ḤELLI, ḤASAN B. YUSOF B. MOṬAHHAR

 

ḤELLI, ḤASAN B. YUSOF B. MOṬAHHAR, generally referred to, using his title, as “ʿAllāma Ḥelli,” prominent Imami theologian and jurist (b. Ḥella, 27 or 29 Ramażān 648/23 or 25 December 1250; d. Ḥella, 20 or 21 Moḥarram 726/27 or 28 December 1325).

LIFE

Ḥelli came from a well-established family of Shiʿite scholars. His father, Sadid-al-Din Yusof Moṭahhar (d. after 665/1267), was a respected jurisconsult and a leading figure in the local Shiʿite community. His mother was a descendant of the Banu Saʿid. His older brother, Rażi-al-Din ʿAli, also a scholar, died before him (Baḥ-rāni, p. 266; Ḵᵛānsāri, IV, pp. 344-45; al-Ḏariʿa I, p. 223; XV, p. 232). His sister was married to Majd-al-Din Fawāres (Baḥrāni, pp. 199-200); and two of their sons, ʿAmid-al-Din ʿAbd-Allāh Aʿraji Ḥosayni (681-754/1282-83-1353) and Żiāʾ-al-Din (683–after 740/1284-85–after 1339-40), became his students. Ḥelli’s son, Faḵr-al-Moḥaqqeqin (682-771/1283-1369), an outstanding scholar with a number of independent works, accompanied him throughout his life and wrote commentaries on some of his father’s works (Baḥrāni, pp. 190-94; Efendi, V, pp. 77 ff.; Ḵᵛānsāri, VI, pp. 330 ff.; Brockelmann, GAL II, p. 212; S II, p. 209; al-Ḏariʿa XIII, p. 169; XIV, p. 163; XVII, p. 250; Modarressi, pp. 76, 103, 119, 152, 163).

Ḥelli began his studies in his hometown of Ḥella with his father, his maternal uncle, Moḥaqqeq-e Awwal, the brothers Jamāl-al-Din b. Ṭāwus (d. 673/1274) and Rażi-al-Din b. Ṭāwus (d. 664/1266), Mofid-al-Din Moḥammad b. Jahm (d. 680/1281-82), and Najib-al-Din Yaḥyā b. Yaḥyā b. Saʿid Huḏali (d. 689/1290 or 690/1291). As a young man, he spent some time at the Marāḡa observatory, founded by Naṣir-al-Din Ṭusi (d. 672/1274) in 657/1258-59 during the reign of the Ilkhan Hulāgu (q.v.). Here he read the Elāhiyāt section of the Šefāʾ by Ebn Sinā under the supervision of Ṭusi; and he studied with Najm-al-Din ʿAli b. ʿOmar Kātebi Qazwini (d. 675/1277), who introduced him to the works of Faḵr-al-Din Rāzi (d. 606/1209), Aṯir-al-Din Mofażżal b. ʿOmar Abhari (d. 663/1264), and Moḥammad b. Nāmāwar b. ʿAbd-al-Malek Ḵunji (d. 646/1248). Ḥelli also studied with the Shiʿite theologian, Kamāl-al-Din Mayṯam b. ʿAli Baḥrāni (d. after 681/1282-83). Having left the Marāḡa observatory for Baghdad, Ḥelli met the sufi Šams-al-Din Mo-ḥammad b. Moḥammad b. Aḥmad Kiši (d. 695/1296), who probably introduced him to the mysticism of Ebn al-ʿArabi (q.v.; d. 638/1240). In Baghdad, Ḥelli studied further with Borhān-al-Din Moḥammad b. Moḥammad Nasafi (d. 687/1288), Jamāl-al-Din b. Āyāz Naḥwi (d. 681/1282-83), Taqi-al-Din ʿAbd-Allāh b. Jaʿfar b. ʿAli Ṣabbāḡ Kufi, and ʿEzz-al-Din Abu’l-ʿAbbās b. Ebrāhim b. ʿOmar Fāruṯi Wāseṭi (d. 694/1292-93).

