heinen

    This period began with the advent of the Seleucid dynasty in Syria (312 B.C.E.) and ended with the Sasanian occupation of Egypt (618/19-28 C.E.).

  • EGYPT iv. Relations in the Sasanian period

    Ruth Altheim-Stiehl

    Sasanian occupation of Egypt. The occupation of Egypt, beginning in 619 or 618 (Altheim-Stiehl, 1991), was one of the triumphs in the last Sasanian war against Byzantium.

  • EGYPT v. Political And Commercial Relations In The Islamic Period

    Cross-reference

    See under FATIMIDS,; AYYUBIDS; IL-KHANIDS DYNASTY.

  • EGYPT vi. Artistic relations with Persia in the Islamic period

    Jonathan M. Bloom

    Although direct evidence of artistic links between Persia and Egypt before the Mongol invasion of the Near East in the 13th century is limited, surviving works of art suggest that transfer of artistic ideas resulted from the movement of artisans and their works, rather than from the specific demand of patrons.

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  • EGYPT vii. Political and religious relations with Persia in the modern period

    Shahrough Akhavi

    The beginnings of modern diplomatic relations between Egypt and Persia may be dated from 1263/1847, when, on behalf of the Persian government, Mīrzā Taqī Khan Amīr(-e) Kabīr signed the second treaty of Erzurum with the Ottomans.

  • EGYPT viii. Egyptian cultural influence in Persia, modern times

    EIr

    Egypt, together with Turkey and the Caucasus, was one of the major sources of cultural and political influences in Persia during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

  • EGYPT ix. Iran’s cultural influence in the Islamic period

    Moḥammad el Saʿīd ʿAbd al-Moʾmen

    The more noticeable cultural influence of Perisa on Egypt occurred during the 16th-18th centuries, when Egypt became a province of the Ottoman empire. Persian literature was widely studied and avidly followed in the Ottoman empire, and the Persian language was used as one of the administrative languages of the empire.

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  • EGYPT x. Relations with Afghanistan

    Ludwig W. Adamec

    Both Egypt and Afghanistan came under British hegemony in the latter part of the 19th century; therefore no official relations existed between them.

  • EGYPT xi. Persian Journalism in Egypt

    Nassereddin Parvin

    A number of Persian journals were published in Egypt. After the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, the economic and commercial importance of Egypt increased and the country attracted a number of Iranian merchants and craftsmen who settled with their families in Cairo or Alexandria.

  • EHRBEDESTĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See HERBEDESTĀN.

  • ĒHRPAT

    Cross-Reference

    See HERBED.

  • EḤSĀN-AL-ʿOLŪM

    Cross-Reference

    See FARĀBĪ.

  • EḤSĀN-ALLĀH KHAN DŪSTDĀR

    Cosroe Chaqueri

    (ʿAlī-ābādī; b. Sārī, Māzandarān, 1883, d. Baku, ca. 1938), second most prominent figure in the the Soviet Socialist Republic of Iran (Ḥokūmat-e jomhūrī-e šūrawī-e Īrān), the radicalized second phase of the Jangalī movement in the years 1920-21.

  • EḤTEŠĀM-AL-DAWLA

    Īraj Afšār

    (1839-92), first son of Farhād Mīrzā Moʿtamed-al-Dawla Qājār and maternal grandson of Moḥammad-ʿAlī Mīrzā Dawlatšāh.

  • EḤTEŠĀM-AL-DAWLA, ḴĀNLAR KHAN

    Kambiz Eslami

    (d. Tehran, April 1862), seventeenth son of ʿAbbās Mīrzā and governor of several regions in Persia during the reigns of Moḥammad Shah and Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah Qajar.

  • EḤTEŠĀM-AL-DAWLA, ḴĀNLAR KHAN

    Iraj Afšār

    (1818-88), also known as Eḥtešām-al-Molk and Moʿtamed-al-Dawla, second son of Farhād Mīrzā Moʿtamed-al-Dawla Qājār.

  • EḤTEŠĀM-AL-SALṬANA

    Mehrdad Amanat

    Eḥtešām-al-Salṭana’s three year service at this post coincided with his activities in the Anjoman-e maʿāref, a society of reform-minded individuals who viewed education as the solution to the nation’s ills and who worked to establish modern schools.

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  • EḤTĪĀJ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    weekly newspaper published in Tabrīz by ʿAlīqolī Khan Tabrīzī, known as Ṣafarov, who had distributed political šab-nāmas (lit. "night letters") in 1892.

  • EḤYĀ-YEʿOLŪM-AL-DĪN

    Cross-Reference

    See ḠAZĀLĪ ii.

  • EILERS, WILHELM

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    In 1958 Eilers was appointed to the professorship in Oriental philology at the University of Würzburg. Although he was offered in 1962 the professorship in ancient Near Eastern studies at the University of Vienna, he stayed in Würzburg and taught there until his retirement in 1974.

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  • EJĀZA

    Devin J. Stewart

    "lit. permission, license, authorization"; a term describing a variety of academic certificates ranging in length from a few lines to many fascicles.

  • EJMĀʿ

    Devin J. Stewart

    lit. "consensus"; a technical term in Islamic jurisprudence (oṣūl al-feqh).

  • EJMIATSIN

    S. Peter Cowe

    currently designation of three separate but interrelated entities: the cathedral and monastic complex which forms the residence of the supreme patriarch and catholicos of all the Armenians, the city in which this complex is located, and the district of which the latter is the administrative center.

  • EJTEHĀD

    Aron Zysow

    in Shiʿism, an Arabic verbal noun having the literal sense of "exerting effort."

  • EJTEMĀʿĪŪN, FERQA-YE

    Janet Afary

    (FEAM; lit., "Social-Democratic party"), an organization founded in 1905 by Persian emigrants in Transcaucasia with the help of local revolutionaries.

  • EKBĀTĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ECBATANA.

  • EKEŁEACʿ

    James Russell

    Gk. Akilisēnē, region along the Euphrates in northwest Armenia.

  • EKRĀM, MOḤAMMAD

    J. Bečka

    or Ekrom, b. ʿAbd-al-Salām (1847-1925), known as Dāmollā Ekrāmče, a Bukharan scholar and madrasa teacher.

  • EKRĀMĪ, JALĀL

    J. Bečka

    or Jalol Ikromī (1909-93), considered to be Tajikistan’s most important fiction writer and playwright of the Soviet period.

  • EḴŠĪD

    F. Grenet and N. Sims-Williams

    Arabo-Persian form of a Sogdian royal title attested in Sogdian script as (ʾ)xšyδ and in Manichean script as (ʾ)xšy(y)δ.

  • EKSĪR

    Cross-Reference

    See KĪMĪĀ.

  • EḴTESĀN, TĀJ-AL-MOLK MOḤAMMAD

    Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi

    b. Aḥmad b. Ḥasan ʿAbdūsī Dehlavī (1300-51), author in Persian and secretary (dabīr) at the courts of the Tughluqid sultans Ḡīāṯ-al-Dīn Tōḡloq and his son Ḡīāṯ-al-Dīn Mo-ḥammad.

  • EḴTĪĀR MONŠĪ, ḴᵛĀJA

    W. Thackston

    (fl. mid 10th/16th cent.), a master calligrapher of the chancery taʿlīq style from Herat.

  • EḴTĪĀR-AL-DĪN

    Maria Eva Subtelny

    the citadel of Herat located on an elevation adjacent to the north wall of the old city and actually consisting of two parts, the stronghold proper—a rectangle of fired brick and a larger area to the west of unfired brick—that were originally buttressed by 25 towers which reflect various periods of construction.

  • EḴTĪĀRĀT

    David Pingree

    lit. "choices, elections"; a term used in Islamic divination and astrology in at least four principle meanings.

  • EḴWĀN AL-MOSLEMĪN, JAMʿĪYAT AL-

    Rudi Matthee

    lit. "Society of Muslim brethren"; the first modern religio-political movement in the Islamic world, founded in 1928 by Ḥasan Bannāʾ in Esmāʿīlīya Egypt.

  • EḴWĀN AL-ṢAFĀʾ

    Paul E. Walker

    a self-professed brotherhood of piously ascetic scholars.

  • ELĀHĪ

    Hamid Algar, J. W. Morris, Jean During

    or ʿAlīšāh (1895-1974), innovative and charismatic leader of one branch of the Ahl-e Ḥaqq and author of several texts on its teachings. The most complete presentation is to be found not in his Persian books, destined for circulation among Twelver Shiʿites, but in his unpublished writings in Gūrānī, intended to be read only by Ahl-e Ḥaqq initiates.

  • ELĀHĪ HAMADĀNĪ, SAYYED MĪR ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MAḤMŪD

    M. Asif Naim-Siddiqi

    b. Ḥojjat-Allāh Asadābādī, a poet of the 17th century from Asadābād, a village near Hamadān.

  • ELĀHĪ QOMŠA’Ī, MAHDĪ

    S. Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī

    b. Abu’l-Ḥasan (b. in Qomša, 1902; d. in Tehran, 1975), poet and professor of Islamic law and philosophy.

  • ELĀHĪ-NĀMA

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿAṬṬĀR.

  • ELĀHĪYĀT

    Cross-Reference

    See PHILOSOPHY.

  • ELAM

    Multiple Authors

    ancient country encompassing a large part of the Persian plateau at the end of the 3rd millennium B.C.E. but reduced to the territory of Susiana in the Achaemenid period.

  • ELAM i. The history of Elam

    F. Vallat

    During the several millennia of its history the limits of Elam varied, not only from period to period, but also with the point of view of the person describing it. It seems that Mesopotamians in the late 3rd millennium B.C.E. considered Elam to encompass the entire Persian plateau, which extends from Mesopotamia to the Kavīr-e Namak and Dašt-e Lūt and from the Caspian to the Persian Gulf.

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  • ELAM ii. The archeology of Elam

    Elizabeth Carter

    The archeological use of the term “Elam” is based on a loose unity recognizable in the material cultures of the period 3400-525 BCE at Susa in Ḵūzestān, at Anshan in Fārs, and at sites in adjacent areas of the Zagros mountains. Text-based definitions often lead to interpretations that are at odds with those derived from the study of material culture.

