Table of Contents


    Werner Sundermann

    (b. Lyons, France, 5 October 1865, d. Fontenay-aux-Roses, 29 January 1918), French sinologist who also contributed to the study of Iranian history and religions.


    Daniel Balland

    In Persia and Afghanistan both nomadic pastoralists and sedentary peasants make the same basic kinds of domestic cheese. The only clear distinction is between acid and rennet cheeses, both made from mixed milks, except in Gīlān; there acid cheeses are usually prepared from cow’s and buffalo’s milk and rennet cheeses from ewe’s and goat’s milk.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.


    See KĪMĪĀ.


    Bo Utas, Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī

    a board game.


    Wilfrid Lockwood, J. T. P. de Bruijn, Michel Tardieu

    a collection of manuscripts, printed works, and artifacts, predominantly Oriental, assembled by Alfred Chester Beatty and opened to the public in Dublin in 1954.


    Edwin G. Pulleyblank

    (Qian Han shu) “History of the Former Han Dynasty,” a historical work which includes information on Iran.


    Karl Jettmar

    township in the upper Indus valley in Pakistani-controlled Jammu and Kashmir, almost directly south of Gilgit and located on the new Karakorum high­way between Pakistan and China.


    Multiple Authors

    This series of articles covers children and child-rearing in Iran and Iranian lands.

  • CHILDREN i. Childbirth in Zoroastrianism

    Jenny Rose

    The Zoroastrian community has traditionally regarded marriage as having a threefold function: to propagate the human race, to spread the Zoroastrian faith, and to contribute to the victory of the good cause. The birth of a child furthers each of these objec­tives.

  • CHILDREN ii. In Modern Persian Folklore

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    Childbirth (zāymān, formal ważʿ-e ḥaml) in traditional Persian society, as in many other cultures, has generally been associated with magical practices and superstitions.

  • CHILDREN iii. Legal Rights of Children in the Sasanian Period

    Mansour Shaki

    Although the corpus of Sasanian civil law was designed primarily to regulate matters among the lower classes, that is, the common people and slaves, the portions on adop­tion, inheritance, guardianship, and the like were equally applicable to the upper classes.

  • CHILDREN iv. Legal Rights of Children in Modern Persia

    Shirin Ebadi

    A person is consid­ered a minor (ṣaḡīr) until he or she has attained the physical and psychological growth necessary for full participation in society. When a child has reached the age of maturity (bolūḡ) determined by the law he ir she is consid­ered mature (bāleḡ).

  • CHILDREN v. Child Rearing in Modern Persia

    Erika Friedl

    The topic of child rearing (from birth to social adulthood in the mid-teens) is largely neglected in systematic research; there are no comparative studies of child-rearing practices among different ethnic and cultural groups in the country and only a few specialized studies.

  • CHILDREN vi. Child Rearing Among Zoroastrians in Modern Persia

    Janet Kestenberg Amighi

    In the first half of the 13th/20th century most children were born at home with the assistance of the midwife. Immediately after birth the infant was bathed to cleanse it of polluting substances and wrapped in pieces of cloth called landog.

  • CHILDREN vii. Children's Literature


    Up to the Constitutional movement the standard curriculum of traditional Persian elementary schools (maktabs), which were pri­vately operated, included the alphabet, the Koran, selec­tions from popular Persian poetry and prose, and the traditional sciences. 

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    Philippe Gignoux

    Greek title of one of the chief offices of state in Achaemenid Persia, presumably translated from Old Persian hazārapati-, attested in Greek as azarapateîs, explained as eisaggeleîs, that is, announcers or ushers.


    Multiple Authors

    (Sinkiang, Xinjiang), IRANIAN ELEMENTS IN.

  • CHINESE TURKESTAN i. Geographical Overview


    The eastern portion of the Central Asian land mass (see central asia i. geography), between 70° and 100° E and 25° and 45° N, encompasses Chinese Turkestan, now Sinkiang (Xin-jiang) Uighur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China.

  • CHINESE TURKESTAN ii. In Pre-Islamic Times

    Victor Mair and Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    In antiquity the Tarim and Dzungar (Zungar, Jungar) basins lay at the crossroads of three main Eurasian routes including the Southern Silk Road, the Northern Silk Road, and a northern route passing between the Bogdo-ola (Bo-ko-tuo) range and the Tien Shans.

  • CHINESE TURKESTAN iii. From the Advent of Islam to the Mongols

    Isenbike Togan

    Chinese influence in the Tarim basin began to wane after the battle of Talas (Ṭarāz) in 134/751, though Islam did not gain a permanent foothold there until much later.