Ḥelli stayed from around 709/1309-10 to 714/1314-15, or perhaps 716/1316-17, at the court of the Ilkhan Oljay-tu. The sources vary about Ḥelli’s role in connection with Oljaytu’s conversion to Shiʿism in Šaʿbān 709/January-February 1310. Some biographical accounts attribute it to his influence, and offer differing versions of how he attracted the Ilkhan’s attention (Efendi, I, p. 361; Ḵᵛān-sāri, II, pp. 279 ff.; Aʿyān al-šiʿa XXIV, pp. 231 ff.; Ebn Baṭṭuṭa, II, p. 57; Ebn Kaṯir, XIV, p. 77). The historical sources of the period do not confirm these reports (Ḥāfeẓ-e Abru, p. 101; Mostawfi Qazwini, p. 608; see also ʿAzzāwi, I, p. 409; Parvisi-Berger, pp. 81 ff.). However, as there are strong indications that Ḥelli arrived at the court before the conversion (Majlesi, CVII, p. 142; Rašid-al-Din, 1978, p. 75), it seems likely that he had some influence on Oljaytu’s conversion. During their stay at court, Ḥelli and his son were frequently engaged in theological discussions with other scholars (van Ess, 1981, p. 44; Āmoli, II, p. 259). The Shiʿite biographical accounts of Ḥelli portray his superiority in this kind of debate over his Sunnite opponents (Šuštari, I, pp. 571-72; Ḥāfeẓ-e Abru, pp. 101 ff.). Ḥelli was on good terms with the vizier Rašid-al-Din (d. 718/1318), and his name appears on a list of proposed recipients of presents from Rašid-al-Din written in 712/1312-13 (Rašid-al-Din, 1364/1945, p. 61; van Ess, 1978, p. 267). His name also occurs several times in the lists of scholars with whom the vizier held discussions or exchanged letters (van Ess, 1981, p. 47). On one occasion, Ḥelli himself addressed Rašid-al-Din with two questions that he recorded, together with Rašid-al-Din’s answers (“Resāla fi soʾālayn saʾala ʿan-homā Ḵᵛāja Rašid-al-Din,” pp. 106-17). Ḥelli was also highly regarded by Oljaytu as a scholar. He frequently held conversations with Ḥelli who introduced him to Shiʿite theological dogmatics. Moreover, he appointed Ḥelli as a teacher in the mobile school, the madrasa sayyāra, which accompanied the Ilkhan wherever he went (Ḵᵛānsāri, II, p. 281). On several occasions, Oljaytu addressed a specific question to Ḥelli, who then responded with a treatise (van Ess, 1981, p. 42; Parvisi-Berger, pp. 93-96). There is no definite information on the date of Ḥelli’s departure from court. According to some sources, he and his son received permission to return to Ḥella during the lifetime of Oljaytu (Ḥāfeẓ-e Abru, p. 103). This agrees with reports that the Ilkhan rejoined Sunnite Islam during his lifetime (Ebn Baṭṭuṭa, II, pp. 58-61). According to other sources, however, it was only in the reign of his son, Abu Saʿid, that the Ilkhanate returned to Sunnite Islam (ʿAzzāwi, I, p. 409; Ebn Kaṯir, XIV, p. 77). There is firm evidence that Ḥelli and his son stayed in Solṭāniya during the first half of the year 715/1315 (al-Ḏariʿa XXI, p. 237). At some time between 3 Jomādā I 715/5 August 1315 and 14 Moḥarram 716/8 April 1316, Ḥelli apparently left Solṭāniya for Ḥella (Schmidtke, 1991, p. 32). It is not clear how long he stayed there; but for a while he must have returned to Solṭā-niya, where he is known to have been on 26 Jomādā I 716/16 August 1316, four months before the death of Oljaytu on 27 Ramażān 716/13 December 1316 (Schmidtke, 1991, p. 32). Ḥelli’s last years were spent teaching in Ḥella.