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  • ELAM iii. Proto-Elamite

    R. K. Englund

    "Proto-Elamite” is the term for a writing system in use in the Susiana plain and the Iranian highlands east of Mesopotamia between ca. 3050 and 2900 B.C.E., a period generally considered to correspond to the Jamdat Nasr/Uruk III through Early Dynastic I periods in Mesopotamia.

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  • ELAM iv. Linear Elamite

    MIRJO SALVINI

    a system of writing used at the end of the 3rd millennium B.C.E. by Puzur-Inšušinak, the last of the twelve “kings of Awan,” according to a king list found at Susa. He ruled ca. 2150 B.C.E. and was a contemporary of Ur-Nammu, the first ruler of the Ur III dynasty in Mesopotamia.

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  • ELAM v. Elamite language

    FRANÇOISE GRILLOT-SUSINI

    is known from texts in cuneiform script (q.v.), most of them found at Susa but some from other sites in western and southwestern Iran and, in the east, in Fārs and ranging in date from the 24th to the 4th century B.C.E.

  • ELAM vi. Elamite religion

    F. Vallat

    The information furnished by archeological excavations in Persia and by cuneiform documents permit a summary description of some aspects of Elamite religion from the end of the 3rd millennium B.C.E. until the Achaemenid period.

  • ELAM vii. Non-Elamite texts in Elam

    SYLVIE LACKENBACHER

    Most non-Elamite texts inscribed on Elamite territories have been found in Susiana, that is, the region nearest to Mesopotamia and most exposed to Mesopotamian political and cultural influences.

  • ELBURZ

    Cross-Reference

    See ALBORZ.

  • ELBURZ COLLEGE

    Cross-Reference

    See ALBORZ COLLEGE.

  • ELČĪ

    David O. Morgan

    (īlčī) envoy, messenger, or official traveling on government business during the Mongol period and thereafter. 

  • ELECTIONS

    Fakhreddin Azimi, Shaul Bakhash, M. Hassan Kakar

    i. Under the Qajar and Pahlavi monarchies. ii. Under the Islamic republic, 1979-92. iii. In Afghanistan. 

  • ELEGY

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (Ar. marṯīa, Pers. mūya), poetry of mourning in Persian literature. 

  • ELEMENTS

    Mansour Shaki

    i. In Zoroastrianism. ii. In Manicheism. iii. In Persian.

  • ELEPHANT i. IN THE NEAR EAST

    François De Blois

     i. IN THE NEAR EAST

  • ELEPHANT ii. In the Sasanian Army

    Michael B. Charles

    ii. IN THE SASANIAN ARMY

  • ELEPHANTINE

    Edda Bresciani

    the largest island in the Nile, opposite Syene.

  • ELGOOD, CYRIL LLOYD

    F. R. C. Bagley

    (1893-1970), British historian of medicine in Persia.

  • ELIAS OF NISIBIS

    Cross-Reference

    See ELĪJĀ BAR ŠĪNĀJĀ.

  • ELĪF EFENDI, Ḥaṣīrīzāda

    Tahsin Yaziçi

    (b. in Sütlüce, May 1850; d. 4 December 1926), Turkish poet and scholar.

  • ELĪJĀ BAR ŠĪNĀJĀ

    Wolfgang Felix

    (975-1049) prominent Nestorian polyhistor.

  • ELIKEAN, GRIGOR E.

    Aram Arkun

    (1880-1951), an active figure in Persian and Armenian politics, the press, and literature. 

  • ELIŠĒ

    Robert W. Thomson

    or Elisaeus, fifth century author of the History of Vardan and the Armenian War, a detailed account of the Armenian rebellion against Yazdegerd II in 450, which was prompted by his persecution of their Christian faith.

  • ELJIGIDEI

    Peter Jackson

    or Īlčīktāy, Īljīkdāy; the name of two Mongol generals.

  • ELLIPI

    Cross-Reference

    See ASSYRIA.

  • ELM

    Cross-Reference

    See AFRĀ.

  • ELM

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    any of several species of hardy deciduous ornamental or forest trees of the genus Ulmus L. (fam. Ulmaceae), typically called nārvan in Persian.

  • ʿELM AL-KETĀB

    Cross-Reference

    See DARD, ḴᵛĀJA MĪR.

  • ʿELM O HONAR

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of two Persian magazines.

  • ʿELMĪ

    Eqbāl Yaḡmāʾī

    a high school in Tehran with 500 students studying experimental sciences, mathematics, and economy.

  • ELOQUENCE

    Cross-Reference

    (Faṣāḥāt). See BAYĀN (1).

  • ELPHINSTONE, MOUNTSTUART

    Malcolm E. Yapp

    (1779-1859), author of an important description of Afghanistan; a British Indian official who rose to become governor of Bombay.

  • ELQĀNIĀN, ḤABIB

    Shaul Bakhash

    Jewish merchant, industrialist, and philanthropist, who rose from modest beginnings to become one of Iran’s leading entrepreneurs.

  • ELTON, JOHN

    John Perry

    (?-1751), English merchant, seaman and shipbuilder for Nāder Shah Afšār.

  • ĒLTOTMEŠ, ŠAMS-AL-DĪN

    Peter Jackson

    (d. 1236), first Sultan of Delhi.

  • ELWELL-SUTTON, LAURENCE PAUL

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Elwell-Sutton’s interests and publications in Persian studies fall into five categories: Persian language; Persian literature; modern Persian history and politics; Persian folklore; and Islamic science. In the first of these, his Colloquial Persian and Elementary Persian Grammar have remained in print as standard works.

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  • ELYĀSIDS

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E ELYĀS.

  • ELYMAIS

    John F. Hansman

    semi-independent state frequently subject to Parthian domination, which existed between the second century B.C.E. and the early third century C. E. in the territories of Ḵūzestān, in southwestern Persia.

  • ʿEMĀD ḤASANĪ, MĪR, ʿEMĀD-AL-MOLK

    Kambiz Eslami

    b. Ebrāhīm (ca. 1554-1615), celebrated calligrapher. His rendition of nastaʿlīq, with smooth lines, many curves, very occasional diacritical marks, symmetry of letters and words, and usually excellent choice of decorations surrounding the words, had widespread appeal during his lifetime and after his death.

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  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DAWLA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Būya b. Fanā-Ḵosrow, the eldest of three brothers who came to power in western Persia during the tenth century as military adventurers and founded the Buyid dynasty.

  • ʿEMĀD-al-DAWLA, Mīrzā MOḤAMMAD-ṬĀHER

    Kathryn Babayan

    WAḤĪD QAZVĪNĪ (ca. 1615-1701), poet and Safavid court historiographer for nearly three decades (1645-74).

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ FAQĪH KERMĀNĪ

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    mystic and poet of the 14th century who used ʿEmād or, more rarely, ʿEmād-e Faqīh, as a pen name.

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN KĀTEB, ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH MOḤAMMAD

    Donald S. Richards

    b. Moḥammad b. Ḥāmed EṢFAHĀNĪ, an eminent 12th-century government servant and man of letters, born in Isfahan in 1125.

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MAḤMŪD

    Emilie Savage-Smith

    b. Serāj-al-Dīn Masʿūd ŠĪRĀZĪ, the most prominent member of a 16th-century family of physicians in Shiraz.

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MARZBĀN, ABŪ KĀLĪJĀR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Solṭān-al-Dawla Abū Šojāʿ (1009-48), amir of the Buyid dynasty in the period of that family’s decadence and incipient disintegration, being the last effective ruler of the line.

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-ESLĀM

    Maria E. Subtelny

    b. Moḥammad ʿAtīq-Allāh (1470-1506), a vizier of the Timurid Sultan Ḥosayn Bāyqarā, executed in Herat in 1498.

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-KOTTĀB, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN SAYFĪ QAZVĪNĪ

    ʿAbd-Allāh Forādi

    (b. Qazvīn, 16 April 1866; d. Tehran, 17 July 1936), calligrapher.

  • ʿEMĀDĪ RĀZĪ

    Taqi Pūr-Nāmdārīān

    poet of the first half of the 12th century.

  • EMĀM

    Cross-Reference

    (Imam), see SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; ČAHĀRDAH MAʿSŪM.

  • EMĀM ṢĀḤEB

    Mehrdad Shokouhi

    two archeological sites in Afghanistan: (1) a village near the south bank of the Amū Daryā, about 50 km north of Qondūz, (2) a village in the Jōzjān region, south of the river Balḵāb, halfway between Balḵ and Āqča.

  • EMĀM-AL-ḤARAMAYN

    Cross-Reference

    See JOVAYNĪ, Emām-al-Ḥaramayn.

  • EMĀM-E ḠĀʾEB

    Cross-Reference

    "The Hidden Imam." See ḠAYBA and ISLAM IN IRAN vii. THE CONCEPT OF MAHDI IN TWELVER SHIʿISM.

  • EMĀM-E JOMʿA

    Hamid Algar

    leader of the congregational prayer performed at midday on Fridays.

  • EMĀM-E ZAMĀN

    Cross-Reference

    Mahdi or "The Hidden Imam." See ḠAYBA and ISLAM IN IRAN vii. THE CONCEPT OF MAHDI IN TWELVER SHIʿISM.

  • ʿEMĀMA

    Cross-Reference

    the turban. See ʿAMĀMA.

  • EMĀMA

    Cross-Reference

    (Imamate), see SHIʿITE DOCTRINE.

  • EMĀMĪ HERĀVĪ, RAŻĪ-AL-DĪN ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH MOḤAMMAD

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    b. Abī Bakr b. ʿOṯmān (b. in Herat; d. in Isfahan, 1287), Persian poet of the Mongol period also noted for his learning.

  • EMĀMĪ, JAMĀL

    Fakhreddin Azimi

    (b. 1901, Koy; d. 1966, Paris), politician.

