Table of Contents
Xavier de Planhol
The Caspian “sea” consists of three distinct basins, each characterized by different features. hese differences are reflected in the levels of salinity.
A new area of sub-systemic studies in international relations, which encompasses the Caspian basin and its immediate surroundings, emerged in the post-Soviet Union era.
(Phoca caspica), the only mammal in the Caspian Sea. It is a relict species, endemic to the Caspian Sea and the deltas of rivers that discharge into it—the region where its ancestors lived when the sea was still connected to the oceans.This Article Has Images/Tables.
name of an ancient people dwelling along the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea, whether north or south of the river Kura is not clear.
wife of Cyrus II, an Achaemenian, sister of Otanes and daughter of Pharnaspes.
a genus of shrubs and trees of the family Leguminosae (or Caesalpiniaceae in some classifications).
Marie Louise Chaumont
(b. ca. 485, d. after A.D. 580), Latin author of three historical works containing material on Iran.
primarily fortified country manors but also permanently inhabited defensive installations, maintained by the authorities along important land routes, and urban citadels, which functioned as administrative centers and places of refuge for inhabitants under siege, particularly in prehistoric and early historic times.This Article Has Images/Tables.
a plain east of Sardis, site of the mustering of troops from the satrapy of Sparda (Lydia) during Achaemenid times.