Students. Among Ḥelli’s most outstanding students were his son, Faḵr-al-Moḥaqqeqin, and his two nephews ʿAmid-al-Din and Żiāʾ-al-Din Aʿraji Ḥosayni. They wrote numerous commentaries on Ḥelli’s works and took over a number of his students after his death. The circle of Ḥelli’s students in Ḥella was already large before he left for the court of Oljaytu. Among them were Jamāl-al-Din Abu’l-Fotuḥ b. ʿAli b. Āwi, Šaraf-al-Din Ḥosayn b. Moḥammad b. ʿAli ʿAlawi Ḥosayni Ṭusi, ʿAli b. Esmāʿil b. Ebrāhim b. Fotuḥ Ḡarawi, Rašid-al-Din ʿAli b. Moḥam-mad Rašid Āwi, Rokn-al-Din Moḥammad b. Moḥammad Jorjāni Ḡarawi, Żiāʾ-al-Din Abu Moḥammad Hārun Ṭabresi, Moḥammad b. Ḥosayn b. Ḥasan b. ʿAli Harqali, and ʿEzz-al-Din Ḥosayn b. Ebrāhim b. Yaḥyā Astarā-bādi. Among the students who attended his lessons at the madrasa sayyāra were Taqi-al-Din Ebrāhim b. Ḥosayn b. ʿAli Āmoli, Serāj-al-Din Ḥasan b. Bahāʾ-al-Din Mo-hammad b. Abi Majd Serābšanawi, and Tāj-al-Din Mah-ámud b. Qāżi ʿAbd-al-Waḥid Rāzi. One of Ḥelli’s outstanding students, also most probably taught by him at the madrasa sayyāra, was Qoṭb-al-Din Moḥammad (or Maḥmud) b. Moḥammad Rāzi Bowayhi (d. 766/1365). A number of Ḥelli’s students appear to have joined him after he returned from the court of Oljaytu or may have returned with him from there. Among these were Tāj-al-Din b. Moʿayya (d. 776/1374), Moḥammad b. Moḥammad b. Yār and Sayyed Mohannāʾ b. Senān. The latter addressed a number of questions to Ḥelli, whose answers are extant (Ajwebat al-masāʾel al-mohannāʾiya, Qom, 1401/1980-81). Other students of his included Rażi-al-Din Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAli b. Ṭorād Maṭārābādi (d. 762/1360-61) and Jamāl-al-Din Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā Mazyadi (d. 757/1356).

WORKS

As a prolific writer on a wide range of religious topics, Ḥelli composed more than a hundred works, nearly sixty of which are extant. The popularity of the majority of his writings is evident from the number of extant manuscripts and the great number of commentaries. He himself is the best source of information about his own works. His biographical work, Ḵolāṣat al-aqwāl, has an entry listing his works up to Rabiʿ II 693/March 1294 (Ḵolāṣat al-aqwāl/Rejāl al-ʿAllāma, p. 45). In Moḥarram 720/February-March 1320, he issued a teaching permit to Mohannāʾ b. Senān, which included a list of some of his books to date (Majlesi, CVII, pp. 147-49). His works deal with the following disciplines (for a complete annotated list, see Schmidtke, 1991, pp. 74-98):