  • EMAMI, KARIM

    ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Āzarang and EIr

    Emami took an early interest in contemporary Persian art and literature. In 1959, before starting his career as a journalist and translator, he worked as a photographer and filmmaker at the film studio of Ebrāhim Golestān (b. 1922), modernist writer and director.

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  • EMĀMĪ, Sayyed ḤASAN

    Cyrus Mir

    (1903-1981), Friday prayer leader of Tehran from 1947 to 1978. He studied traditional Islamic sciences in Tehran and continental law in Lausanne, Switzerland. Upon completing his doctorate, he returned to Iran and worked as a judge in the Ministry of Justice. He was regarded as a member of the shah’s inner circle. 

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  • EMĀMĪYA

    Cross-Reference

    See SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; SHIʿITE DOCTRINE ii. Hierarchy in the Imamiyya.

  • EMĀMQOLĪ KHAN

    Roger M. Savory

    son of the celebrated Georgian ḡolām Allāhverdī Khan; governor-general (beglarbeg) of Fārs in the early 17th century.

  • EMĀMVERDĪ MĪRZĀ ĪL-ḴĀNĪ

    Ḥosayn Maḥbūbī Ardakānī

    (b. 9 March 1796), the twelfth son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah Qajar; his mother was Begom Jān Qazvīnī.

  • EMĀMZĀDA

    Multiple Authors

    a shrine believed to be the tomb of a descendent of a Shiʿite Imam. such structures are also known as āstāna (lit., threshold), marqad (resting place, mausoleum), boqʿa (revered site), rawża (garden/tomb), gonbad (dome), mašhad (place of martyrdom), maqām (site/abode), qadamgāh (stepping place), and torbat (dust, grave).

  • EMĀMZĀDA i. Function and devotional practice

    Hamid Algar

    "Sites where divine favor and blessing occur, where mercy and grace descend; they are a refuge for the distressed, a shelter for the despondent, a haven for the oppressed, and a place of consolation for weary hearts, and will ever remain so until resurrection.”

  • EMĀMZĀDA ii. Forms, decorations, and other characteristics

    PARVĪZ VARJĀVAND

    The identity of the people interred in emāmzādas and the exact location where they are entombed are often moot questions, as in most cases there are no historical documents authenticating the claims for these shrines.

  • EMĀMZĀDA iii. Number, distribution, and important examples

    PARVĪZ VARJĀVAND

    Information and statistics regarding the number and distribution of emāmzādas in Persia vary from one source to another.

  • EMBROIDERY

    Cross-Reference

    See CLOTHING.

  • EMDĀD-ALLĀH ḤĀJĪ

    Barbara D. Metcalf

    (b. Thana Bhawan, India, 1817, d. Mecca, 1899), spiritual guide and scholar.

  • ĒMĒD Ī AŠAWAHIŠTĀN

    Mansour Shaki

    (Exposition [of Zoroastrian doctrines] by Ēmēd, son of Ašawahišt), a major 10th-century Pahlavi work comprising forty-four questions (pursišn).

  • EMERSON, RALPH WALDO

    John D. Yohannan

    (b. 25 May 1803, Boston; d. 27 April 1882, Concord), distinguished American transcendentalist, philosopher, and poet.

  • EMIGRATION

    Cross-Reference

    See HUMAN MIGRATION.

  • EMĪN YOMNĪ, MEḤMED

    Tahsın Yazici

    Moḥammad Amīn (b. Solaymānīya in Persia, 1845, d. Istanbul, 5 April 1924), Turkish poet and man of letters who also wrote in Persian.

  • EMIR

    Cross-Reference

    See AMIR.

  • EMIRATES OF THE PERSIAN GULF

    Cross-Reference

    See UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.

  • EMLĀ BOḴĀRĀʾĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    Jirí Bečka

    b. ʿAlāʾ-al-Dīn (b. 1688, Sangārak, Afghanistan; d. 1749, Bukhara), Sufi poet of Arab descent.

  • EMMERICK, RONALD ERIC

    Mauro Maggi

    Between 1963-65, Emmerick wrote his doctoral dissertation entitled “Indo-Iranian Studies: Saka Grammar” and took his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in 1965. In the meantime, he had been elected research fellow at St. John’s College, Cambridge (1964-67) and lecturer in Iranian Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies of the University of London (1964-71).

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  • EMPLOYMENT

    M. Amani

    , economic activity in which one engages and employs his or her time and energy. One of the major factors contributing to the growth of services is the considerable number of people working for the government.

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  • EMRĀNĪ

    David Yeroushalmi

    the name or most likely the penname (taḵalloṣ) of the fifteenth century Jewish-Persian poet of Isfahan and Kāšān.

  • EMTĪĀZĀT

    Cross-Reference

    See CONCESSIONS.

  • EN ISLAM IRANIEN, ASPECTS SPIRITUELS ET PHILOSOPHIQUES

    Daryush Shayegan

    (4 vols., Paris, 1971-73), the magnum opus of Henry Corbin, consisting of essays summarizing most of the major themes that defined his scholarly career and revealing his intellectual grasp of Persian philosophical thought.

  • ENAMEL

    EIr, Layla S. Diba

    a heat-fused glass paste colored by metal oxides and used to decorate metal surfaces. Enamel was associated with lapidary, glassworking, and goldmithing crafts and was probably used primarily in place of precious stones before the 17th century.

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  • ʿENĀYAT, ḤAMĪD

    Ahmad Ashraf

    (1932-82), political scientist and translator.

  • ʿENĀYAT-ALLĀH

    Sheila S. Blair

    Timurid builder or tile maker of the 15th century.

  • ʿENĀYAT-ALLĀH KANBO

    Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi

    (b. Burhanpur, 31 August 1608; d. Delhi, 23 September 1671), Sufi and scholar, descendant of an old respected Lahore family that had converted to Islam in Punjab.

  • ENCYCLOPAEDIA IRANICA

    Elton L. Daniel

    an alphabetically arranged reference work which seeks to provide scholarly articles relating to “all aspects of Iranian life and culture.”

  • ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ISLAM

    Elton L. Daniel

    a reference work of fundamental importance on topics dealing, according to its self-description, with “the geography, ethnography and biography of the Muhammadan peoples.”

  • ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF TAJIKISTAN

    Cross-Reference

    See ĖNTSIKLOPEDIYAI SOVETII TOJIK.

  • ENCYCLOPAEDIAS, PERSIAN

    Živa Vesel and Hūšang Aʿlam

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Premodern, ii. Modern.

  • ENDOWMENTS

    Cross-Reference

    See CHARITABLE FOUNDATIONS. See under individual entries, such as BONYĀD-E FARHANG-E ĪRĀN;BONYĀD-E ŠAHĪDBONYĀD-E ŠĀH-NĀMA-YE FERDOWSĪ.

  • ENGLAND

    Cross-Reference

    See GREAT BRITAIN.

  • ENGLISH i. Persian Elements in English

    D. N. Mackenzie

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Persian elements in English. ii. Persian influences in English and American literature. iii. Translations of classical Persian literature. iv. Translations of modern Persian literature. v. i. Translations of English literature into Persian.

  • ENGLISH ii. Persian Influences in English and American Literature

    John D. Yohannan

    Although academic Persian studies may be said to have begun in England in the early 17th century, it was not until the late 18th century that the Persian poets began to be read in English translations. This was due to the linguistic and literary skills of Sir William Jones and to the fact that Persian was the official language at the Indian courts.

  • ENGLISH iii. Translations Of Classical Persian Literature

    Michael Beard

    fall initially into two categories. There is a group of texts whose purpose is to convey the information of the original in discrete units, most useful with prose or narrative poetry and not necessarily “literary.” There are other translations designed to carry over the formal elements of a literary text.

  • ENGLISH iv. Translations Of Modern Persian Literature

    Michael Beard

    Modernist literature in Persia can be said to develop gradually throughout the 19th century, but for English readers it begins abruptly, shortly after the Constitutional revolution (q.v.), with the translations of Edward Browne.

  • ENGLISH v. Translation Of English Literature into Persian

    Karīm Emāmi

    The first texts translated from English into Persian were diplomatic exchanges and bilateral treaties.

  • ENJAVĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ, SAYYED ABU’L-QĀSEM

    Ulrich Marzolph

    (b. Shiraz, 1921; d. Tehran, 16 September 1993), eminent Persian folklorist.

  • ENJĪL

    Cross-Reference

    See BIBLE.

  • ENJŪ

    Cross-Reference

    See INJU DYNASTY.

  • ENOCH

    Cross-Reference

    See AḴNŪḴ.

  • ENOCH, BOOKS OF

    J. C. Reeves

    attributed to the seventh antediluvian biblical patriarch Enoch (Genesis 5.21-24), which show Iranian influence.

  • ENQELĀB-E ESLĀMĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See REVOLUTION OF 1978-79.

  • ENQELĀB-E ESLĀMĪ NEWSPAPER

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a newspaper published by Abu’l-Ḥasan Banī-Ṣadr and supporting his political views. 

  • ENQELĀB-E MAŠṞUṬĪYĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION.

  • ENQELĀB-E SAFĪD

    Cross-Reference

    See WHITE REVOLUTION.

  • ENŠĀʾ

    Jürgen Paul

    lit. "composition"; the process of creating or composing something as well as the result of this process and the rules of the art; it denotes a genre of prose literature, copies, drafts, or specimens of official and private correspondence.

  • ENŠĀʾ-ALLĀH KHĀN, SAYYED

    M. Asif Naim Siddiqui

    (b. Moršedābād, 1756; d. Lucknow, 1818), Urdu-Persian poet and writer.

  • ENSĀN-E KĀMEL

    Gerhard Böwering

    lit. "the Perfect Human Being"; a key idea in the philosophy and ethics of Islamic mysticism.

  • ENTEBĀH

    L. P. ELWELL-SUTTON

    lit. “Awakening”; a Persian newspaper published in Karbalā, Iraq, in 1914 by Mīrzā ʿAlī Āqā Šīrāzī Labīb-al-Molk, editor of Moẓaffarī published in Būšehr and Mecca.

