Table of Contents

  • CASPIAN SEA i. GEOGRAPHY

    Xavier de Planhol

    The Caspian “sea” consists of three distinct basins, each characterized by different features. hese differences are reflected in the levels of salinity. 

  • CASPIAN SEA ii. DIPLOMATIC HISTORY IN MODERN TIMES

    Guive Mirfendereski

    A new area of sub-systemic studies in international relations, which encompasses the Caspian basin and its immediate surroundings, emerged in the post-Soviet Union era.

  • CASPIAN SEAL

    Eskandar Firouz

    (Phoca caspica), the only mammal in the Caspian Sea. It is a relict species, endemic to the Caspian Sea and the deltas of rivers that discharge into it—the region where its ancestors lived when the sea was still connected to the oceans.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • CASPIANS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    name of an ancient people dwelling along the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea, whether north or south of the river Kura is not clear.

  • CASSANDANE

    Muhammad Dandamayev

    wife of Cyrus II, an Achaemenian, sister of Otanes and daughter of Pharnaspes.

  • CASSIA

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    a genus of shrubs and trees of the family Leguminosae (or Caesalpiniaceae in some classifications).

  • CASSIODORUS, Magnus Aurelius

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    (b. ca. 485, d. after A.D. 580), Latin author of three historical works containing material on Iran.

  • CASTLES

    Wolfram Kleiss

    primarily fortified country manors but also permanently inhabited defensive installations, maintained by the authorities along important land routes, and urban citadels, which functioned as administrative centers and places of refuge for inhabitants under siege, particularly in prehistoric and early historic times.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • CASTOLUS

    Michael Weiskopf

    a plain east of Sardis, site of the mustering of troops from the satrapy of Sparda (Lydia) during Achaemenid times.

  • CASTOREUM

    cross-reference

    See BEAVER.