a. Theology. Ḥelli’s earliest work on theology was his Manāhej al-yaqin fi oṣul al-din, which he completed on 6 Rabiʿ II 680/25 July 1281. The work was highly regarded by Ḥelli himself and can be considered as second in importance only to his most extensive work on theology, the Nehāyat al-marām fi ʿelm al-kalām. From the Manāhej, it is evident that Ḥelli must have had copies of two important works by adherents of the Muʿtazilite school of Abu’l-Ḥosayn al-Baṣri (d. 436/1044), namely the Ketāb al-Fāʾeq fi oṣul al-din by Rokn-al-Din Maḥ-mud b. Malāḥemi (d. 536/1141) and the Ketāb al-Kāmel fi’l-esteqṣāʾ fi-mā balaḡanā men kalām al-qodamāʾ by the otherwise unknown Taqi-al-Din Najrāni (or Baḥrāni) ʿAjāli (vocalization uncertain; written between 536/1141 and 675/1276-77). The views of this last innovative Muʿtazilite school deeply influenced Ḥelli’s theological opinions. Another early work is his very brief treatise, Noẓom al-barāhin, and the commentary on it, entitled Maʿārej al-fahm fi šarḥ al-Noẓom, which he completed on 6 Ramażān 678/10 January 1280. He apparently started writing the Noẓom and the Maʿārej and completed them before he had finished the Manāhej. The Anwār al-malakut fi šarḥ al-Yāqut, completed in Jomādā II 684/August-September 1285, is a commentary on the Ketāb al-Yāqut, which was written at the earliest in the 5th/11th century by the otherwise unidentified Abu Esḥāq Ebrāhim b. Nowbaḵt (Madelung, p. 15). In Jo-mādā I 687/18 June 1288, Ḥelli finished the first section of his Montahā al-woṣul fi ʿelmay al-kalām wa’l-oṣul, which deals with theology. The next section deals with legal methodology. Probably after having written at least some of the works mentioned above, Ḥelli started to write his famous commentary on Naṣir-al-Din Ṭusi’s Tajrid al-eʿteqād, the Kašf al-morād fi šarḥ Tajrid al-eʿteqād. During the first half he often refers his readers to his Manāhej (ed. Anṣāri Qomi, n.d., p. 126). During the second half, he also refers them to the Nehāya (ibid., pp. 259, 281, 284). It is therefore likely that he started writing the Nehāya before having finished the Kašf al-morād on either 15 or 16 Rabiʿ I 696/11 or 12 January 1297. The Kašf al-morād is one of the most widely read of Ḥelli’s works. Its special importance lies in its being the first commentary written on Ṭusi’s Tajrid al-eʿteqād; and for many later commentators, it serves as a basis for their understanding of the work. Ḥelli apparently wrote substantial parts of the Nehāya before 699/1299, since he frequently refers to this work in his Nahj al-mostaršedin, which he completed on 22 Rabiʿ I 699/17 December 1299. He probably finished the Nehāya at a very late stage in his life. In his autobibliographical ejāza of Moḥarram 720/February-March 1320, he states that four volumes of the work had been completed by then (Majlesi, CVII, p. 148). It is not clear how much of the Nehāya as it was planned originally was covered by these four volumes, and how much more he completed during the rest of his life. The Nehāya had only a very limited circulation. Only four incomplete manuscripts are known today (Schmidtke, 1991, p. 96). On the basis of this evidence, the possibility that the Nehāya was never completed cannot be ruled out. The concise Nahj al-mostaršedin, published together with Meqdād Soyuri’s (d. 826/1423) commentary Eršād al-ṭālebin elā nahj al-mostaršedin, became highly popular later, as is shown by the large number of commentaries on it (Schmidtke, 1991, pp. 97-98). On 3 Ḏu’l-Qaʿda 703/7 July 1304, he completed the Ketāb kašf al-fawāʾed fi šarḥ Qawāʿed al-ʿaqāʾed, a commentary on Naṣir-al-Din Ṭusi’s Qawāʿed al-ʿaqāʾed, and on 12 Moḥarram 704/15 August 1304 he finished the medium-sized work Taslik al-nafs elā ḥaẓirat al-qods. During a very late stage of his life he composed two further concise treatises, al-Resāla al-saʿdiya (in Kalemāt al-moḥaqqeqin, Tehran, 1315/1898, pp. 338-79), which he dedicated to the minister Saʿd-al-Din (written between Rabiʿ II 709 and 10 Šawwāl 711/August-September 1309 and 19 February 1312), and his Resāla fi wājeb al-eʿteqād, which has been published together with Meqdād Soyuri’s commentary Eʿtemād fi šarḥ wājeb al-eʿteqād (in Kale-māt al-moḥaqqeqin, Tehran, 1315/1898, pp. 380-422). Among Ḥelli’s last works on theology is the short treatise al-Bāb al-ḥādi-ʿašar fi-mā yajebo ʿalā ʿāmmat al-moḵallefin men maʿrefat oṣul al-din (completed on 11 Ḏu’l-Ḥejja 723/11 December 1323), which he added as the eleventh chapter to his Menhāj al-ṣalāḥ fi eḵteṣār al-meṣbāḥ. The Bāb al-ḥādi-ʿašar, written for the general reader rather than for students of theology, is his most popular theological work, as is shown by the large number of extant manuscripts of the text and the commentaries on it (Schmidtke, 1991, pp. 80-81). Numerous editions of this work, together with its famous commentary by Meqdād Soyuri, al-Nāfeʿ yawm al-ḥašr, have been published (for example, ed. M. Moḥaqqeq, Tehran, 1986); and both works have been translated into Persian and English. Most of his remaining works on theology are lost.

b. Polemics. During his stay at Oljaytu’s court, Ḥelli wrote several works of Shiʿite apologetics dedicated to the Ilkhan. These were: his Nahj al-ḥaqq wa kašf al-ṣedq, a critical work on the views of the Ashʿarites, the Menhāj al-karāma fi’l-emāma (see Laoust, 1966; and 1978) defending the Shiʿite position on the Imamate, the Alfayn fi emāmat amir-al-moʾmenin ʿAli ebn Abi Ṭāleb, written at the Ilkhan’s royal camp in Ramażān 712/January 1313, the Esteqṣāʾ al-naẓar fi’l-qażāʾ wa’l-qadar, a defense of the Muʿtazilite view of Man’s free will against determinism, and the Kašf al-yaqin fi fażāʾel amir-al-moʾmenin (Najaf, n.d.).