  • ENTEẒĀM, ʿABD-ALLĀH and NAṢR-ALLĀH

    Fakhreddin Azimi

    two brothers active in 20th-century Persian politics. ʿAbd-Allāh (1895-1983), as a career diplomat, served in various posts, including minister of foreign affairs. Naṣr-Allāh (1899-1980) held a series of ministerial posts under Moḥammad Reżā Shah, including the ambassadorship to the United States.

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  • ĖNTSIKLOPEDIYAI SOVETII TOJIK

    H. Borjian

    (Tajik Soviet Encyclopedia), the first general encyclopedia of Tajikistan, published in the Tajik Persian language and Cyrillic alphabet (8 vols., Dushanbe, 1978-88).

  • ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Eskandar Firouz, Daniel Balland

    efforts to protect natural resources, wildlife, and ecosystems and to control pollution. In Persia conservation consciousness began, as it so often does, with concern for wildlife.

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  • ENZELI

    Cross-Reference

    See ANZALĪ.

  • EPHESUS, SEVEN SLEEPERS OF

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    Christian legend attested by texts in many languages.

  • EPHRAIM KHAN

    Cross-Reference

    See EPʿREM KHAN.

  • EPICS

    François de Blois

    narrative poems of legendary and heroic content.

  • EPIDEMICS

    Cross-Reference

    See PLAGUES.

  • EPIGRAM

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    originally a Greek word meaning “inscription” and denoting in Western literatures a genre of short poems characterized by their contents and style rather than by a specific prosodic form.

  • EPIGRAPHY

    Multiple Authors

    the study of inscriptions, particularly their collection, decipherment, interpretation, dating, and classification.

  • EPIGRAPHY i. Old Persian and Middle Iranian epigraphy

    Helmut Humbach

    Iranian epigraphy of the pre-Islamic period covers mainly inscriptions in the Old and Middle Iranian languages: Old Persian, Middle Persian, Parthian, Chorasmian, Sogdian, and Bactrian. Old and Middle Persian inscriptions span by far the longest period of time, from the Bīsotūn inscription until the early Islamic period.

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  • EPIGRAPHY ii. Greek inscriptions from ancient Iran

    Philip Huyse

    In April 1815 the Prussian Akademie der Wissenschaften in Berlin enthusiastically accepted the proposal by August Boeckh to produce a comprehensive thesaurus of inscriptions that would include all Greek inscriptional material published to date.

  • EPIGRAPHY iii. Arabic inscriptions in Persia

    Sheila S. Blair

    In Persia, as in the rest of the Islamic lands, Arabic was the basic language for foundation and religious texts on buildings and objects. In the early Islamic period these texts were usually written in some variant of the angular script known as Kufic. From the 12th century inscriptions in Persian became more common, and cursive scripts tended to replace angular ones.

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  • EPIGRAPHY iv. Safavid and later inscriptions

    Sussan Babaie

    The principal characteristic of epigraphy in Persia after the advent of the Safavids (1501) is the emphasis on Persian poetry and pious Shiʿite texts with an iconographic potency and deliberate frequency hitherto unknown. Arabic remained the language of koranic and Hadith quotations while Persian became increasingly prominent.

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  • EPIGRAPHY v. Inscriptions from the Indian subcontinent

    Ziyaud-Din A. Desai

    The systematic survey and study of Perso-Arabic epigraphy of the Indian subcontinent is not even half a century old.

  • EPIPHANIUS

    Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin

    (b. Eleutheropolis, Judaea, ca. 315; d. Constantia, Cyprus), bishop of Constantia on Cyprus, founded on the remains of Salamis.

  • EPISCOPAL

    Hassan B. Dehqani-Tafti

    a diocese of the Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East, one of thirty-seven independent churches of the worldwide Anglican Communion.

  • EPISTLES OF MANI

    Cross-Reference

    See MANICHEISM.

  • EPISTOLARY STYLE

    Cross-Reference

    See CORRESPONDENCE.

  • EPʿREM KHAN

    Aram Arkun

    Pers. Yeprem/Efrem (1868-1912), Armenian revolutionary and important military leader of the Constitutional Revolution. He uneasily reconciled his beliefs with his position as police chief of Tehran, resigning and returning to office several times.  On 24 December 1911, he shut down the parliament to comply with a Russian ultimatum, and this marked the close of Persia’s Constitutional Revolution.

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  • EQBĀL

    Cross-Reference

    a newspaper. See EḤTĪĀJ.

  • EQBĀL ĀḎAR, ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN QAZVĪNĪ

    Moḥammad-Taqī Masʿudiya

    or EQBĀL-AL-SOLṬĀN (b. Alvand, near Qazvīn, ca. 1869; d. Tabrīz, probably 1973), singer of Persian traditional music.

  • EQBĀL ĀŠTĪĀNĪ, ʿABBĀS

    Īraj Afšār

    During his years at Dār al-fonūn, Eqbāl came to know such litterati as Moḥammad-ʿAlī Forūḡī, Abu’l-Ḥasan Forūḡī, Mortażā Najmābādī, ʿAbd-al-ʿAẓīm Qarīb, Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Rahnemā, and ʿAbd-al-Razzāq Bōḡāyerī, under whose influence he embarked on a career of scholarship that continued until his death.

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  • EQBĀL LĀHŪRĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    Cross-Reference

    See IQBAL, MUHAMMAD.

  • EQBĀL PUBLISHERS

    Cross-Reference

    See PUBLISHERS.

  • EQBĀL, MANŪČEHR

    Ahmad Ashraf

    (1909-1977), prime minister 1957-60, minister of the Royal Court, head of National Iranian Oil Company, and professor of medicine. He was regarded as an honest and ascetic man. His authoritarian character, obedience and unswerving loyalty to the shah, and political ambition, made him a trusted aide, but not a popular political figure.

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  • EQBĀL-AL-SOLṬĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See EQBĀL ĀḎAR.

  • EQBĀL-NĀMA

    Cross-Reference

    See ESKANDAR-NĀMA-ye NEẒĀMI.

  • ʿEQD-AL-ʿOLĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See AFŻAL-AL-DIN KERMĀNI.

  • EQDĀM

    Nassereddin Parvin

    name of two separate series of a Persian newspaper published and edited in the first half of the twentieth century in Tehran by the journalist, poet, novelist, and translator, ʿAbbās Ḵalīlī.

  • EQLĪD

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a small town of medieval Fārs, now in the modern rural subdistrict of the same name.

  • EQLĪM

    Cross-Reference

    See CLIME.

  • EQṬĀʿ

    A. K. S. Lambton

    in its various forms one of the most persistent and important tenurial, economic and social institutions of medieval Persia.

  • EQTEṢĀD

    Cross-Reference

    See ECONOMY.

  • ĒR, ĒR MAZDĒSN

    Gherardo Gnoli

    an ethnonym, like Old Persian ariya- and Avestan airya-, meaning “Aryan” or “Iranian.”

  • ERĀDA-YE MELLĪ

    Pīrāya Yaḡmāʾī

    lit. "national will"; a pro-British political party founded on 19 January 1944 by Sayyed Żīāʾ al-Dīn Ṭabāṭabāʾī (1891-1969), a devout anglophile politician and journalist.

  • ĒRĀN, ĒRĀNŠAHR

    D. N. MacKenzie

    ērānšahr properly denotes the empire, while ērān signifies “of the Iranians.”

  • ĒRĀN-ĀMĀRGAR

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀMĀRGAR.

  • ĒRĀN-ĀSĀN-KERD-KAWĀD

    Rika Gyselen

    lit. "Kawād [has] made Ērān peaceful"; name of a Sasanian province (šahr) created by Kawād I (r. 488-531).

  • ĒRĀN-ŠĀD-KAWĀD

    Rika Gyselen

    name of a Sasanian town occurring in post-Sasanian sources only.

  • ĒRĀN-ŠAHR

    Cross-Reference

    See ĒRĀN.

  • ĒRĀN-WĒZ

    D. N. MacKenzie

    the Middle Persian designation of the territory of the Aryans.

  • ĒRĀN-WIN(N)ĀRD-KAWĀ

    Rika Gyselen

    lit. "Kawād[has] arranged Ērān"; name of a Sasanian province (šahrestān) created by Kawād I (r. 488-531) in his reorganization of the empire.

  • ĒRĀN-XWARRAH-ŠĀBUHR

    Rika Gyselen

    lit. "Ērān, glory of Šāpūr"; Sasanian province (šahrestān) containing Susa and probably created by Šāpūr II (r. 309-379).

  • ĒRĀN-XWARRAH-YAZDGERD

    Rika Gyselen

    lit. "Ērān, glory of Yazdegerd"; Sasanian province probably created by Yazdegerd II (438-457).

  • ʿERĀQ

    Jean During

    musical mode mentioned for the first time in the 11th century by Kaykāvūs among some ten modes.

  • ʿERĀQ-E ʿAJAM

    Pardis Minuchehr

    constitutionalist newspaper published in Tehran, 1907-08. 

  • ʿERĀQ-E ʿAJAM(Ī)

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    lit. “Persian Iraq”; the name given in medieval times to the largely mountainous, western portion of modern Persia.

  • ʿERĀQĪ,FAḴR-al-DĪN EBRĀHĪM

    William C. Chittick

    b. Bozorgmehr Javāleqī Hamadānī (b. Komjān, ca. 1213-14, d. Damascus, 1289), Sufi poet and author.

  • ERBEL

    Cross-Reference

    See ARBELA.

  • ERDMANN, KURT

    Jens Kr

    (b. Hamburg, 9 September 1901; d. Berlin, 30 September 1964), leading historian of Sasanian and Islamic art.

  • EREKLE II

    Keith Hitchins

    (1720-1798), king of Kakheti (r. 1744-62) and king of Kartli-Kakheti in Caucasus (r. 1762-98).

  • ƎRƎTI

    William W. Malandra

    the name of a minor goddess, one of a number of abstract deities who appear in the Avesta only in formulaic invocations of divinities.

