Table of Contents


    Antonio Panaino

    (1852-1925), scholar of ancient Iranian languages and religions and particularly of Pahlavi literature.


    Gernot L. Windfuhr

    their forms and uses in Iranian languages and dialects. The term "case" is used on at least three linguistic levels: 1. the semantic role of a noun (phrase), such as agent, patient, experiencer, and possessor; 2. the syntactic function, such as subject, direct object, and indirect object; 3. the morphological means, such as nominative, accusative, dative, and genitive.

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    Ṣādeq Sajjādī



    Ebrāhīm Šakūrzāda and Mahmoud Omidsalar

    (lit. “a blow by the eye”), the evil eye: the supposed power of an individual to cause harm, even illness or death, to another person (or animals and other possessions) merely by looking at him or complimenting him.


    Eckart Ehlers

    “spring.”  Iran and Afghanistan, as well as wide parts of Central Asia, have a great variety of natural springs, especially in mountainous areas and along tectonic thrusts. A very general classification divides all springs into (1) those produced by gravity acting on the groundwater and (2) those that have their origins in tectonic volcanic forces within the earth’s crust.

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    Abbas Alizadeh

    lit. “fountain of ʿAlī,” the name for various natural springs in Iran, the two best-known of which are located near Dāmḡān and Ray respectively.


    Mohammad Reza Ghanoonparvar

    (1952; tr. by John O’Kane as Her Eyes, 1989), a novel considered by many critics as the most important contribution of the noted Persian novelist Bozorg Alavi.


    C. Edmund Bosworth

    literally “taster” (Pers. čāšnī “taste”), the official who at the court of Turkish dynasties in Iran and elsewhere, from the Saljuq period onwards, had the responsibility of tasting the ruler’s food and drink in order to ensure that it was not poisoned.



    Iranian dialects spoken along the Caspian littoral, including Ṭāleši, Gīlakī, Māzandarāni, and related subdialects, and the extinct dialect of Ṭabarestān. See individual entries.


    John H. Hansman

    an ancient toponym identifying a ground-level pass that runs east and west through a southern spur of the Alborz Mountains in north central Iran.