c. Philosophy. Ḥelli’s first philosophical work was his Asrār al-ḵafiya, which he probably completed before finishing his Manāhej al-yaqin in Rabiʿ II 680/July 1281. This was considered by the author himself as one of his most authoritative works in this field. On 8 Šawwāl 694/21 August 1295, he completed his commentary on Kātebi Qazwini’s Ḥekmat al-ʿayn, the Iżāḥ al-maqāṣed fi šarḥ ḥekmat al-ʿayn. Of his Kašf al-ḵafāʾ men ketāb al-šefāʾ only the second part is extant. This was completed on 9 Rabiʿ II 717/21 June 1317 (ms Chester Beatty 5151, fol. 102r). It is not clear whether the entire work was ever completed. Of his Marāṣed al-tadqiq wa maqāṣed al-taḥqiq, which originally contained sections on logic, physics, and theology, only the section on logic is extant. All his remaining philosophical works are lost. In his extant philosophical works Ḥelli is in general highly critical of philosophical positions and refutes them whenever they disagree with the views of the theologians. He also composed a work entitled Ḥall (or: Kašf) al-moškelāt men ketāb al-talwiḥāt, supposedly a commentary on the Talwiḥāt of Šehāb-al-Din Sohrawardi (d. 586/1190). It is also said that he wrote a commentary on the latter’s Ḥekmat al-ešrāq (al-Ḏariʿa XIII, p. 211) but his two autobibliographical lists do not include this title, and his extant works show no evidence that Ḥelli was influenced by the Illuminationist’s notions.

d. Logic. Only two of Ḥelli’s works on logic are extant. The Qawāʿed al-jalāliya fi šarḥ al-Resāla al-šamsiya (ed. Fāres Ḥassun, Qom, 1412/1992), a commentary on the Resāla al-šamsiya of Kātebi Qazwini, which was completed in Rabiʿ II 679/July-August 1280. He also composed a commentary on Naṣir-al-Din Ṭusi’s Tajrid on logic, entitled al-Jawhar al-naḍid fi šarḥ Ketāb al-Tajrid, probably after 680/1281.

e. Legal methodology. The Ḡāyat al-woṣul wa iżāḥ al-sobol fi šarḥ Moḵtaṣar montahā al-soʾāl wa’l-amal, which is a commentary on the Moḵtaṣar montahā al-soʾāl wa’l-amal of Ebn Ḥājib (d. 646/1249), was Ḥelli’s first work in this discipline. This was completed on 12 Rajab 697/25 April 1298 (al-Ḏariʿa XVI, pp. 24-25). The second part of the medium-sized work, Montahā al-woṣul elā ʿelmay al-kalām wa’l-oṣul, was probably written after 16 Jomādā I 687/18 June 1288, the date of the completion of the first section on theology. The Mabādeʾ al-woṣul ilā ʿelm al-oṣul, written before 705/1305-06, is a summary of the Menhāj al-woṣul fi maʿrefat ʿelm al-oṣul of ʿAbd-Allāh Bayżāwi (d. 685/1286), which the author composed at the request of Taqi-al-Din Ebrāhim b. Moḥammad Baṣri. Ḥelli’s most extensive work in this discipline, the Nehāyat al-woṣul elā ʿelm al-oṣul, was completed on 8 Ramażān 704/4 April 1305. During or after the composition of the Nehāya, he wrote the more concise Tahdhib al-woṣul elā ʿelm al-oṣul (ed. ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Baqqāl, Najaf, 1390/1970), which was very popular among later scholars. All his remaining works on legal methodology are lost.