  • EREVAN

    Erich Kettenhofen, George A. Bournoutian and Robert H. Hewsen

    ancient city and modern capital of the Republic of Armenia. After the Qara Qoyunlu made Erevan the administrative center of the Ararat region in the 15th century, travelers and historians frequently mentioned it as a major city of the region. It figured in the Ottoman-Safavid conflict of the 16th century, as both parties struggled for the control of the city and of all eastern Armenia.

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  • ERĒZ

    Cross-Reference

    See ARZENJĀN.

  • ʿERFĀN (1)

    Gerhard Böwering

    lit. "knowledge"; Islamic theosophy.

  • ʿERFĀN (2)

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of two Persian magazines and a newspaper.

  • ʿERFĀN, ḤASAN

    Habib Borjian

    Hasan Aliḵonovič Mamadḵonov (b. Samarkand, 3 March 1900; d. 22 June 1973), Tajik translator and writer.

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  • ERGATIVE CONSTRUCTION

    John R. Payne

    The most generally accepted definition of an ergative construction begins with the notion that languages utilize three primitive syntactic relations, referred to as S, A, and O. S is the subject of an intransitive clause, A is the subject of a transitive clause, and O is the object of a transitive clause.

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  • ĒRĪČ MOUNTAIN

    Gherardo Gnoli

    mentioned in a chapter of the Bundahišn devoted to mountains.

  • EROTIC LITERATURE

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    expressed in Persian by the neologism "adabīyāt-e erotīk"; not a clearly defined genre, since the concept of what is “erotic” varies considerably from time to time and place to place.

  • ERŠĀD

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of two Persian newspapers and a magazine.

  • ERŠĀD AL-NESWĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    the first women’s periodical in Afghanistan, published weekly in Kabul from 16 March-9 June 1921.

  • ERŠĀD al-ZERĀʿA

    Maria E. Subtelny

    a Persian agricultural manual completed in Herat in 1515 by Qāsem b. Yūsof Abūnaṣrī, who was previously identified in the scholarly literature simply as Fāżel Heravī.

  • ERṮ

    Cross-Reference

    See INHERITANCE.

  • ERUANDAŠAT

    Robert H. Hewsen

    a city in Armenia located on a rocky hill at the juncture of the Akhurean and Araxes rivers.

  • ERZENJĀN

    Cross-Reference

    a town in northeastern Anatolia. See ARZENJĀN.

  • ERZİ, ADNAN SADIK

    Osman G. Özgüdenlı and Mustafa Uyar

    After graduating in 1947, ERZİ began work for the Society of Turkish History as a library and publications specialist. In April 1947 he was appointed the Library Manager of the Faculty of Language and History/Geography at the University of Ankara.

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  • ERZURUM

    Eir

    a town in eastern Anatolia (39° 50´ N, 41° 20´ E). 

  • ESʿAD DEDE, MEHMED

    Tahsın Yazici

    Moḥammad Asʿad Dada (b. Salonika, 1841; d. Istanbul, 9 August 1911), Turkish author and Sufi poet of the Mawlawī order.

  • ESʿAD EFENDİ, MEHMED

    Tahsın Yazici

    Moḥammad Asʿad Efendi (b. Istanbul, 14 June 1570; d. Istanbul, 21 June 1625), Ottoman religious figure and author of both Persian and Turkish poetry.

  • ʿEṢĀMĪ, ʿABD-AL-MALEK

    Peter Jackson

    (fl. 1350), Indo-Muslim poet writing in Persian.

  • EŠĀRĀT WA’L-TANBĪHĀT, AL-

    M. E. Marmura

    a late work of Avicenna (Ebn Sīnā, d. 1037), written sometime between 1030 and 1034, which sums up his thought in a language that is often deeply personal and expressive.

  • ESCHATOLOGY

    Multiple Authors

    the branch of theology concerned with final things, i.e., the advent of the savior to defeat evil and the end of the world.

  • ESCHATOLOGY i. In Zoroastrianism and Zoroastrian Influence

    Shaul Shaked

    Faith in the events beyond life on this earth is attested in the Zoroastrian scriptures from the very first, from the Gāθās. This faith developed and became central to later Zoroastrianism so that it colors almost all aspects of the religious life.

  • ESCHATOLOGY ii. Manichean Eschatology

    Werner Sundermann

    Manichean eschatology, teachings about final things, provided information on what happened during and after the death of a single human being and also on what would happen before and at the end of this world.

  • ESCHATOLOGY iii. Imami Shiʿism

    M. A. Amir-Moezzi

    It is known that among Islamic doctrinal trends and schools of thought that Shiʿism, Imami Shiʿism in particular, has developed eschatological doctrine most fully.

  • ESCHATOLOGY iv. In Babism and Bahaism

    Stephen Lambden

    Individual Babis and Bahais have compiled testimonia and written “demonstrative treatises” (estedlālīya) to show the fulfillment, in their religion, of apocalyptic and eschatological prophecies.

  • EṢFAHĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ISFAHAN.

  • EṢFAHĀN and EṢFAHĀNĀT

    Cross-Reference

    See BAYĀT-E EṢFAHĀN.

  • EṢFAHĀNĪ, ʿABD-AL-ḤASAN

    David Pingree

    b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥasan, author of the Ketāb al-bolhān on astrology, magic, divination, and demonology, which he composed around 1400 for Ḥosayn b. Aḥmad b. Moḥammad Erbelī.

  • EṢFAHĀNĪ, ABU’L-ŠAYḴ ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Martin McDermott

    b. Moḥammad b. Jaʿfar b. Ḥayyān ḤĀFEẒ ANṢĀRĪ (887-979), traditionist and Koran commentator, important principally for his Ṭabaqāt al-moḥaddeṯīn.

  • ESFAHANI, Jaleh

    Shadab Vajdi

    (Žāla Eṣfahāni, b. Esfahan, 1921; d. London, 29 November 2007), poet and political activist. Esfahani’s poetry is ensconced in the tradition of Persian prosody. With few exceptions, she adheres to the metrical traditions of classical Persian poetry. She frequently borrows imageries from poets of the classical period and adapts them to the requirements of her politically laden poems.

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  • ESFAHSĀLĀR

    Cross-Reference

    See SEPAHSĀLĀR.

  • ESFAND

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    a common weed found in Persia, Central Asia, and the adjacent areas.

  • ESFANDĪĀR (1)

    Ehsan Yarshater

    son of Goštāsp, Kayanian prince of Iranian legendary history and hero of Zoroastrian holy wars, best known for his tragic combat with with Rostam, the mightiest warrior of Iranian national epic.

  • ESFANDĪĀR (2)

    Ehsan Yarshater

    one of the seven great clans of Parthian and Sasanian times.

  • ESFANDĪĀR KHAN BAḴTĪĀRĪ, ṢAMṢĀM-AL-SALṬANA, SARDĀR(-E) ASʿAD

    G. R. Garthwaite

    (1844-1902), important leader of the Baḵtīārī tribe in southwestern Persia and grandfather of Queen Ṯorayyā.

  • ESFANDĪĀRĪ, ḤĀJJ MOḤTAŠAM-AL-SALṬANA ḤASAN

    Bāqer ʿĀqelī

    (b. 23 April 1867; d. 24 February 1945), politician, governor, and speaker of the Majles.

  • ESFARA

    Habib Borjian

    a district in the Fergana valley south of the Jaxartes which extends to the foothills of the Turkestan range.

  • ESFARĀYEN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    or ESFARĀʾĪN; a district, and in pre-modern Islamic times, a town, of northwestern Khorasan.

  • ESFEZĀRĪ, ABŪ ḤĀTEM

    Cross-Reference

    5th/12th-century astronomer. See ASFEZĀRĪ, ABŪ ḤĀTEM.

  • ESFEZĀRĪ, MOʿĪN-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD ZAMČĪ

    MARIA E. Subtelny

    (ca. 1446-1510), calligrapher specializing in the taʿlīq script, minor poet (pen name Nāmī), and master of the epistolary art who flourished in Herat during the reign of the Timurid Solṭān-Ḥosayn Bāyqarā.

  • ESFĪJĀB

    Cross-Reference

    See ASFĪJĀB.

  • ESḤĀQ

    Mohsen Zakeri

    b. ṬOLAYQ (or Ṭalīq), the secretary responsible for translating the financial dīvāns of Khorasan into Arabic in 741-42.

  • ESḤĀQ AḤMAR NAḴAʿI

    Mushegh Asatryan

    a prominent Shiʿi extremist active in Iraq, founder of the Esḥāqiya ḡolāt sect, and the supposed author of a number of texts.

  • ESḤĀQ KHAN QARĀʾĪ TORBATĪ

    Kambiz Eslami

    (ca. 1743-1816), one of the wealthiest and most powerful chieftains in Khorasan during the reigns of Āḡā Moḥammad Khan and Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah Qājār.

  • ESḤĀQ MAWṢELĪ

    Everett K. Rowson

    (767?-850), prominent musician at the ʿAbbasid court in Baghdad and the successor of his equally famous father Ebrāhīm Mawṣelī as leader of the conservative school of musicians of the time.

  • ESḤĀQ TORK

    ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Zarrīnkūb

    propagandist sent by Abū Moslem Ḵorāsānī (governor of Khorasan and leading figure in the ʿAbbasid revolution) to the Turkish people of Transoxania.

  • ESḤAQĪYA

    Cross-Reference

    See ḠOLĀT.

  • ESḤĀQZĪ

    Daniel Balland

    The geographical distribution of the tribe shows the dualism typical to those Pashtun tribes who have massively taken part in the colonization of North Afghanistan, a process in which the Esḥāqzī played a leading role.

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  • EŠĪK-ĀQĀSĪ-BĀŠĪ

    Roger M. Savory

    or Īšīk-āqāsī-bāšī, the title of two officials in the Safavid central administration, namely ešīk-āqāsī-bāšī-e dīvān, and ešīk-āqāsī-bāšī-e ḥaram.

  • ESKĀFI, ABŪ ḤANĪFA

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    11th century Persian poet, mentioned among the court poets of Ḡazna.

  • ESKĀFĪ, ABŪ JAʿFAR MOḤAMMAD

    Josef van Ess

    b. ʿAbd-Allāh, Muʿtazilite theologian of the 9th century (d. 854).

  • ESKANDAR

    Cross-Reference

    See ALEXANDER THE GREAT.

  • ESKANDAR

    Cross-Reference

    See QĀBŪS b. VOŠMGĪR.

  • ESKANDAR B. JĀNĪ BEG

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-ALLĀH KHAN b. ESKANDAR.

  • ESKANDAR BEG TORKAMĀN MONŠĪ

    Roger M. Savory

    sixteenth century author of Tārīḵ-e ʿālamārā-ye ʿabbāsī, a history of the reign of Shah ʿAbbās I.

  • ESKANDAR MĪRZĀ

    Cross-Reference

    pro-Persian member of the royal family of Georgia (b. 1770, d. after 1830).See ALEXANDER, PRINCE.

  • ESKANDAR SOLṬĀN

    Priscilla Soucek

    b. ʿOmar Šayḵ b. Tīmūr (1384-1415), Timurid prince who ruled a succession of cities in western Persia between 1403 and 1415 but is remembered mostly for his cultural patronage.

  • ESKANDAR-NĀMA

    William L. Hanaway

    Alexander the Great and the adventure tale about him known generically as the Alexander romance.

  • ESKANDAR-NĀMA OF NEŻĀMĪ

    François de Blois

    the poetical version of the life of Alexander by the great 12th century narrative poet Neẓāmī Ganjavī (1141-1209).

  • ESKANDARĪ, ĪRAJ

    Cosroe Chaqueri

    (1907-1985), prominent leader of the Tudeh Party. He was an architect of the coalition of the Tudeh party with prime minister Aḥmad Qawām in 1946. From 1948 he worked for the Tudeh party in Paris, Vienna, Budapest, Moscow, and finally Leipzig. His lukewarm attitude toward the Islamic Revolution and refusal of a Soviet offer to help turn Persia into another Afghanistan cost him his leadership position in 1979.

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  • ESKANDARĪ, MOḤTARAM

    Mehrangīz Dawlatšāhī

    a pioneer advocate of women’s rights in Persia (1895-1925) and the founder and leader of the first women’s association in Persia, namely Jamʿīyat-e taraqqī-e neswān, later Jamʿīyat-e neswān-e waṭanḵᵛāh (Society of Patriotic Women).

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  • ESKANDARĪ, SOLAYMĀN (MOḤSEN) MĪRZĀ

    Cosroe Chaqueri

    (1875-1944), constitutionalist, civil servant, statesman, founder of the Ejtemāʿīyūn (Socialists) political party in the 1920s. His interest in social justice and egalitarianism was more rooted in Islam than in the European Enlightenment or European socialism. A devout Muslim, he opposed women’s membership in the Tudeh party.

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  • ESKANDARĪYA

    Cross-Reference

    See ALEXANDRIA.

  • EŠKĀŠ(E)M

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a settlement in medieval Badaḵšān in northeastern Afghanistan, now in the modern Afghan province of Eškāšem.

  • EŠKĀŠ(E)MĪ

    I. M. Steblin-Kamensky

    or Ishkashmi; one of the so-called “Pamir group” of the Eastern Iranian languages spoken in a few villages of the region of Eškāšem straddling the upper reaches of the Panj river.

  • ESKENĀS

    Ali Shargi

    bank note, paper currency. In 1888 an English-owned New Oriental Bank established branches in Tehran and other cities, and for the first time Persians became acquainted with a bank in the modern sense. in 1889, Baron Julius de Reuter obtained from Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah the concession of establishing the Imperial Bank of Persia and the monopoly of issuing bank notes in Persia.

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  • EṢLĀḤ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of several Persian-language newspapers, especially the major 20th-century Kabul daily.

  • EṢLĀḤĀT-E ARŻĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See LAND REFORM.

  • ESLĀM

    Cross-Reference

    See ISLAM in IRAN.

  • ESLĀMĪYA

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of two Persian newspapers first appearing in Tabrīz in 1906.

  • ESM

    Cross-Reference

    See PERSONAL NAMES; ALQĀB WA ʿANĀWĪN.

  • EŠM b. ŠEḠĀY

    Cross-Reference

    See CENTRAL ASIA.

  • ESMĀʿĪL

    Cross-Reference

    (ISHMAEL). See EBRĀHĪM.

  • ESMĀʿĪL b. JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ

    Farhad Daftary

    the sixth Imam and the eponym of the Ismaʿilis.

  • ESMĀʿĪL ḤAQQĪ BORSAVĪ

    Tahsin Yazıcı

    or Oskodārī, b. MOṢṬAFĀ, Shaikh Abu’l-Fedāʾ (b. Aydos 1652; d. Bursa, 1725), Turkish scholar, theologian, and mystic.

  • ESMĀʿĪL I ṢAFAWĪ

    Roger M. Savory, Ahmet T. Karamustafa

    , SHAH ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR b. Shaikh Ḥaydar b. Shaikh Jonayd (1487-1524), founder of the Safavid dynasty. One of his first acts, the promulgation of the Eṯnā-ʿašarī rite of Shiʿism to be the official religion of the newly-created state, had profound consequences for the subsequent history of Persia.

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  • ESMĀʿĪL III ṢAFAWĪ

    John R. Perry

    , ABŪ TORĀB, Safavid shadow-king, (r. 1750-73), the third Safavid dynast of that name.

  • ESMĀʿĪL ḴANDĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ALTUNTĀŠ.

  • ESMĀʿĪL KHAN QAŠQĀʾĪ

    Cross-Reference

    ṢAWLAT-AL-DAWLA, SARDĀR-E ʿAŠĀYER. See ṢAWLAT-AL-DAWLA.

  • ESMĀʿĪL KHAN ṢĪMQO

    Cross-Reference

    or SEMĪTQŪ. See ṢĪMQO.

  • ESMĀʿĪL ZĀDA, ḤOSAYN KHAN

    Moḥammad-Taqī Masʿūdīya

    (d. 1941), teacher and master player of the kamānča.

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. ʿABBĀD, ṢĀḤEB

    Cross-Reference

    See ṢĀḤEB b. ʿABBĀD.

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. Aḥmad b. Asad SĀMĀNĪ, ABŪ EBRĀHĪM

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (849-907), the first member of the Samanid dynasty to rule over all Transoxania and Farḡāna.

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. Nūḥ, ABŪ EBRĀHĪM MONTAṢER

    Cross-Reference

    (d. 1004), last Samanid amir.

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. Rokn-al-Dīn Yaḥyā

    Cross-Reference

    See MAJD-AL-DĪN ESMĀʿĪL.

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. Seboktegīn

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Ghaznavid prince and briefly amir in Ḡazna in 997-98.

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. Yasār NESĀʾĪ

    Kevin Lacey

    an eighth century poet of Persian origin from Medina.

  • ʿEṢMAT

    Cross-Reference

    See ČAHĀRDAH MAʿṢŪM.

  • ʿEṢMAT BOḴĀRĪ, Ḵᵛāja ʿEṢMAT-ALLĀH

    Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā

    b. Masʿūd Boḵārī (d. 1436), poet and scholar of the early Timurid period, known also for his expertise in mathematics, history, prosody, riddles, and mastery of enšāʾ.

  • ESOTERIC SECTS

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀṬENĪYAḠOLĀTISMAʿILISM.

  • ESPAHBOD, ALI-REZA

    Hengameh Fouladvand

    painter and graphic designer (1951-2007); he gave voice to ideals of equality and justice through his unique work and was banned from exhibiting his paintings from 1991 to 2001.

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  • EŠPOḴTOR

    Cross-Reference

    See TSITSIANOV.

  • ʿEŠQ

    Cross-Reference

    See LOVE.

  • EŠQ O RŪḤ

    Cross-Reference

    See ḤOSN O RŪḤ.

  • ʿEŠQ, shaikh ḡolām moḥyĪ-al-dĪn MOBTALĀ

    Munibur Rahman

    8th-19th century author writing in Persian and Urdu.

  • EŠQĀBĀD

    Cross-Reference

    See ASHKABAD.

  • ʿEŠQĪ BELGRĀMĪ, SHAH BARKAT-ALLĀH

    Asifa Zamani

    (1659?-1729), Indo-Persian poet and author.

  • ʿEŠQĪ, MOḤAMMAD-REŻĀ MĪRZĀDA

    Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak

    (1894-1923), poet and journalist of the post-constitution era and an important contributor to the modernization of poetry in Persia. After he was assassinated by two gunmen, the Majles members of the minority party and other opponents of Prime Minister Reżā Khan quickly turned his funeral into an occasion for public protest against the rising tide of Reżā Khan's power.

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  • EŠQĪ, MOLLĀ BĀBOR

    Jirí Bečka

    b. Hedāyat-Allāh (1792-1863), Central Asian poet writing in Persian.

  • ʿEŠQĪʿAẒĪMĀBĀDĪ, SHAIKH MOḤAMMAD WAJĪH-AL-DĪN

    Munibur Rahman

    18th-19th century poet and writer in Persian and Urdu.

  • EŠRĀQ ḴĀVARĪ, ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD

    Vahid Rafati

    (b. Mašhad, 1902; d. Tehran, 1972), Bahai scholar, teacher, and author.

  • EŠRĀQĪ SCHOOL

    Cross-Reference

    See ILLUMINATIONISM.

  • ʿEŠRĪNĪYA

    Cross-Reference

    See BĪSTGĀNĪ.

  • ESTAHBĀN

    Mīnū Yūsof-nežād

    town and district in Fārs, bordered in the north by the Baḵtagān lake, in the northeast and the east by Neyrīz/Nīrīz, in the south by Dārāb, in the southwest by Fasā, and in the west by Shiraz.