f. Jurisprudence. Ḥelli played an important role in the formative development of Shiʿite law (Modarressi, pp. 47-48). He composed numerous legal works, the most important of which are extant. His first work in this field was the Montahā al-maṭlab (Tehran, 1333/1915), which was also his most extensive one, although the extant portions cover only the field of acts of devotion (ʿebādāt). The first part was completed in 684/1285-86 and the second part on 11 Jomādā II 688/2 July 1289. The Moḵtalaf al-šiʿa fi aḥkām al-šariʿa (Tehran, 1322-24/1905-06), which is also one of his more extensive works, was completed between 4 Jomādā II 699/26 February 1300 and 15 Ḏu’l-Qaʿda 708/26 April 1309. This work, which in contrast to the Montahā covers all fields of law, also differs from the latter in its purpose; while the Montahā is a systematic legal work where various questions are posed in detail and the author argues his own interpretation in every case, the Moḵtalaf merely describes various legal questions about which there was disagreement among the Shiʿite lawyers. His Qawāʿed al-aḥkām (Qom, 1315/1898; repr. 1984), completed around 700/1300-01, is written in a more concise style and covers all areas of law. It was very popular among later scholars, as indicated by the large number of commentaries on it (Schmidtke, 1991, pp. 88-89). Āqā Bozorg suggests that the Taḥrir al-aḥkām and the Talḵiṣ al-marām fi maʿrefat al-aḥkām were both written before the Moḵtalaf al-šiʿa, which Ḥelli started shortly before 699/1299-1300 (al-Ḏariʿa XX, p. 220). The Taḥrir, which covers the field of acts of devotion (ʿebādāt) and mutual relations (moʿāmalāt), is described by the author as a summary of the Montahā al-maṭlab. Ḥelli’s Eršād al-aḏhān fi aḥkām al-imān (ed. Fāres Ḥassun, Qom, 2 vols., 1410/1989-90; published also with Ardabili, Majmuʿat al-fāʾeda wa’l-borhān, Qom, 1403-04/1983), comparable in length to the Qawāʿed, proved very popular among later scholars, as indicated by the large number of its commentaries (Schmidtke, 1991, pp. 77-78). The Tabṣerat al-motaʿallemin (Tehran, 1372/1952-53), his shortest systematic exposition on law, was written for non-specialists and novice students. The Taḏkerat al-foqahāʾ ʿalā talḵiṣ fatāwi al-ʿolamāʾ (Tehran, 1388/1968; repr. 1984), which Ḥelli wrote at the request of his son, is one of his most extensive legal works. The first section was completed on 24 Ṣafar 703/7 October 1303, and the last was finished on 16 Ḏu’l-Ḥejja 720/17 January 1321. On the basis of a reference in one of Faḵr-al-Moḥaqqeqin’s legal writings, it has been suggested that he continued the Taḏkera after his father’s death (al-Ḏariʿa IV, p. 43). Yet the printed edition of the work, and apparently also the manuscripts available, contain only the portions of the book which Ḥelli himself had written, which ends with the section on marriage (nekāhá). The Nehāyat al-eḥkām fi maʿrefat al-aḥkām is another late work. In 720/1320, Ḥelli stated that so far only the first two sections on ritual purity (ṭahāra) and prayer (ṣalāt) had been written (Majlesi, CVII, p. 148). The work was probably never finished. Ḥelli also composed some shorter treatises on specific legal points, such as his Resāla fi manāsek al-ḥajj.

g. Biographical works. Around Rabiʿ II 693/March 1294, Ḥelli wrote his Ḵolāṣat al-aqwāl fi maʿrefat al-rejāl, which lists reliable transmitters in the first part, and unreliable ones in the second. Since the work was designed as a resumé (moḵtaṣar), the author does not offer complete biographical and bibliographical dates for every transmitter. An exception is the article on himself, in which he offers a list of his own works (Rejāl al-ʿAllāma, p. 45). His Iżāḥ al-eštebāh fi aḥwāl al-rowāt (Tehran, 1318/1900-01) was completed on 19 Ḏu’l-Qaʿda 707/11 May 1308 and is much more concise than the Ḵolāṣa. The Kašf al-maqāl fi maʿrefat aḥwāl al-rejāl is described by the author as his most extensive biographical work. He frequently refers to it both in the Iżāhá and in the Ḵolāṣa. However, he did not include it in either of his autobibliographical lists—and no manuscripts of the work are known to be extant. It is possible that the intention to write such a book was never carried out.

h. Grammar. None of Ḥelli’s works on grammar, most of which were summaries of works by earlier authors, is extant.

i. Exegetical works. Ḥelli wrote two exegetical works on the Koran, the Ketāb al-qawl al-wajiz fi tafsir al-Qorʾān and the Ketāb nahj al-imān fi tafsir al-Qorʾān, neither of which is extant. The latter is described as a work in which he abridged the Kaššāf ʿan ḥaqāʾeq al-tanzil of Jār-Allāh Maḥmud b. ʿOmar Zamaḵšari (d. 538/1144), the Tafsir al-tebyān of Šayḵ Ṭusi (d. 460/1067) and other exegetical works.

j. Traditions. All but one of his works on traditions are lost. The extant work, Iżāḥ moḵālafat al-sonna, was completed in 723/1323. A fragment of the partially extant work al-Dorr wa’l-marjān fi’l-aḥādiṯ al-ṣeḥāḥ wa’l-heásān, is to be found in Mašhad.

 

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(Sabine Schmidtke)

Originally Published: December 15, 2003

Last Updated: March 22, 2012

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