  • EṢṬAḴR

    A. D. H. Bivar, Mary Boyce

    (ESTAḴR, STAḴR), city and district in ancient Persia (Fārs). It was presumably a suburb of the urban settlement once surrounding the Achaemenid royal residences, but of which few traces now survive. After the death of Seleucus I (280 B.C.), when the province began to re-assert its independence, its center seems to have developed at Eṣṭaḵr, better protected than the old capital by the surrounding hills.

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  • ESTAḴR NEWSPAPER

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a newspaper published in Shiraz from 1918-1932 and 1942-1962.

  • EṢṬAḴRĪ, ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM

    O. G. Bolshakov

    b. Moḥammad Fāresī Karḵī, 10th-century Muslim traveler and geographer and founder of the genre of masālek (lit. “itineraries”) literature.

  • EṢṬAḴRĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD ḤASAN

    Jeanette Wakin

    b. Aḥmad b. Yazīd (858-939), Shafiʿite jurisconsult and author.

  • ESTĀLEF

    Daniel Balland

    large Persian-speaking village of the Kōhdāman, 55 km north of Kabul, built on a foothill of the Paḡmān range of the Hindu Kush between 1,875 and 1,950 m above sea-level.

  • ESTEʿĀRA

    Julie S. Meisami

    lit. "to borrow"; the general term for metaphor.

  • ESTEBDĀD-E ṢAGĪR

    Cross-Reference

    "the lesser tyranny." See CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION.

  • ESTEBṢĀR

    Cross-Reference

    See ṬŪSĪ, ABŪ JAʿFAR.

  • EŠTEHĀRD

    Mīnū Yūsof-nežād

    a town and district (baḵš) in the province of Tehran.

  • EŠTEHĀRDĪ

    Gernot L. Windfuhr

    the easternmost of the nine Southern Tati (Tātī) dialects and sharing with the others most phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical features. These are part of a band of dialects extending from the Aras River to central Persia and farther east.

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  • ESTEḴĀRA

    Cross-Reference

    See DIVINATION.

  • ESTEQLĀL

    Nassereddin Parvin

    newspaper published by the constitutionalists who had taken refuge in the Ottoman consulate in Tabrīz during the Russian occupation of the city in 1909.

  • ESTEQLĀL-e ĪRĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    an evening daily published in Tehran from 31 May 1910-17 August 1911; it was the organ of the small Unity and Progress party (Ḥezb-e ettefāq o taraqqī) and was published by the party’s leader, the well-known constitutionalist Zayn-al-ʿĀbedīn Mostaʿān-al-Molk

  • ESTHER AND MORDECHAI

    Amnon Netzer

    a Jewish shrine in the city of Hamadān, where, according to Judeo-Persian tradition, Esther and Mordechai are buried.

  • ESTHER, BOOK OF

    Shaul Shaked

    a short book of the Old Testament, written in Hebrew.

  • ESTRĀBĀD

    Cross-Reference

    See ASTARĀBĀD.

  • EʿTEDĀLĪ, ḤEZB-E

    Cross-Reference

    See EJTEMĀʿĪYŪN.

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA

    Cross-Reference

    lit. “Confidant of the State”; an important title given to people in the administration favored by the court.

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA, ĀQĀ KHAN NŪRĪ

    Abbas Amanat

    , MĪRZĀ (1807-1865), prime minister (ṣadr-e aʿẓam) of Persia (1851-58) under Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah Qajar. Though relatively young when he took office, he represented the old school of Qajar statecraft. His very appearance, with a long beard, ornamented robes, and lavish entourage, as well as his love of  titles, decorations and other emblems of power, and court protocol, all conjured up images of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah’s (d. 1834) era.

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  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA, EBRĀHĪM KALĀNTAR

    Cross-Reference

    See EBRĀHĪM KALĀNTAR.

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA, GĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD BEG TEHRĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    Gīāṯ-al-Dīn Moḥammad Tehrānī (d. 1622), prime minister of the Mughal emperor Jahāngīr and father of the emperor’s wife, Nūr Jahān. See GĪĀṮ BEG.

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-SALṬANA, MOḤAMMAD-ḤASAN KHAN MOQADDAM MARĀḠAʾĪ

    Abbas Amanat

    or ṢANĪʿ-AL-DAWLA (1843-1896), Qajar statesman, scholar, and author.

  • EʿTEṢĀMĪ, MĪRZĀ YŪSOF KHAN ĀŠTĪĀNĪ, EʿTEṢĀM-AL-MOLK

    Heshmat Moayyad

    (b. Tabrīz, 1874; d. Tehran, 1938), Persian writer and journalist.

  • EʿTEṢĀMĪ, PARVĪN

    Heshmat Moayyad

    Parvīn was only seven or eight years old when her poetic talent revealed itself. Encouraged by her father, she rendered into verse some literary pieces that her father had translated from Western sources. Her earliest known poems, eleven compositions printed in 1921-22 issues of her father’s monthly magazine, Bahār, display maturity of thought and craft.

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  • EʿTEŻĀD-AL-DAWLA

    Cross-Reference

    See SOLAYMĀN KHAN QĀJĀR QOVĀNLŪ.

  • EʿTEŻĀD-AL-SALṬANA, ʿALĪQOLĪ MĪRZĀ

    Abbas Amanat

    (1822-1880), first minister of sciences (ʿolūm, meaning education) of the Qajar period and a scholar.

  • ETHÉ, CARL HERMANN

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    Initially Ethe worked as an assistant librarian at the Bodleian, on leave of absence from the University of Munich. In 1874 he abandoned his lectureship in Germany and settled down in Great Britain permanently. The motivation for this move may have been political, at least in part, because Ethé is described as “a German radical, . . . a persona ingrata with absolutist governments”

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  • ETHICS

    C.-H. de Fouchıcour

    a body of practical moral doctrine was elaborated as part of the earliest development of Persian literature, at which time considerable reflection was devoted to topics ranging from morals to ethics, from the exhortation not to harm one’s fellow creature to the search for the meaning of life.

  • ETHIOPIA

    E. van Donzel

    Ethiopia (OPers. Kuša-) was located on the western fringe of the Achaemenid empire. The Ethiopians (OPers. Kušiyā; Gr. Aithí-opes “with [sun]burnt faces”) are named among the peoples of the Persian Empire and are included at the end of Herodotus’s satrapy list. 

  • ETHNOGRAPHY (Text)

    Brian Spooner

    , the basic field research method in anthropology. Apart from ancient and medieval travelers such as Herodotus (mid-5th century BCE), Marco Polo (late 13th century) and Clavijo (early 15th century), the record of close, firsthand observation by foreigners in the Iranian region begins with the reports of travelers to the Safavid Court in the sixteenth century.

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  • ETHNOGRAPHY (Bibliography)

    Brian Spooner

    For cited works not given in detail, see “Short References.” Priority has been given to coverage of ethnographic data based on long-term participant observation, but other  ethnographically significant sources are also listed, including some based on shorter works, some by travelers from before the emergence of professional ethnography, and some from scholars trained in related fields such as folklore, linguistics and cultural geography.

  • ETIQUETTE

    Nancy H. Dupree

    (Pers. nazākat, ādāb-e moʿāšarat), defined as the observance of conventional decorum particularly among the elite, is itself part of the wider topic of adab.

  • EṮNĀ-ʿAŠARĪYA

    Cross-Reference

    See SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; SHIʿITE DOCTRINE ii. Hierarchy in the Imamiyya.

  • ʿEṬR

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿAṬR.

  • ETTEFĀQ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of five Persian newspapers.

  • ETTEFĀQ-E ESLĀM

    Nassereddin Parvin

    lit. “Islamic Solidarity"; a weekly government newspaper which began publication in Herat as of 24 August 1920; renamed Faryād in November 1922.

  • ETTEFĀQ-E KĀRGARĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a daily newspaper published by the striking print-workers union in Tehran in 1910, one of the first labor or socialist newspaper published in Persia.

  • ETTEḤĀD

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of eleven Persian language newspapers.

  • ETTEHĀD-E ESLĀM

    Cross-Reference

    See KUČEK KHAN.

  • ETTEHĀDĪYA, ŠERKAT-E

    Mansoureh Ettehadiyeh Nezam-Mafi

    an exchange company (ṣarrāfī) founded in Tabrīz in 1887 by the brothers Ḥājī ʿAlī and Ḥājī Mahdī Kūzakanānī in partnership with two local money changers, Sayed Mortażā and Ḥājī Loṭf-ʿAlī, and other Tabrīzī merchants.

  • EṬṬELĀʿ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of a Persian newspaper and a magazine.

  • EṬṬELĀʿĀT

    Nasserddin Parvin

    lit. “information, knowledge”; the oldest running Tehran afternoon daily newspaper and the oldest running Persian daily in the world. It was first published on 10 July 1926 as the organ of Markaz-e Eṭṭelāʿāt-e Īrān, the first Persian news agency.

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  • ETTINGHAUSEN, RICHARD

    Priscilla P. Soucek

    Although Ettinghausen’s official role at the Berlin Museum ended in early 1933 because of decrees issued by the National Socialist Party, he retained an admiration for the work of his former colleagues, epecially that of F. Sarre, whose combination of intuitive connoisseurship with exacting and methodical scholarship resembled that of Ettinghausen himself.

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  • EUCRATIDES

    Paul Bernard

    name of two Greco-Bactrian kings: (1) Eucratides I (r. 170-145 B.C.E.), one of the last and most powerful of the Greco-Bactrian kings and (2) Eucratides II, another Greco-Bactrian king, (r. 145-140 B.C.E.) known only through his coinage.

  • EUGENIUS

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    or MĀRAWGEN; legendary Christian saint traditionally credited with the introduction of Egyptian monasticism into Mesopotamia and Persia.

  • EULAEUS RIVER

    Cross-Reference

    See KARḴA.

  • EUNUCHS

    Monsutti

    castrated males who were in charge of the concubines of royal harems, served in the daily life of the court, and sometimes carried out administrative functions.

  • EUPHRATES

    Samuel N. C. Lieu

    together with the Tigris, historically and geographically constituting one of the most important river-systems in the Near East.

  • EUROPE, PERSIAN IMAGE OF

    Rudi Matthee

    To Persians, as to other Muslim peoples, Europe was long synonymous with Christendom and was thus closely associated with Rūm, the realm of Byzantium or eastern Christianity.

  • EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA

    Philip Huyse

    (260-339), Greek ecclesiastical historian and theologian.

  • EUSTATHIUS, ACTS of

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    Christian martyrological text, of which versions survive in many languages, including Greek, Latin, Syriac, and Armenian.

  • EUTHYDEMUS

    A. D. H. Bivar

    name of two Greek kings of Bactria: (1) Euthydemus I (ca. 230-200 B.C.E.), considered the real founder of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom and (2) Euthydemus II (ca. 190-185 B.C.E.), presumably the second son of Euthydemus I, or less probably eldest son of Demetrius I.

  • EUTROPIUS

    Samuel N. C. Lieu

    Roman administrator and historian, probably from Bordeaux, who accompanied the emperor Julian the Apostate on his ill-fated Persian expedition in 363.

  • EUTYCHIUS of Alexandria

    Sidney H. Griffith and EIr

    (877-940), Christian physician and historian whose Annales (written in Arabic and called Ketāb al-tārīḵ al-majmūʿ ʿalā’l-taḥqīq wa’l-taṣdīq or Naẓm al-jawhar) is a rich repository of much otherwise unobtainable information about the history of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, especially in the periods of Persian occupation in the seventh century and in Islamic times up to the early tenth century.

  • EV-OḠLĪ family

    Kathryn Babayan

    (or Īv-ōḡlī), name of a family that served three Safavid kings (ʿAbbās I, Ṣafī, and ʿAbbās II) as ešīk-āqāsī-bāšī of the harem, for a period of twenty-seven years (1617-43).

  • EV-OḠLĪ, ḤAYDAR BEG

    K. Allin Luther

    or Īv-ōḡlī, b. Abu’l-Qāsem, a court official of the later Safavid period.

  • EVAGRIUS PONTICUS

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    (346-399 C.E.), prolific author of Christian literature in Greek.

  • EVANGELICAL CHURCH OF IRAN

    Cross-Reference

    See CHRISTIANITY viii. Christian Missions in Persia.

  • EVANGELION

    Cross-Reference

    See ANGALYŪN; MĀNĪ; MANICHEISM.

  • EVIL

    Etan Kohlberg

    wickedness, harm, ill fortune.

  • EVIL EYE

    Cross-Reference

    See ČAŠM-ZAḴM.

  • EVIL MIND

    Cross-Reference

    See AKŌMAN.

  • EVĪN PRISON

    Forthcoming

    See Supplement.

  • EVOLUTION

    based on a longer article by ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn ZarrĪnkūb

    (takāmol, taḥawwol), a family of ideas embodying the belief that the physical universe and living organisms have developed in a process of continuous change from a lower, simpler to a higher, more complex state.

  • EWEN NĀMAG

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀʾĪN-NĀMA.

  • ĒWĒNBED

    Philippe Gignoux

    lit. "master of manners"; Pahlavi title attested from the 3rd century C.E.

  • EXCAVATIONS

    Multiple Authors

    i. In Persia, ii. In Afghanistan, iii. In Central Asia, iv. In Chinese Turkestan

  • EXCAVATIONS i. In Persia

    David Stronach

    a diachronic survey of the main patterns of archaeological field research in Persia from the time of the first excavations in the middle of the 19th century down to the late l990s.

  • EXCAVATIONS ii. In Afghanistan

    Warwick Ball

    Archeological investigation, both excavation and recording of sites and monuments, began in Afghanistan in the early 19th century. Most such work was by travelers and British Indian army officers and often consisted of little more than passing observations.

  • EXCAVATIONS iii. In Central Asia

    B. A. LitvinskiĬ

    Archeological and architectural monuments of Central Asia are mentioned in reports from the 18th and early 19th centuries by European and Russian travelers, merchants, and diplomats. Major archaeological work began, however, only after the Russian conquest of the region; at first it was done by amateurs, especially military officers.

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  • EXCAVATIONS iv. In Chinese Turkestan

    B. A. LitvinskiĬ

    Chinese Turkestan refers to Xinjiang (Sinkiang), the Uighur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China. Other names have often been applied to this part of Central Asia: Serindia (English and French); Ost-Turkestan, Chinesische Ost-Turkestan, Mittelasien (German); Vostochnyĭ Turkestan (Russian). Some of these terms are purely geographical (Mittelasien), some historical (Serindia), and others ethno-cultural (Turkestan).

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  • EXEGESIS

    Multiple Authors

    (Ar. tafsīr), commentary on or interpretation of sacred texts.

  • EXEGESIS i. In Zoroastrianism

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    Zoroastrian exegesis consists basically of the interpretation of the Avesta (q.v.). However, the closest equivalent Iranian concept, zand, generally includes Pahlavi texts which were believed to derive from commentaries upon Avestan scripture, but whose extant form contains no Avestan passages.

  • EXEGESIS ii. In Shiʿism

    Meir M. Bar-Asher

    Shiʿite exegetes, perhaps even more than their Sunni counterparts, support their distinctive views by reference to Koranic proof-texts.

  • EXEGESIS iii. In Persian

    Annabel Keeler

    The writing of commentaries on the Koran in Persian seems to have begun during the second half of the 4th/10th century. The principal objective of such tafsīrs was ostensibly to give Persian speakers who were not proficient in Arabic direct access to the exegesis of the Koran.

  • EXEGESIS vi. In Aḵbārī and Post-Safavid Esoteric Shiʿism

    Todd Lawson

    Aḵbārī exegesis of the Koran, the style and content of which are much older than the Safavid period, became during that time a common method of interpreting Islamic scripture.

  • EXEGESIS vii. In Bahaism

    Todd Lawson

    importance of Koranic exegesis (tafsīr) and interpretation (taʾwīl)—a somewhat arbitrary distinction—for the Bābī and Bahai religions may be gathered from the fact that the inception of the former is dated to the commencement of a work of scriptural interpretation, namely the Bāb’s Tafsīr sūrat Yūsof, and that, in many ways, the most important work in the Bahai canon is the Ketāb-e īqān by Bahāʾ-Allāh.

  • EXEGESIS viii. Nishapuri School of Quranic Exegesis

    Walid A. Saleh

    A school of Quranic exegesis was established by three scholars from Nishapur in the 11th century which transformed the genre of tafsir and Quranic sciences and came to be known as the Nishapuri School.

  • EXILARCH

    Isaiah M. Gafni

    (Hebrew resh galuta), the leading authority in the Jewish community in Babylonia.

  • EXILE

    Cross-Reference

    See DEPORTATIONS; DIASPORA.

  • EXTRATERRITORIALITY

    Cross-Reference

    See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS.

  • EXTREMIST SHIʿITES

    Cross-Reference

    See ḠOLĀT.

  • EY IRĀN

    Morteza Hoseyni Dehkordi and Parvin Loloi

    (O Iran, O bejeweled land), the title of an ardently patriotic hymn of praise to the land of Iran.

  • EYES and EARS of KING

    Cross-Reference

    See COURTS AND COURTIERS.

  • EYVĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See AYVĀN.

  • EŻĀFA

    John R. Perry and Ali Ashraf Sadeghi

    (annexation, suppletion), a grammatical term embracing several types of Persian noun phrase in which the constituents are connected by the enclitic -e/-ye (kasra-ye eżāfa “the eżāfa particle”).

  • EZGĪL

    Cross-Reference

    or AZGĪL. See MEDLAR.

  • EZĪRĀN

    Sheila S. Blair

    a village 32 km southeast of Isfahan on the south bank of the river Zāyandarūd. 

  • EZNIK OF KOŁB

    James R. Russell

    or KOŁBACʿI (b. ca. 374-80), Armenian Christian theologian and cleric; his work contains a refutation of the Zoroastrian religion. 

  • ʿEZRĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See BIBLE.

  • ʿEZRĀ, BOOK OF

    J.C. Reeves

    canonical biblical book emanating from the early portion of the Second Temple period (515 B.C.E.-70 C.E.) of Jewish history. 

  • ʿEZRĀ-NĀMA

    Amnon Netzer

    paraphrased versification of the Book of ʿEzrā containing midrashic and Iranian legends. 

  • ʿEZRĀʾĪL

    Cross-Reference

    lit. "Angel of Death." See Supplement (ANGELS).

  • ʿEZZ-AL-DAWLA, ʿABD-al-RAŠĪD

    C. E. Bosworth

    See ʿABD-AL-RAŠĪD, ABŪ MANṢŪR.

  • ʿEZZ-AL-DAWLA, ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD MĪRZĀ

    Kambiz Eslami

    In 1872, ʿEzz-al-Dawla became the chieftain of the Qajar tribe, a prestigious albeit ceremonial position that he held for a year. It was in this capacity that he was selected to join Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah’s entourage on his first tour of Europe in 1873. ʿEzz-al-Dawla was an educated man with a knowledge of French and English and was also an avid reader and book collector.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ʿEZZ-AL-DĪN KĀŠĀNĪ, MAḤMŪD

    Māšā-Allāh Ajūdānī

    b. ʿAlī Naṭanzī (d. 1334-35), an author and Sufi of the early 14th century.

  • ʿEZZAT PĀŠĀ, MOḤAMMAD

    Tahsın Yazici

    (1843-1914), author of a Persian-Turkish dictionary and translator of Persian literary works.

  • ʿEZZAT-AL-DAWLA, MALEKAZĀDA ḴĀNOM

    Kambiz Eslami

    (1834/35-1905), the only full sister of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah. The first (1849-52) of her five marriages was as second wife of Mīrzā Taqī Khan Amīr Kabīr. One of her two daughters by him married the crown prince Moẓaffar-al-Din Mirza and bore a son, the future Moḥammad-ʿAlī Shah (r. 1907-09). 

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • E~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter E entries.